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Kapuhi Point is a low, narrow point about 178 miles eastward of Mokolea Point.
Moloaa Bay, about 142 miles southeastward of Kapuhi Point, is a small open bay about 14 mile in diameter in the mouth of a gulch. It is not surveyed, and without local knowledge should not be attempted. There are a few houses on the sand beach at the head of the bay: Rice is grown in the gulch. The interior between Moloaa Bay and Anahola Bay is used principally for the growing of pineapples and for grazing purposes.
Papaa Bay, about 142 miles southeastward of Moloaa, is a bight open to the trade winds.
It is not surveyed, and without local knowledge should not be attempted.
Anahola Bay, 15 miles south-southeastward of Moloaa Bay, is marked on its southerly side by Kahala Point Light. It is a small bight exposed to the trades, and on account of numerous reefs should not be attempted by strangers. Konanae Hill, about 1/4 miles westward of Anahola Bay, is the most prominent mountain peak in this part of the island. It is about 1,430 feet high and marks the seaward end of a range of conspicuous peaks which extend well into the interior of the island. Approaching from northward a natural arch can be seen, which looks like a small white house high up under the ridge. The country south of here is planted in sugar cane.
Off Kuaehu Point, the northerly point of Anahola Bay, the water is discolored for a distance of about 192 miles offshore, and until the locality is surveyed it is recommended that vessels give the point a berth of over 2 miles.
Kealia Anchorage, about 3 miles southward of Kahala Point, is marked by a breakwater which extends about 600 feet offshore in a southeasterly direction. The boat landing is on the southwesterly side of the breakwater. The local steamers calling here find an indifferent anchorage, and vessels without local knowledge should not attempt it. About 14 mile westward of the anchorage is a sugar mill and plantation settlement.
Kapaa, 1/4 miles southward of Kealia Anchorage, is a large village scattered along the beach. The northerly end of the village is marked by a tall, gray brick chimney.
Wailua is a small village 272 miles southwestward of Kapaa village. It consists of a few houses located on both sides of the mouth of the Wailua River, a little distance back from the sand beach. The river is navigable for boats for several miles after passing the bar.
Hanamaulu Bay, 3 miles southward of Wailua, is marked on its southerly entrance point by a red light, maintained by private parties, shown from a small wooden tower. The bay is about 4 mile wide and indents the coast about y mile, but the greater part of it is shoal. It affords good protection for small vessels
, except during northeasterly winds, when a heavy sea sets into the entrance. There is a wharf just inside the southerly entrance point, and a depth of 24 feet can be taken to its end. This is the only wharf on the island to which the steamers make fast at present. A breakwater extends 100 yards from the southerly point. The local pilot and harbormaster should be consulted before entering. The mill on the north side of the gorge is prominent and at night makes a good mark, as it is well lighted. Sugar and pineapples are the principal exports. To enter, pass northward of the can buoys marking the shoal extending
northward of the southern entrance point. Round the north end of the breakwater and anchor in the vicinity of the mooring buoys which lie off the wharf.
About 1 mile westward of Hanamaulu Bay is Kalepa Peak, about 700 feet high, the southerly end of a low range of reddish-brown hills, which parallel the coast northward for a distance of about 4 miles. Nonou Peak, about 1,240 feet high, is near the northerly end, and is the highest and most prominent peak of the range. Just southward of Kalepa Peak is a large white sugar mill and plantation settlement. At night the electric lights of this mill are often seen before Nawiliwili Light is sighted. Between Anahola Bay and Nawiliwili Bay the coast consists of a series of low bluffs cut up by gulches, with here and there stretches of sand beaches. The land back of this section of the coast is used for the cultivation of sugar cane.
Kaulakahi, formerly called Kumukahi or Niihaa Channel, lies between Kauai and Niihau, and is about 1442 miles wide and clear o obstructions. The trade winds follow the south coast of Kauai, and off Mana Point meet the air current that has followed around the northerly side. The trade winds blow directly across the lowlands of Niihau, but
part of it is deflected southward and around the southeast point of Niihau.
CURRENTS. It is almost impossible to lay down any rules for the current, which sometimes sets southward along the east coast of Niihau at the same time that it is setting northwestward along the southwesterly coast of Kauai. During kona weather these conditions are changed.
NIIHAU, the seventh in size of the islands, is at the westerly end of the group. It is about 16 miles long in a northeasterly direction and varies in width from about 3 to 5 miles. The island is low at both ends, but near the middle part of it there is a high table-land, with low projecting peaks, near the northerly end of which there is an elevation of about 1,300 feet. The northerly and easterly ends of the tableland are precipitous, varying in height from 600 to 1,000 feet, while the southerly and westerly slopes are more gradual. There are no streams on the island. The island is entirely devoted to stock raising. The census of 1920 gave Niihau a population of 191 inhabitants.
