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Honuaula Crater, about 5 miles southwestward of Cape Kumukahi and 3 miles inland, has its southeast side blown out and its southerly side covered with vegetation; it is quite prominent.
Opihikao Village, about 7 miles southwestward from Cape Kumukaħi, is marked by a prominent grass-covered mound, *125 feet high, near the beach about 1 mile northeastward of the village. The village is situated in a coconut grove. In the village are two churches, with steeples, about Y8 mile apart.
Kaimu Village, about 6 miles southwest of Opihikao, has a fine sand beach that may be used as a landing place. The beach is steep and free from rocks.
Kalapana Village, 7 miles southwestward of Opihikao and on the northeasterly side of a bold flat-topped headland, the most prominent point in this vicinity, is situated on low ground back of a sand beach. In front of the village and near the beach is a church with a steeple. About 4 mile northeastward of the village is a thick grove of pandanus trees. When coasting from southwestward, the village will not be seen until almost abeam.
Kii Village, 272 miles southwestward of Kalapana, consists of a few scattered houses between which are coconut trees.
Apua Point, 12 miles southwest of Kii, is a low bare point. Shoal water extends off the point for 300 yards or more.
Keauhou Landing is 272 miles westward of Apua Point. At this point the bluffs are yellow, steeper, and near the beach. The plain at the foot of the bluffs is low, and on a dark night the beach is hard to see.
About 2 miles westward of Keauhou is a yellow bluff about 300 feet high at its northeasterly end. This is the most prominent landmark near the beach on this part of the coast. One mile west of Apua Point there is a low islet close inshore, almost joined to the mainland at its easterly extremity by shoal water. Small boats find shelter behind this island by entering from the west.
Between the prominent point 1 mile southwestward of Kii and Keauhou the plain along the shore and the lower slopes of the mountains are devoid of vegetation; higher up the mountains are wooded. Beginning at a point about 10 miles east of Keauhou there are a series of bluffs several hundred feet high from 1 to 3 miles back from the shore. The bluffs are marked by numerous lava flows. The volcano of Kilauea can not be seen from seaward, but its location can be told approximately in the daytime by the smoke which it discharges and at night by the glare on the clouds, when active.
Kau Desert is the country southward of the volcano and is devoid of vegetation. The lava flow of 1823 from Mauna Loa marks the western limits of the desert. A sharply defined low black cone is located about 5 miles inland and on the easterly side of the lava flow of 1823, at an elevation of about 1,800 feet.
Pahala mill, about 4 miles northward of Punaluu and 3 miles from the coast, is prominent. The country in the vicinity of the mill is covered with sugar cane to an elevation of about 2,000 feet; beyond this it is wooded up the mountain side to within about 6,000 feet of its summit. Here and there bare lava flows cut up the cane fields.
Punaluu Landing, about 17 miles southwestward of Keauhou, is marked by a large warehouse close to shore. There is a church with a steeple on the steep slope near the beach on the west side of the anchorage. A small village located in a coconut grove lies in the
mouth of the deepest gorge. The local steamer calls here.
A plantation railroad runs from the landing to Pahala mill. Back of the landing up to an elevation of about 3,500 feet the slopes are broken; above this they are regular and gradual to the summit of Mauna Loa.
Enuhe Butte, about 3 miles northwestward of Punaluu, is a cone about 700 feet high with its flat top tilted seaward and covered with sugar cane; its sides are covered with vegetation. The top of the cone, which appears to set at an angle to the slope on which'it rests, has an elevation of about 2,327 feet.
Kaumaikeohu Peak, about 5 miles northward of Punaluu, is a prominent cone situated within the forest line.
Honuapo Landing, 472 miles southwestward of Punaluu, is marked by a wharf which has a long, low building at its inshore end. The local steamer calls here. Back of the landing is a mill and westward, near the beach, is the village. Some of the slopes back of the landing are covered with sugar cane. Between Punaluu and Honuapo the shore is composed of masses of black lava rock, which project out into deep water. There are two conspicuous lava flows which run down to the beach northeastward of Honuapo, one about 2 miles and the larger one 4 miles from the landing.
Kamilo Point, about 8 miles southwestward of Honuapo, is a low, dark lava mass, on which is a black lava monument with a square base, surmounted by a dome. A reef, over which the sea generally breaks, extends about 14 mile off the point. Between Kaalualu and the South Cape is a grassy plain occasionally broken by bare lava spots.
Kaalualu Bay, about 1 mile westward of Kamilo Point, affords good shelter for small craft during northeast trades, but is exposed during kona weather. With the easterly entrance point bearing 88° true (E by N mag.), distant about 200 yards, anchorage may be had in about to fathoms. Between the anchorage and the landing, which is in the northeast part of the bay, are several submerged coral reefs, which should be avoided, especially when there is a heavy swell.
