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between Pauwela Point and Huelo, a distance of 6 miles. Between Pauwela Point and Kauiki Head there are a number of rocks close inshore, but by keeping 1 mile offshore all dangers will be avoided.

Uaoa Bay, 3 miles east of Pauwela Point, indenting the coast 72 mile and having a distance of 1 mile between the points on either side, is a good anchorage in southerly winds for vessels. Anchor 44 mile offshore in 12 to 16 fathoms, sand bottom.

Pilale Cove, 1 mile east of Uaoa Bay, is a small bay at the mouth of a steep valley. It is a very good anchorage for small boats and launches when the trade winds are blowing. Anchor in 4 or 5 fathoms a short distance off the beach.

Honopou Cove, 1 mile east of Pilale Cove, is an abandoned landing place. There is a stone wharf here. A sunken rock off the entrance usually breaks with only a slight sea running. When a heavy swell comes in from the north, the breakers on the rock continue on into the cove, increasing in size and force.

Hoalua Cove, 2 miles southeast of Honopou Cove, can sometimes be used as an anchorage for small boats and as a landing place when the trade winds are blowing.

Opuola Cove, 1/2 miles southeast of Hoalua Cove, is a narrow cove, having steep sides. Sometimes when the trades are blowing landings can be made here or an anchorage found for small boats and launches. Anchor in 3 to 6 fathoms near the center of the cove.

Keopuka Rock, 142 miles southeast of Opuola Cove, lies close to the shore. It is 141 feet high. Southwest of the rock is a small cove that furnishes a good anchorage for launches in trade wind weather. Anchor in from 3 to 5 fathoms near the head of the cove.

Honomanı Bay, 1 mile southeast of Keopuka Rock is a good landing place and a fair anchorage for small boats when the trade winds are blowing. Anchor in 2 or 3 fathoms about 120 yards from the beach at the head of the bay. There is shoal water on the east side.

Keanae Point, 1 mile east of Honomanu Bay, is low and is marked on its westerly side by a stone church with a steeple. There are a few houses and clusters of trees on the end of the point. The landing is marked by a derrick. Small vessels can anchor in 8 fathoms close inshore immediately westward of the point. This anchorage should not be attempted without local knowledge, as there are some sunken rocks on the easterly side in the bight. The local steamer calls occasionally.

Keanae Valley, just eastward of Keanae Point, is the largest and most prominent valley on this part of the island. It leads inland toward the crater of Haleakala. Three high rocks close inshore form the most prominent landmarks in this vicinity.

Pauwalu Point lies 1 mile east of Keanae. Mokumana Rock lies just off the point. It appears almost as a continuation of the point, with an opening 30 yards wide separating the two.

Waiokilo Anchorage is in 9 fathoms, sandy bottom, about midway between Pauwalu Point and the bight at Wailua and about 400 yards offshore. This is a fair anchorage when the wind is between south and southwest.

Aluea Rock lies about 14 mile offshore and about the same distance southward of Waiokilo Anchorage.

Nahiku Anchorage, 22 miles southeastward of Pauwalu Point, is in the open bight off Nahiku, in 7 fathoms, close inshore. Strangers should not attempt this anchorage, as there are two sunken rocks near shore. There is a small settlement southeastward of the anchorage. The local steamer calls occasionally.

Alalakeiki Channel, between Maui and Kahoolawe, is about 6 miles wide and clear of dangers, with the exception of Molokini, which is marked by a light. The trade winds draw through thé channel, hauling around the north end of Kahoolawe. The trades blow with much force at the easterly entrance to the channel, but in the vicinity of Molokini it is generally calm. The currents are variable, and should not be depended upon.

Molokini, lying in the middle of the northerly end of Alalakeiki Channel, is a small, barren, crescent-shaped, rocky island 160 feet high, with the opening northwestward. A reef makes off about 300 yards northward from the northwesterly end of the island. There is deep water close to the island. It is marked by a light.

KAHOOLAWE,

the eighth in size of the islands, lies 6 miles southwestward of the southwesterly end of Maui. It is about 9 miles long and 6 miles wide. The island presents an even and unbroken appearance. Mount Moaula, a brown dome 1,450 feet high, near the easterly end of the island, is the highest point and the most prominent landmark. There are no streams or springs on the island. In general, the island presents a very desolate and barren appearance, and is of but little commercial importance. An attempt is being made to reclaim the island by reforestation. Some cattle are being raised. There are no outlying dangers except the shoal off its westerly point. The southerly side consists of a high table-land which terminates in a high bluff at the beach. From Kealaikahiki Point, the extreme westerly point of the island, for about 2 miles southeastward, the shore is low and flat. A shoal with a least depth of 1 fathom extends 1 mile westward of Kealaikahiki Point, and vessels should give the point a berth of at least 142 miles in rounding. An anchorage and landing can be found in Smuggler Cove about 1 mile southeastward of the point. The northwesterly coast consists of low bluffs, from which the land slopes gently upward. About 2 miles southwestward of the extreme northerly point of the island are a few buildings on the easterly side of a small cove. There is an anchorage and landing here for small craft. The easterly coast consists of very high bluffs, in some places rising straight up from the water's edge for several hundred feet. An indifferent anchorage for small craft can be found in the southerly part of Kanapou Bay near the middle of Beck Cove and about 14 mile from its head in 6 to 7 fathoms.

