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Pololu Gulch, 1 mile south of Akokoa Point, is the westernmost gorge. Rice is cultivated in this valley. Two small detached rocks lie 250 yards offshore from the east edge of the gulch.
Honokane Gulch, y mile from Pololu Gulch, is used somewhat for taro raising.
Honokaneike Gulch, 12 miles southeast from Akokoa Point, is a narrow gulch opening into a narrow bay that affords good protection and landing facilities for small boats. A rock awash at low water lies 0.4 mile offshore and 134 miles southeast from Akokoa Point. The southerly end of the rock is awash at low water, while the northerly end, 80 yards distant, has a depth of 23 feet. The depth of the surrounding, water is from 12 to 14 fathoms. Two small rocky islands, the larger having a height of 230 feet, are situated 300 yards offshore, about 34 mile east of Honokaneike Gulch. Between Akokoa Point and these two islands the bottom is fairly regular and slopes gradually from the coast to the 20-fathom curve, about 24 mile offshore. Anchorage may be had in offshore winds in depths from 7 to 20 fathoms.
Laupahoehoe, 6 miles beyond Akokoa Point, is a rounding point projecting 300 yards beyond the cliff line and is the result of a landSlide from the cliffs. Small boats sometimes land on the smooth shingle beach about 200 yards west of the house situated near the westerly end of the point.
Waimanu Valley, 7 miles from Akokoa Point, cuts through the highest cliffs in the vicinity and ranks second in size among the gulches of this coast. The bay fronting the valley may be used as an anchorage in favorable weather. A depth of 7 fathoms is obtained 14 mile offshore just off the middle of the gulch. A rounding point extending 300 yards beyond the cliff line between Waimanu Valley and Waipio Gulch was formed by a landslide about 1910, leaving a bare, yellow scar on the face of the bluff that is quite prominent from offshore.
Waipio Gulch, the largest along this coast, is 3 miles from Waimanu Valley. Rice is grown here and a small village is situated near the mouth. Anchorage may be had in favorable weather conditions in 7 to 9 fathoms 4 mile offshore, either off the mouth of the valley or under the bluffs to the eastward, but not beyond Honokaape Point, located 34 mile beyond the east edge of the valley.
From Waipio Gulch the precipices become lower until, at Kukuihaele Landing, 2 miles distant, the coast is a comparatively low bluff from 30 to 300 feet high. Between Waipio Gulch and Hilo the country to an elevation of about 2,000 feet is covered with sugar cane. Beyond this, extending upward 'toward Mauna Kea, it is wooded to an elevation of about 2,600 feet, and from here up the mountains present a barren appearance.
Kukuihaele Landing, 2 miles eastward of Waipio Gulch, is marked by a flashing white light. There is a wire landing here where miscellaneous freight is handled.
Honokaa Landing, 5 miles southeastward of Kukuihaele Landing, is marked by several buildings on the bluff. Southeastward and close to the landing is a high bridge over a deep gulch. A mill is located 1 mile southward of the landing;. A wire landing is used for handling sugar and general freight. This indentation forms a fair shelter for small boats and launches, as some protection from the northeast trade winds is afforded by the point.
Paauhau Landing, 2 miles southeastward of Honokaa, is marked by the white masonry of the inclined railway which leads from the landing to the top of the bluff. A mill is situated on the lowland south of the landing. A deep gulch makes in on each side of the mill. The southern one is spanned by a bridge. There is a wire landing here.
Paauilo is a village about 5 miles southeastward of Paauhau and 1 mile'inland. It is the western terminus of the Hawaii Consolidated Railway. This railroad handles all freight between Paauilo and Hilo. All wire landings, between these points formerly used have been abandoned.
Koholalele Landing, 52 miles southeastward of Paauhau, is marked by a building at the top of the bluff and by another half way down. It is difficult to recognize from offshore. This is an excellent landing for small boats, as they can lie at the derrick pier, where they are well protected from the northeast trade winds. The inclined railway cut offers easy access to the top of the cliff.
Kukaiau mill is about 34 mile southeastward of Koholalele. An inclined railway leads from a house on top of the bluff to a derrick at its foot. The bluffs are higher and more thickly covered with vegetation than those northwestward.
Ookala mill, 342 miles southeastward of Kukaiau mill, is on the edge of the bluff on the south side of a deep gulch. The plantation houses are situated north of the mill and are noticeable for the regular arrangement.
Kaawalii Gulch, about 12 miles southeast from Ookala mill, is V shaped.. There is a small mill close to the beach. The country back of the coast line changes slightly in appearance in this locality. Hummocky fields are noticeable.
Laupahoehoe Point, marked by a flashing white light, and 3 miles southeastward of Ookala mill, is low and flat and makes out about 14 mile from a deep gulch. The seaward end of the point is a mass of black lava rock. A reef, over which the sea generally breaks, extends about 14 mile offshore. Laupahoehoe village is located on the inshore end of the point. There is a coconut grove between the village and the end of the point and one on the north side of the mouth of the gulch. A church, painted yellow, with a red roof and a square yellow tower, is prominent. Small boats can land here at almost any time, under the lee of the rock point on which the derrick and the freight house are situated.