Kalae (South Cape), 5 miles southwestward of Kaaluala Bay, a low, grass-covered point, is marked by a fixed white light. The southeasterly shore is low, while the shore on the westerly side begins with a low bluff at the point and rises gently for a distance of 2 miles to the northward to a height of 335 feet, where it leaves the shore and trends inland for several miles, continuing its increase in height. Shoal water extends for 72 mile south of the point, and all vessels should keep 1 mile off to avoid possible dangers. On account of the current, which sets northeastward against the trade winds, it is generally rough on the easterly side of the cape.
WEST COAST OF HAWAII.
From Kalae (South Cape) to Upolu Point, a distance of about 98 miles, the coast has a general northerly trend. It is only partially surveyed, but is generally bold. The largest outlying reef, about → mile wide, is in Kawaihae Bay. North of Keahole Point there is much foul ground; otherwise, off the numerous capes and points the reefs do not make out over 14 mile, and all dangers may be avoided by giving the coast a berth of about 1 mile, except north of Keahole Point.
There are no harbors or anchorages on this coast that afford shelter during all winds, although they are all smooth during the regular northeast trades, but exposed during kona weather. The trade winds draw around Kalae and hold northward offshore for about 3 miles, generally causing a rough sea. Close inshore the sea is generally smooth.
That section of the coast which lies between Kalae and Kawaihae Bay, 75 miles northward, is known as the Kona coast. The country along this coast is broken up by numerous lava flows, varying in length from a few hundred yards to 30 miles, that have broken out from Mauna Loa and Mount Hualalai and carried destruction with them on their way to the sea. Between these flows there are sections of country which are heavily wooded and covered with vegetation above an elevation of 1,500 feet, and there are large areas covered with sugar cane and coffee. Below the 1,500-foot level there is very little vegetation. Many of the lava flows reach the coast and terminate in bluffs, and between them along the beach will be seen trees and other vegetation.
At an elevation of 2,000 feet the kona region is known for its cool and bracing climate, and rain is plentiful. Little variation in weather conditions is experienced, there generally being a land and sea breeze, except during kona winds. This condition, however, does not apply between Kawaihae Bay and Upolu Point, since it is affected by the winds which draw across the island. From a point 2 miles northward of Kalae,
where Mamalu Pali turns inland toward Mount Akihi, to Hanamalo Point there is a low plain several miles wide, which rises gradually to the mountains.
Waiahuakini, 2 miles north of Kalae, is a small fishing village at the base of the cliffs. There is a landing here in a small cove.
Pohue Bay, 9 miles northwest of Kalae, has a sand beach at its head where landing can be made.
Pele Hills are a group of cones near the beach 12 miles northwestward of Kalae. These cones are prominent landmarks, and at the summit of the highest one is a black stone pyramid.
Kaulanamauna, 4 miles northwest of Pele Hills, affords a landing place. There are a few houses here uninhabited.
Kapua Bay, 1 mile south of Hanamalo Point, is a shipping point for cattle. The local steamer calls occasionally. The usual anchorage is about 350 yards off the houses on the beach. The landing is close to the houses.
Okoe Landing is situated on Okoe Bay immediately south of Hanamalo Point. The cove indents the shore more than any other in the vicinity and shows a little more sand on the beach. Anchorage can be had in 7 to.15 fathoms.
Hanamalo Point, about 22 miles northwestward of Kalae, is a low mass of lava, and on account of having no charateristic features is difficult to distinguish from other points in the vicinity unless close inshore. The current divides at this point, one part following the coast. around Kalae and thence northeastward along the shore, losing its strength in the vicinity of Keauhou. Offshore, on the southeast coast, the current sets southwestward. North of Hanamalo Point the current sets northward, and vessels have been known to drift between 1 and 2 miles an hour during calms.
Milolii Village, 2 miles northward of Hanamalo Point, is marked by a church with steeple, in the southerly end of the village, and a number of houses which are situated in and around a coconut grove. In front of the village there are several strips of sand beach.
Hoopuloa Landing, 272 miles northward of Hanamalo Point, is marked by a road which zigzags up the mountain in the rear of the village. The village is located in a coconut grove. There is a wharf at the head of the bay. The local steamer makes regular calls here, coffee and sugar being the principal exports. Anchorage may, bé had, close in, in 15 fathoms. A reef extends off the southerly point of the bay. Two private red lights are displayed on steamer nights
a guide to the anchorage. These brought in range lead to the anchorage. Along, the coast in the vicinity may be seen jagged black masses of lava at the foot of the bluffs along the beach. Above the steep lava slopes, which are characteristic of this section of the coast, there is a heavily-wooded table-land from which rises the dome of Mauna Loa. About 2 miles north of Hoopuloa the 1919 lava flow stands out prominent, as it is the blackest of any of the flows in the vicinity.
