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As already indicated, the bore of a tube for at least of any tube which is capable of constant use) can be tested with mercury, and those tubes rejected which show variations in bore greater than about 5 per cent. Errors due to variations in the thickness of caps can be eliminated by using a scale graduated for a true length of 24 inches (the length of the glass tube) and removing the cap before the sounding is read. Errors due to differences between air and water temperatures can be reduced to a minimum which can usually be neglected by immersing the tube before using in a bucket of sea water newly drawn, so that its temperature has not had time to change. Care should, of course, be taken to see that no water enters the tube. When this is done, there may still remain an error due to the difference in temperature of the water at the surface and at the bottom. This may, if desired, be corrected by sending down a self-registering thermometer with the lead, but for the ordinary purposes of navigation this is a refinement which may be ignored. There is no ready method available for correcting the error due to variations in the barometric pressure. The correction should be applied to the sounding recorded.

It is interesting to note that sounding tubes which give good results can readily be made from plain glass or metal tubes aboard ship-gauge glasses, for instance. One end of the tube is closed with a cork and sealing wax. A narrow strip of chart paper of uniform width, on which a line has been ruled with an indelible pencil, is inserted the entire length of the tube. The paper is held in place by bending the projecting lower end upward along the outside of the tube and securing it with a rubber band. The height in which the water rises in the tube will be indicated by the blurring of the pencil line.

If the air column in the tube is 24 inches long, the sounding may be read from any scale graduated for tubes of that length. If of a different length, a special scale must be prepared; its graduations, compared to those of the 24-inch scale, will be proportional to the comparative lengths of the two tubes. If certain precautions are taken, these tubes will give results which compare favorably with commercial tubes. The paper should be inserted uniformly in the tube, and its upper end, or a mark from which the measurement is taken, should coincide with the top of the air column. Metal tubes have the advantage of uniform bore, but if metal tubes are used the paper, in order to insure uniformity, should be fastened at the upper end when that end is

eing sealed and then stretched lightly at the bottom. The depth should always be read from the dry portion of the paper, as the wet portion is subject to considerable change in length.

COAST PILOTS AND FIELD STATIONS OF THE COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

75

COAST PILOTS.

Price. U.S.Coast Pilot, Atlantic Coast, Section A, from St.Croix River to Cape Cod.

$0.75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Atlantic Coast, Section B, from Cape Cod to New York, including Long Island Sound.

75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Atlantic Coast, Section C, Sandy Hook to Cape Henry, including Delaware and

Chesapeake Bays..
U.S. Coast Pilot, Atlantic Coast, Section D, Cape Henry to Key West..

75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Atlantic Coast, Section E, Gulf of Mexico, from Key West to the Rio Grande.

75 U.S. Coast Pilot, West Indies, Porto Rico, and Virgin Islands.

75 Inside Route Pilot, coast of New Jersey.

.30 Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key West.. Inside Route Pilot, Key West to New Orleans.. U.S. Coast Pilot, Pacific Coast, California, Oregon, and Washington. U.S. Coast Pilot, Pacific Coast, Alaska, Part I, from Dixon Entrance to Yakutat Bay.

.75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Pacific Coast, Alaska, Part II, Yakutat Bay to Arctic Ocean.

.75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Hawaiian Islands (this volume)...

30 U.S. Coast Pilot, Philippine Islands, Part I, Luzon, Mindoro, and Visayas..

75 U.S. Coast Pilot, Philippine Islands, Part II, Palawan, Mindanao, and Sulu Archipelago.

75

. 30 .30 .75

FIELD STATIONS.

Boston, Mass., Appraisers Building, 308 Atlantic Avenue.
New York, N. Y., 311-12, Maritime Exchange Building.
New Orleans, La., room 314, customhouse.
San Francisco, Calif., room 509, Customhouse.
Seattle, Wash., room 202, Burke Building.
Manila, P. I., Intendencia Building.

At these stations complete files of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey charts, Coast Pilots, Tide Tables, Current Tables, and other publications relating to navigation may be consulted and information affecting navigation obtained without charge. Light Lists, Buoy Lists, and Notices to Mariners are kept for sale or for free distribution to mariners. The field stations are also sales agencies for the Coast and Geodetic Survey publications. A chart catalogue, giving lists of charts, coast pilots, tide tables, and agencies of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, can be obtained from any of the field stations, or will be sent, free of charge, on application to the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. Frequent changes occur in the agencies, and the list of agencies is published in the first notice each month of the Notices to Mariners.

EXTRACTS FROM THE RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE BOARD OF

HARBOR COMMISSIONERS OF THE TERRITORY OF HAWAII.