Lehua Island, about 2 mile northward of Niihau, is a small, rocky, crescent-shaped island, open northward. The easterly and westerly points are low, rising gradually to an elevation of about 738 feet near the center of the island. On the westerly point of the island there is a natural arch. Foul ground extends well north and east of the island. The channel between Niihau and Lehua is restricted on its southerly side by rocks showing above water, which extend about halfway across it. Vessels with local knowledge can find a channel with goed water close to the southerly and southeasterly shore of Lehua. The northerly cost of Niihau is low, and off Kikepa Point there are several black rocks showing above water. Between this coast and the high precipitous bluffs marking the northerly side of the table-land the land is low. From Kikepa Point to Oku Point, a distance of about 134 miles, the coast is low and has a general southeasterly trend.
Kaunopou Rocks, showing above water, lie close to shore 4 mile southward of Oku Point. From Kaunopou Rocks the coast trends westward for about 2 mile to Kii Anchorage, where the local steamers anchor in about 5 fathoms, except during southerly or southeasterly weather. From Kii Anchorage to Pueo Point, a distance of about 5 miles, the coast has a general southerly trend. From Kii Anchorge southward for 2 miles the coast is low and sandy, and thence to Pueo Point it consists of high, precipitous bluffs. The entire easterly coast is practically free of outlying dangers, and by giving it a berth of 1 mile all dangers will be avoided.
Pueo Point is a prominent, brown, precipitous bluff about 800 feet high. From Pueo Point southwestward the high, precipitous bluffs are a feature of the coast for about 4% miles, when they then turn inland; thence to Cape Kawaihoa the bluffs along the shore are much lower.
Cape Kawaihoa, the southeasternmost point of Niihau, is formed by a hill about 600 feet high, which is precipitous on its seaward face. There is deep water close to the cape. Between the table-land heretofore mentioned and the southerly end of the island the country is a low, rolling plain, near the center of which is Kawaewae, a prominent, low, rounded, brown hill, with a flat top. From Cape Kawaihoa the coast gradually curves westward and northward. It is low and rocky, with sand beaches in places.
Kamalino is a small village located on a small bight about 412 miles northwestward of Cape Kawaihoa. From Kamalino to a point abreast of Lehua Island the coast is low, and is practically one continuous sand beach, with an occasional clump of black rocks. Near the beach are numerous sand dunes covered with vegetation. The country back of the coast is low, with small groves of trees in places. There are no harbors, although it is probable that an anchorage can be found almost anywhere during the trade winds.
Nonopapa Anchorage, 2 miles northward of Kamalino, is marked by a low, brown shed standing close to shore at the northerly end of a long sand beach. On the beach, immediately in front of shed, is a derrick. The prominent brown hill (Kawaewae), heretofore mentioned, lies about 12 miles 135o true (SE 78 E mag.) of the anchorage. When making for an anchorage, bring Kaeo Cone in range with the shed on the bearing 70° true (NE by E 38 E mag.) and stand in until in the desired depth. Kaeo Cone is a low cone near the center of the tableland, and on this bearing appears to be the highest point. At times a heavy swell makes landing very dangerous. About 194 miles northward of the landing of Nonopapa and 4 mile inland a large dwelling with outhouses is located on a hill in a grove of trees. A reef, over which the sea generally breaks, extends about 12 mile offshore at a point about 12 miles northward of Nonopapa. A black rock shows above water at the outer end of the reef, but vessels are cautioned to give it a berth of at least 14 mile.
Dangers.—A shoal, which breaks only in a heavy sea, is reported to lie about 642 miles 236° true (SW 48 W mag.) of Lehua Island. Between this island and the shoal there is much foul ground, and strangers are cautioned to give this locality a wide berth.
Kaula, about 19 miles southwestward of Niihau, is a small, bare, rocky islet about 500 feet high. A rock with a least depth of 39 feet lies about 32 miles northwest of Kaula. Three pinnacle rocks with depths of 30 feet over them are reported to lie about 4 miles west of Kaula.
NIHOA OR MODU MANU (BIRD ISLAND)
is a barren, rocky island lying about 140 miles 296° 30' true (WNW 58 W mag.) of the westerly end of Kauai, in latitude 23° 05' 50" N, longitude 161° 58' 17'' W. The island is about 34 mile long and averages a little more than 74 mile in width. The easterly, northerly, and westerly sides of the island are high and precipitous, while the southerly side is much lower, and its slopes are more gradual. The greatest elevation is Millers Peak, near the northwesterly end of the island, which is 903 feet high. The peak near the northeasterly end is 869 feet high. The best anchorage can be found in Adams Bay, on the southerly side of the island, about 450 or 500 yards offshore. The bay consists of three small bights, the westerly one having a sand beach and the other two are rocky. The best landing is in the middle bight. However, it should not be attempted except in smooth weather. The island is uninhabited, and no water can be obtained. Nihoa is near the southwesterly end of a bank which is about 20 miles long and about 11 miles wide, with depths of 20 to 40 fathoms. Another bank, with depths of 20 to 30 fathoms, lies 3 miles westsouthwestward. This bank is about 16 miles long and 10 miles wide. The edges of these banks break down steeply to great depths.