Papaaloa, 1%miles southeast from Laupahoehoe, can be easily identified by the stacks close together, one of concrete, white in color, the other of metal, painted black, situated at the mill.
Honohina, about 7 miles southeast of Laupahoehoe, is a settlement on the plain between two gulches. There are no stacks or prominent buildings to be seen from seaward. There is a derrick and wire landing at this place. The land has lost its hummocky appearance, and the cane-covered fields have a more level appearance, but are still broken by the gulches. The bluffs lose their green vegetation and are beginning to have a dark color. Between here and Hilo the cliffs gradually decrease in height until at Hilo the bluffs disappear.
Hakalau Bay, about 814 miles southeastward of Laupahoehoe Point, lies in the mouth of the Hakalau Gulch. A high railroad trestle spanning the gulch is prominent from offshore, as are also the mill and other buildings lying in the gulch at the base of the south bank. There are several buildings on the highland just south of the gulch, quite close to the edge of the bluff.
Wailea, a settlement about 1 mile south of Hakalau, is situated a short way inland, and just north of Kolekole (red earth) Gulch.
Honomu mill, about 274 miles southeastward of Hakalau Bay, is situated in the mouth of the gulch. About 2 miles northward of Pepeekeo Point the waterfalls cease to be a characteristic of the coast.
Alia Point, 134 miles southeastward of Honomu mill, is not very prominent.
Pepeekeo Point, marked by a group flashing white light, is about 242 miles southward of Honomu mill. It is the most prominent point in the vicinity. Pepeekeo mill is located on the bluff south of the point.
Onomea, a settlement about 2 miles south of Pepeekeo, is situated above the slope at the head of Onomea Bay. A prominent feature is a large concrete building with a red roof.
Papaikou is a large settlement about 2 miles south of Onomea.
Paukaa Point, about 1 mile south of Papaikou, is marked by a fixed white light at an elevation of 155 feet. This light is difficult to distinguish, owing to the many lights in the vicinity.
HILO BAY, about 60 miles southeastward of Upolu Point and 20 miles northwestward of Cape Kumukahi, is included between Keokea Point on the south and Pepeekeo Point on the north, a distance of 7 miles, and indents the coast about 3 miles. It is the leading commercial port of the island and is frequented by both steam and sailing vessels. The bay is partially sheltered from the prevailing northeast trades by a breakwater on Blonde Reef, although there is frequently a heavy swell. It is exposed to north winds. The westerly shore of the bay is bluff, while the southerly and easterly shores are low.
Hilo, the second in commercial importance and population of the cities of the Hawaiian Islands, is situated on the southwesterly side of the bay. From Hilo eastward along the beach numerous houses are scattered as far as Kuhio Wharf. There is a landing for lighters in Waiakea Creek.
PROMINENT FEATURES.-Hilo Sugar Co.'s mill, about 1 mile northward of Hilo, is painted gray and has one large black stack. At the water's edge just southward of the mill is a high white stone abutment with a white derrick on it. When the mill is in operation at night, it will be recognized by the number of electric lights that are scattered about the plant. Green (Halai) Hill, 1 mile southwestward of Hilo, is the highest point in the vicinity. It is covered with sugar cane and a few scattered trees. On the north side below the summit is a depression resembling a crater.
RANGES.—A lighted range marks the channel south of Blonde Reef to the railroad wharf in Kuhio Bay.
PILOTAGE is not compulsory, but vessels without coasting license are required to pay half fee when a pilot is not taken. The pilot rate is given in the Appendix.
TOWBOATS.-Two small towboats are available for towing. The small freight steamers of the interisland service also do towing when required and when available.
ANCHORAGE can be had in the bay anywhere under the lee of Blonde Reef in from 5 to 7 fathoms. After heavy rains a strong current setting northward from Waiakea Creek is felt in the southeasterly part of the bay.
HARBOR REGULATIONS.—The harbor master, who is also the pilot, has charge of the anchorages.
SUPPLIES.—Provisions, ice, lumber, and some ship chandler's stores, as well as fuel oil and a limited amount of coal, can be obtained, and, water from hydrants on the railroad wharf at Kuhio.
REPAIRS.—There is a machine shop where extensive repairs can be made.
WINDS.—The prevailing winds are the northeast trades. At night a gentle breeze generally comes off the land.