Kealaikahiki (the way to Tahiti) Channel lies between Kahoolawe and Lanai and is about 15 miles wide. So far as known it is free from obstructions. Sailing vessels should avoid this channel during trade winds, as long periods of calms sometimes occur southward and westward of Kahoolawe and Lanai.

Auau Channel lies between Maui and Lanai and is about 8 miles wide. With the exception of a reef about 3 miles long, which extends not more than 13 mile offshore northward of Wahapuu Point, Lanai, the channel is free from obstructions. During trade winds it is often calm in the channel.

LANAI,

the sixth in size of the islands, lies about 8 miles westward of west Maui and the same distance southward of the easterly end of Molokai. It is about 15 miles long in a northwesterly direction and about 10 miles wide near its southeasterly end, gradually narrowing toward its northwesterly end. The highest point is Mount Palawai, 3,400 feet high, located in the southeasterly part of the island. The slopes on the easterly side of the mountain are steep and cut up by deep gulches, while those on the westerly side are more gradual, terminating in a rolling plain. On account of the scarcity of rain there is a very limited supply of water on the island. In general, the island presents a barren appearance. It was formally devoted entirely to stock raising, but now pineapples are being successfully grown. The census of 1920 gave Lanai a population of 185 inhabitants. From Wahapuu Point, the easternmost point of Lanai, to Kamaike Point, about 342 miles southwest, the coast is low and sandy. A coral reef fringes the shore from 100 to 200 yards off the beach. At Kamaike Point low bluffs appear, gradually increasing in height until close to Manele Bay, where they reach a maximum of 410 feet, when they decrease again to Manele Bay, where a sand beach again appears.

Manele Bay, on the southerly side of the island, is marked on its westerly side by Puupehe Rock. The bay is about 14 mile wide and indents the coast about 14 mile and is used as an anchorage by small local steamers. There is a boat landing at the head of the bay. A cattle chute on the west side of the bay is used to load live stock directly aboard a vessel moored close to the rocks. The local steamer calls occasionally. Under certain conditions when the trade winds are blowing squalls will alternate from the head of the bay and from the northeast along the coast. This causes an anchored vessel to swing considerably, and it usually will be found advantageous to shift anchorage to the bay west of Puupehe Rock, where the squalls will not be so pronounced. There are several detached bare rocks on both sides of the bay near shore.

Puupehe Rock is a high, bare, brown rock separated from the shore by a low sand spit. It is the most prominent landmark along this section of the coast. From Manele Bay to Cape Kaea, the southwesterly point of the island, the coast consists of low bluffs, behind which the land rises in steep slopes to the table-land above. There are many rocks close to the shore, one 400 yards off the shore about 2 miles east of Cape Kaea. The bay just to the west of Puupehe Rock has a sandy beach at its head. Anchorage may be found about 400 yards from the head of the bay in 8 fathoms, sandy bottom. From Cape Kaea northward to Kaena Point the coast is a series of high, precipitous bluffs, in some places between 300 and 400 feet high.

Kaumalapa Harbor, about 372 miles northward of Cape Kaea, is a small bight at the mouth of the most prominent gulch in the vicinity, affording an indifferent anchorage for small coasting vessels.

Five Needles are about 572 miles northward of Cape Kaea and about the middle of the bight on the westerly side of the island. They are a group of detached pinnacle rocks about 120 feet high, lying close inshore just northward of Honopu. On account of the high bluffs behind them these rocks are difficult to see from offshore. Kaena Point is low and rocky and hard to distinguish from the other points in the vicinity. It is said that a shoal extends about 14 mile offshore in this vicinity. From Kaena Point eastward the bluffs along the coast gradually become lower and within a few miles are only a few feet high and show sand beaches here and there. Back of the low section of the beach there is generally a narrow low strip of land which rises gently to the table-land. A coral reef fringes the sandy shore along the north and east shores of the island, sometimes extending 14 mile offshore. About 4 miles northeast of Kaena Point is a low rounding point that is the most northerly point of the island. Just east of the point is an opening in the reef about 150 yards wide that is a very good landing place for small boats. About 4 miles east of this opening is another that furnishes a good anchorage for small boats in 4 feet of water.

Kuahua Gulch, 10 miles east of Kaena Point, is a conspicuous gulch that extends to the shore. It is forked, and so can not be confused with the deep gulch 272 miles to the southeast of Kuahua Gulch.