RULE III.-HARBOR MASTER- JURISDICTION, POWERS, AND DUTIES. (a) The harbor master shall have, at the port for which he is appointed, exclusive charge and control, except as otherwise provided by law, of all ocean shores below high-water mark, shore waters and navigable streams which are now, or may be, under the care and control of the board; and he shall have also, at such ports, exclusive charge and control of all wharves, piers, bulkheads, quays or landings, and structures thereon, and waters adjacent thereto, and of all slips, basins, docks, water-front land under water, and structures thereon, and the appurtenances, easements, reversions and rights belonging thereto that are now, or may be, the property, or under the control, of the Territory.

(c) He shall, so far as possible, require and enforce, or procure the enforcement of the due observance of, and compliance with, all such rules, regulations and orders of the board, or such laws as appertain to the use, care, and custody of the property under the jurisdiction of the board.

(d) He shall require masters of all vessels to conform to the rules and regulations of the board.

(e) He shall assign berths, and regulate the position of vessels in the harbor.

JD) He shall require the wharves and other premises under the jurisdiction of the board to be kept in a clean and sanitary condition and free from all obstructions.

RULE IV.--WHARFINGER-JURISDICTION, POWERS, AND DUTIES. (a) The wharfinger shall have exclusive charge and control of all wharves, piers, bulkheads, quays or landings, and structures thereon and waters adjacent thereto, and all slips, basins, docks, water-front land under water and structures thereon and the appurtenances, easements, reversions, and rights belonging thereto, that are now, or may be, the property of, or under the control of the Territory, at the port for which he is appointed.

(6) He shall, so far as possible, require and enforce, or procure the enforcement of the due observance of and compliance with all such rules and regulations and orders of the board, and all such laws as appertain to the use, care, and custody of the wharf and wharves and other property under the jurisdiction of the board.

(c) He shall require the wharves and other premises under his jurisdiction to be kept in a clean and sanitary condition and free from all obstructions.

(h) He shall collect wharfage from any vessel not on the credit wharfage list discharging or receiving freight on or from any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay or landing, and shall promptly remit the same to the board.

RULE V.-PILOTS-JURISDICTION, POWERS, AND DUTIES. (h) The master of any vessel requiring a pilot to conduct his vessel to sea must make application to the harbor master.

(i) Every pilot piloting a vessel inward, unless required to anchor at the quarantine station, shall bring the vessel to such pier or berth as the harbor master may direct.

(k) No pilot shall, in any case, conduct a vessel to sea until she has been regularly cleared at the custom house and harbor master's office; and no pilot shall take a vessel to sea until he has satisfied himself that she has been so cleared.

(0) Any person having any complaint against any pilot is requested to make the same in writing to the board, and all complaints by any pilot shall be made in writing to the harbor master, who shall forthwith forward same to the board.

(p) All pilots appointed by the board shall observe strictly the regulations relative to pilotage fees at the ports of Honolulu, Hilo, and Kahului, which are as follows:

Pilotage FEES AT THE PORTS OF HONOLULU, Hilo, AND KAHULUI.-1. Subject to the navigation laws of the United States, the following fees shall be paid to the Board of Harbor Commissioners by all steamers for the service of pilots at the ports of Honolulu, Hilo, and Kahului for entering and also for departing from each such port:

999 tons displacement, or under: 1,000 to 1,499 tons displacement, inclusive. 1,500 to 1,999 tons displacement, inclusive.. 2,000 to 2,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 3,000 to 3,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 4,000 to 4,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 5,000 to 5,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 6,000 to 7,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 8,000 to 9,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 10,000 to 11,999 tons displacement, inclusive.. 12,000 to 14,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 15,000 to 17,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 18,000 to 20,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 21,000 to 23, 999 tons displacement, inclusive. 24,000 to 26,999 tons displacement, inclusive. 27,000 to 29, 999 tons displacement, inclusive. 30,000 to 32, 999 tons displacement, inclusive.. 33,000 tons displacement, or over..

$10.00

15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00

Provided, That if for the purpose of loading or discharging cargo any steamer enters and departs from two of the said above-named ports in charge of a pilot, on one continuous trip, 5 per cent shall be deducted from the above schedule of fees: Provided further, That if for the purpose of loading or discharging cargo any steamer enters and departs from three of the above-named ports in charge of a pilot during one continuous trip, 15 per cent shall be deducted from the foregoing schedule of fees; and for the purpose of computing said fees one call at any of the above-named ports and two calls at any one of the other ports shall be considered as calling at three ports.