TIDES.—The mean range of tides is 1.8 feet. DIRECTIONS.—From eastward, give Leleiwi Point a berth of 1 mile in rounding it and steer 280.o true (W Yg N mag.) for 442 miles, heading for Paukaa light until 2 to 34 mile from shore; then steer 184° true (S / E mag.) keeping this distance offshore and taking care to pass westward of Blonde Reef gas and bell buoy. Anchor southward of the black can buoys, marking the southwesterly edge of Blonde Reef, with the Hilo Sugar Co.'s mil bearing 293° true (WNW 34 W mag.), in 6 fathoms. Or, if bound for the railroad wharf in Kuhio Bay, after passing Blonde Reef gas and bell buoy haul eastward slowly, leaving black buoy (can, 7) to port. Then steer 97° true (E YN mag.) with Kuhio Bay Range Lights ahead. Pass between the buoys marking the edges of the shoals on each side of the channel. In 1922 this channel had a depth of 33 feet. There is 34 to 37 feet along the wharf.
From northward, after rounding Pepeekeo Point, steer 184° true (S 12 E mag.), keeping 72 to 34 mile offshore and taking care to pass westward of Blonde Reef gas and bell buoy and anchor as directed in the preceding paragraph.
DANGERS.—The lead is generally a good guide on the south side of the bay, but the shoaling is abrupt to Blonde Reef and the reefs around and eastward of Cocoanut Island.
Blonde Reef is an extensive sunken reef, with depths of 1 to 3 or 4 fathoms, which extends 1/2 miles in a west-northwesterly direction from the easterly side of the bay. The shoaling is generally abrupt on all sides of the reef, and the lead can not be depended on to clear it. It is marked at its westerly end by a black gas and bell buoy and on its southwesterly edge by two black can buoys. A breakwater is under construction from the easterly shore over Blonde Reef to its westerly end. The entrance to the bay is 34 mile wide between Blonde Reef and the westerly shore. There is no safe passage across the reef.
Mokuola (Cocoanut) Island (wooded) and the bare islets northward are connected with the shore by a reef, which makes out 150 to 200 yards on all sides of them. The north end of the reef is marked by a gas buoy. Shoals with 7 to 15 feet extend out a distance of 18 to 14 mile all along the southerly side of the bay.
Keokea Point, about 3 miles eastward of Hilo, is low and hard to distinguish from other points in the vicinity. There are a few coconut trees on the point. Foul ground extends for 72 mile offshore.
Leleiwi Point, 5 miles eastward of Hilo, is marked by a mass of bare, black lava rock about 20 feet high, which extends 100 yards seaward from the tree line. The coast betweem Hilo and Leleiwi Point is low and covered with a dense growth of pandanus and guava trees, back of which is a low, heavily wooded flat plain. The shore is broken by low patches of black lava.
Olaa mill, 672 miles southward of Leleiwi Point and 342 miles inland, is prominent. At night the electric lights of the mill can be seen some distance at sea. Between Olaa mill and Cape Kumukahi the land is low and level and is wooded for a distance of about 2 miles from the shore. Beyond this the Olaa plantation rises to an elevation of about 2,000 feet, back of which may be seen the forests. The coast between Leleiwi Point and Cape Kumukahi, a distance of about 17 miles, is a series of low bluffs. The lava flow of 1840, which reaches the sea 5 miles northwestward of Cape Kumukahi, is marked on its seaward end by two black hills about 50 feet high, which lie close together. This lava flow is visible inshore for a distance of about 5 miles. The plain northwestward of the cape is thickly covered with foliage and scattered coconut groves.
Cape Kumukahi, the easternmost cape of Hawaii, is a low mass of bare, black lava with a jagged top, and is clearly defined from all sides. The end of the point is marked by a group of sharply defined pinnacles which are only visible when close inshore. A series of old blowholes, or craters, begin 2 miles southwestward of the cape and extend 5 miles in a southwesterly direction. The blowhole nearest the point is surmounted by a grove of coconut trees. The trade winds divide at the cape, part following the coast northwestward and the other part following the coast southwestward; sailing vessels should, therefore, give the cape a berth of about 2 miles in rounding it.
SOUTHEAST COAST OF HAWAII.
From Cape Kumukahi to Kalae (South Cape), a distance of about 63 miles, the coast has a general southwesterly trend; it is not surveyed but is generally bold, and it is advisable for vessels to keep about 1 mile offshore. There are no sheltered harbors or anchorages on this coast that afford shelter during all winds. Punaluu and Honuapo are the only landings where the local steamers call.
The country southwest of Cape Kumukahi is heavily wooded and along the beach are numerous coconut groves. The shore in the vicinity of the cape is low, growing higher southwestward. The rocks are of black lava formation. The characteristic features of this coast are the lava flows, which reach from the hills to the water's edge; they present a bare and rough appearance. The old blowholes or craters, heretofore mentioned as extending southwestward from the cape, join the ridge which forms the divide between the Puna and Kau districts.
Pohoiki Landing, 4 miles southwestward of Cape Kumukahi, is marked by a prominent coffee mill. There is a thick mass of green foliage on a small point in front of the mill. There is a good landing place at the remains of a concrete pier.
Kapoho, a settlement about 2 miles west of Cape Kumukahi, is the terminus of the Hilo Railroad. A spur runs to Pahoa, 7 miles farther west.