Kehamoku, about 242 miles southeast of Kuahua Gulch, is a small settlement. There is an opening in the reef here, the entrance of which is marked by three iron pipes. There is a good landing place for small boats, and a good anchorage, with a depth of 4 feet, behind the reef south of the entrance.

Halepalaoa, 192 miles southeast of Kehamoku, is a settlement situated at an opening in the coral reef. There is a wharf here with about 3 feet of water at the end.

Pailolo Channel, between Maui and Molokai, is about 742 miles wide and is clear of obstructions with the exception of Mokuhooniki and Kanaha Rock, near the easterly end of Molokai, and a reef about 24 mile wide which fringes the shore of Molokai. Kamalo Point Reef gas buoy marks the edge of the reef off the southeasterly point of Molokai.

Kalohi Channel lies between Lanai and Molokai and is about 8 miles wide. With the exception of a reef about 34 mile wide, which fringes the shore of Molokai, the channel is free from dangers.

MOLOKAI,

the fifth in size of the islands, lies 742 miles northwestward of Maui and 8 miles northward of Lanai. It is more or less rectangular in shape and is about 34 miles long in a westerly direction and about 7 miles wide. The easterly end is mountainous, its summit being Kamakou Peak, 4,970 feet high. On the northerly side the mountain slopes are very steep, in many places being almost perpendicular, and there are numerous deep gorges with precipitous sides. On the southerly side the slopes are gradual, cut up with gorges, and terminate in a narrow strip of rolling land near the coast. On the westerly side the land slopes gently, is cut up by gulches, and here and there an extinct crater can be seen. About 10 miles from the westerly end of the island the plain is only a few hundred

feet high and is marked here and there by prominent blowholes. The entire westerly end of the island is a bare table-land cut up by small gulches and rising gradually to Mount Nana, 1,382 feet high. From seaward this part of the island presents a smooth and rolling appearance.

RIVERS.—There are numerous streams emptying into the sea at the easterly end of the island, none of which are navigable.

POPULATION.-By the census of 1920 Molokai had 1,784 inhabitants.

WINDS. The trade winds divide at Cape Halawa, part following the north shore and another part following the south shore. During a heavy easterly sea it is apt to be quite choppy off this point and vessels should give it a berth of about 12 miles in rounding.

RAINFALL. -— There is a very heavy rainfall on the northeast side. The south and west sides receive very little rainfall.

ANCHORAGE.—There are few anchorages, none of which are sheltered from all winds.

COMMUNICATION with Honolulu can be had by steamer and wireless telegraph, and supplies can be obtained from there.

CURRENTS.—The current sets westward along the entire northerly shore and about half the length of the southerly shore, where an easterly current may be expected. From Cape Halawa to Kamalo, a distance of about 12 miles, the coast has a general southwesterly trend; thence to Laau Point, a distance of about 25 miles, it has a westerly trend. A reef between 1 and 1/4 miles wide fringes almost the entire coast, its widest point being in the bight about 13 miles eastward of Laau Point. During the day the limits of the reef can generally be told by the breakers, but at night vessels are cautioned to give this coast a good berth. Pukoo, Kamalo, and Kaunakakai are the only harbors on this coast. Molokai is used principally for raising stock. Some pineapples are grown in the northeast portion. Plans are under way to reclaim the island and divide it up into farms.

Halawa Bay, at the northeasterly end of Molokai, is about 12 miles wide between Cape Halawa and Lamaloa Head and indents the coast about 34 mile. There is no shelter from the trades, but an indifferent anchorage can be found in 5 fathoms about 14 mile off the landing. The latter is located on the northerly side of the village. The shores of the bay are high, precipitous cliffs. Halawa consists of a few houses on the southwesterly side of the bay in the mouth of a deep gulch that penetrates the island in a westerly direction; a waterfall can be seen about 1 mile up the gulch. There are two high detached rocks near the southerly shore of the bay.

Lamaloa Head, marking the westerly entrance of Halawa Bay, is a precipitous cliff about 840 feet high.

Cape Halawa, the northeasterly point of Molokai, is a cliff about 300 feet high. The coast between Cape Halawa and Kaunakakai Harbor rises gently, is much cut up with gulches, and is quite bare, with the exception that it is thickly wooded near the upper part of the gulches and mountains.

Mokuhooniki is a small, yellow, bare, rocky island with perpendicular sides about 200 feet high, lying about 1 mile offshore and 2 miles southward of the northeasterly point of Molokai. Kanaha Rock, about 95 feet high, lies just southwestward of Mokuhooniki. There is good water in the passage between the rocks and Molokai, but strangers should not attempt it. About 242 miles south of 'Cape Halawa the coral reef begins and extends along shore almost continuously to the southwest and south. There is a cove here that affords a landing place, and two more coves about 372 miles south of Cape

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