A sounding of 24 fathoms has been obtained in latitude 22° 35' N, longitude 161°07' W, about 60 miles 122° true from Nihoa. There are depths of 20 fathoms, 45 miles 284o true, and 73 miles 278° 30' true, from Nihoa Island.
lies about 90 miles 296° 30' true (WNW 58 W mag.) of Nihoa, in latitude 23° 45' N, longitude 163° 25' W. This shoal is about 14 miles long in an easterly direction, with depths of 12 to 63 fathoms. It has not been surveyed and vessels are cautioned to give the locality a wide berth.
NECKER ISLAND is a rocky island lying about 155 miles 281° true (W mag.) of Nihoa, in latitude 23° 35' 30" N, longitude 164° 39' 58" W. The island has four peaks, 235 to 300 feet high, one near each end and two between them, connected by a ridge. The sides of the island are precipitous, with 5 to 8 fathoms alongside. East Cove and West Cove are the only places where a landing can be made, and then it is only possible in fine weather. Detached rocks, about 10 feet high extend about 100 yards eastward from the easterly end of the island. Anchorage can be had anywhere under the lee of the island, in 8 to 15 fathoms, about 2 mile offshore. Necker Island is near the north end of a bank reported to extend 50 miles to the south, with depths of 14 fathoms or greater reported. This bank also probably extends to the northeast 15 miles and to the northwest 7 miles.
TIDE.-The rise and fall of the tide is about 2 feet.
CURRENT.-A current sets westward on the north side of the island and circling around sets eastward on the south side.
Winds. September is said to be the calmest month in the year; strong north and northeast winds are said to be frequent during the other months.
FRENCH FRIGATE SHOAL, . lying 90 miles 278° true (W 14 S mag.) of Necker Island, is a crescentshaped atoll with a number of sand islets on it. A rocky islet about 180 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 120 feet high, lies about midway between the points of the crescent, in latitude 23° 46' N, longitude 166° 18' W. The islet is so steep and rugged that it is almost inaccessible. It is visible for about 8 miles and from a distance resembles a brig under sail. The points of the crescent, as indicated by the ends of the line of breakers, bear 166o true (SSE 4 E mag.) and 310° true (NW by W38 W mag.) from the rocky islet. Water, somewhat brackish, but not unwholesome, has been found by digging wells 8 to 10 feet deep on the sand islets, back from the beach.
ANCHORAGE can be had anywhere inside the reef in from 5 to 15 fathoms, mostly coral with some sandy bottom. There is an excellent anchorage about 1 mile northwestward of the rocky islet, in 13 to 14 fathoms, well protected. The rocky islet can be approached within
by vessels of any size with safety. DIRECTIONS.—Entering from southward, head for the rocky islet on a 0° true (N by W mag.) course, passing between the southern horn and the breakers reported 3 miles westward of it. Entering from westward, head for the rocky islet on a 124° true (ESE mag.) course. Apparently there are no dangers outside the line of breakers; however, a sharp lookout is advisable.
CURRENT.-The current in this vicinity sets southwestward.
lying 30 miles 304° true (WNW mag.) of French Frigate Shoal, appears to be an oblong, bank about 14 miles long in a west-northwesterly direction, on which a least depth of 14 fathoms has been found. The
approximate geographic position of the shoal is latitude 24° 10' N, longitude 166° 53' W. Soundings taken over the shoal indicate that the bottom is very irregular, with deep holes in places. In 1910 soundings with a least depth of 18 fathoms were found northwestward of Brooks Shoal in latitude 24° 29' N, longitude 167° 12' W.
is a rocky island lying 120 miles 309o true (NW by W 42 W mag.) of the rocky islet at French Frigate Shoal, in latitude 25° 01' N, longitude 167° 59' W. It is an inaccessible rock 170 feet high and 200 yards in diameter, with a smaller rock close to its southwesterly extreme, from which a reef extends about 12 mile. A bank, with 17 to 20 fathoms, surrounds the rock, extending about 5 miles northwestward, northeastward, and southeastward, and from 10 to 12 miles southwestward.
TWO BROTHERS REEF (existence doubtful) is placed on the charts in latitude 24° 14' N, longitude 168° 28' W. It is reported as having been struck by a whaling ship in 1823. Several vessels have searched for the reef without finding it, and great depths were obtained at its reported position.