Lepeomoa Rock, 872 miles northward of Hoopuloa, is located at the water's edge; it is the ruin of an old crater and is cresent shaped, with its seaward face blown out. The rock is about 95 feet high.
Kauhako Bay, about 272 miles northward of Lepeomoa Rock, is marked at its head by a pali, or cliff, which is about Y2 mile long and about 120 feet high. The bay is a slight indentation in the coast and the village of Hookena is located on the lowland in front of the northerly end of the pali. A stone church with steeple is a prominent landmark in the northerly end of the village. There is a large grove of coconut and shade trees near the village. Anchorage can be found in 15 fathoms, sandy bottom, about 300 yards off the village. There is a wharf near the north end of the sand beach. The local steamer calls regularly, general farm produce being shipped, Some coffee is shipped from here. A private red light is displayed on steamer nights. The bluffs along the coast lose their height north of Hookena. The slope up to the interior is not as steep as to the southward, and the country is covered with plantations. Coffee is the principal product.
Loa Point, about 1 mile north of Hookena, is flat and low, green to within 100 feet of the water, and then rocky. Between Loa Point and Hookena is the settlement of Kealia, at the north end of a long pebble beach.
Honaunau Bay, 3 miles northward of Kauhako Bay, lies between two flat lava points, the southerly one being the lower and smaller. A coconut grove and a few houses are located here. About 1/2 miles inland on the slopes are three or four large tobacco warehouses.
Palemano Point, on the south side at the entrance to Kealakekua Bay, is low and flat with a coconut grove near its end. About 38 mile northward of the point an old lava flow makes down to the beach; this flow is about 38 mile wide.
Kealakekua Bay, 3 miles northward of Honaunau Bay, is marked on its northerly side by a flashing white light on Cook Point. It is about 2 miles wide between Keawekaheka Point and Palemano Point and indents the coast about 1 mile. It is free of obstructions, affords good anchorage in all but strong southwesterly winds, and is by far the best anchorage on this coast. A narrow reef fringes the shore between the southerly end of the cliff and Palemano Point. The shore of the bay is low, except on the northeast side, where there is a precipitous cliff between 400 and 600 feet high and about 42 mile long. Kaawaloa Cove is the northerly part of the bay and lies between the high cliff and Cook Point.
The villages of Napoopoo and Kealakekua consist of a few houses scattered along the beach among the coconut trees just southward of the cliff. Provisions can be obtained in limited quantities; fresh water is scarce. Gasoline and some ship chandlery may be obtained. The landing is in the middle of the village alongside of a low shed, but during a heavy swell it is best to land on the sand beach either at the north end of the village or the one southward. Cook Monument is a concrete shaft, 25 feet high, located near the shore on the inner side of Cook Point. The local steamer makes regular calls here, the principal exports being coffee and tobacco, as well as general farm produce.
Approaching Kealakekua Bay from either direction a vessel will be enabled to pick it up by heading for the dome of Mauna Loa on the bearing 90° true (E 7 N mag.); a 33o true (NNE mag.) course ,heading for the middle of the cliff, will lead into the bay. Good anchorage can be found in 10 to 15 fathoms, with the south end of the cliff bearing 55o true (NE mag.) and Cook's Monument bearing 314° true (NW by W mag.). In choosing an anchorage it is well to remember that there is a sea breeze in the daytime, shifting to a land breeze at night. North of Napoopoo there are more sugar plantations and less of coffee.
Keawekaheka Point, on the north side at the entrance to Kealakekua Bay, is a low, bare, lava point. An extensive lava flow reaches from the point to the high cliff in the bay.
Puu Ohau is a green cone about 230 feet high, located near the beach, about 142 miles northward of Keawekaheka Point; it has a blowhole in the middle and its seaward side is blown out, forming a red cliff.
Keikiwaha Point, 274 miles northward of Keawekaheka Point, is low, black, and jagged with coconut trees on it. Behind the point the mountain side is covered with cane to an elevation of about 1,000 feet.
Keauhou Bay, 272 miles northward of Keikiwaha Point, is a small indentation in the coast, lying between two lava flows at the foot of a gentle slope which has coconut trees on it near its base and algaroba trees just above them. There is an indifferent anchorage, but it is not recommended. The boat landing is on the northeasterly side of the bay, in the vicinity of which are a few houses. There are no spires or prominent objects that may be of assistance in recognizing Keauhou from offshore. Kahaluu, a small village 1 mile to the north has a prominent white spire. The local steamer calls regularly at Keauhou.
Mount Hualalai, in the central western part of Hawaii, is a conical peak, 8,269 feet high, covered with vegetation to its summit, and is prominent from any point of approach. Its western slope terminates in a bare, lava plain about 4 miles wide, which forms a low beach consisting of sand in some places and lavá rock in others.
Kailua Bay, 5 miles northward of Keauhou Bay, is marked on its northerly side by a flashing white light. It is a small indentation