II. All sailing vessels shall pay fees for pilot services at such ports, amounting to 2 cents per gross ton upon the registered tonnage of such vessel, for entering, and also for departing, from each such port, the minimum charge each way to be $25.

III. Subject to the restrictions aforesaid, any vessel which shall enter or depart from any of the above-named ports without a pilot, shall pay one-half pilotage fees.

IV. All vessels of 3,000 tons displacement, or over, touching at the above-mentioned ports solely for the purpose of securing general supplies shall pay for pilot services a fee of $25 for entering and $25 for departing from such ports.

V. Where not otherwise provided, the fee for pilot service shall be $1 per foot on the vessel's draft for entering port and the same for departing: Provided, however, That the board reserves the right to rebate all pilot charges to all war vessels.

VI. When any vessel is forced to enter or reenter any of the above-mentioned ports solely by reason of stress of weather, the Board of Harbor Commissioners may require the payment of only such fees for pilot service as shall be just and equitable under the circumstances.

VII. For anchoring any vessel off the above-mentioned ports the fee shall be $20: Provided, however, That when any vessel so anchored off any such port is later brought into port under the charge of a pilot, the fee for anchoring off port shall be $10.

VIII. For retention of pilot on board a vessel more than 24 hours, the fee shall be $10 per day, or fraction thereof. And, if owing to unavoidable circumstances, said pilot has been carried to another port, the vessel, or owner thereof, shall further pay the traveling expenses of said pilot in returning, by first class passage, to his former port.

IX. The displacement of each steamer shall be computed in accordance with the Builder's Displacement Scale, and for this purpose said scale shall be divided into fractional parts of a foot, equalling 3 inches. In case a satisfactory displacement scale is not furnished by the vessel or her authorized agents, her displacement shall be computed by the method known as "Simpson's Rules, using the coefficient of 0.7; e. g., length times breadth times draft times 0.7 divided by 35. (Shorter formula is as follows: Length times breadth times draft times 0.02.)

RULE VIII.-MOORING OR ANCHORAGE BUOYS.

(a) All private individuals, corporations, or companies desiring to install mooring or anchorage buoys in any waters, bays, harbors, rivers, or creeks, under the jurisdiction of the board, shall make formal application to the board in writing for permission to install such buoys. This application shall be accompanied by a comprehensive plan, showing the exact proposed location of the buoys, also plans and specifications of the type and size of buoy.

(6) No buoy which resembles any Federal aid to navigation shall be allowed in any of the harbors or other waters under control of the board.

(c) The right will be reserved by the board to revoke any license at any time when, in its opinion, such revocation may be necessary.

RULE IX.-MOORING OF BOATS, SCOWS, ETC., TO GOVERNMENT WHARVES.

(a) No person or persons shall cause or permit any boat, scow, punt, raft, log, or other floating article to come alongside, or to be moored to or near, or made fast to or near any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to, or controlled by, the Territory of Hawaii, in any manner that may cause damage to such wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing.

(6) It shall be the duty of the harbor master to take immediate possession of any boat, scow, punt, raft, log, or other floating article which has been left by its owner or custodian alongside, or near any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to, or controlled by, the Territory of Hawaii, in such a position that it might cause damage to such wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing, and to remove the same to some suitable place. The owner thereof, if known, shall be forth with notified in writing by the harbor master of such taking. If the owner thereof is unknown, due notice of such taking shall be given by posting the same upon the bulletin board at the office of the Board of Harbor Commissioners. After the expiration of a period of 10 days from the date of the giving of such notice, as aforesaid, if no claim is made for such property the harbor master may sell or otherwise dispose thereof, and the proceeds of such sale shall become a Government realization.

RULE X.-WHARFAGE.

on the

(a) All such watercraft as shall discharge or receive freight, stores, supplies, fuel, oil, ballast, passengers, or baggage on or from any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to, or controlled by, the Territory, while made fast to, or lying alongside of the same, shall pay to the Board of Harbor Commissioners, as wharfage, the sum of 2 cents per ton per diem on the net registered tonnage of the vessel, except as otherwise provided in Rule X, b.

(6) All watercraft while lying idle and while made fast to, or lying alongside of any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to or controlled by the Territory, shall pay to the board, as wharfage, the sum of 2 cents per ton per diem net registered tonnage of the vessel: Provided, That all vessels which are engaged exclusively in towing shall pay the sum of 1 cent per diem per ton on the net registered tonnage: Provided further, That all watercraft lying idle, outside of other watercraft lying at a wharf, and all watercraft undergoing repairs, shall pay the sum of 1 cent per ton per diem on the net registered tonnage. No reduction in rates will be made for any part or parts of idle days during the period of discharging or receiving of freight, stores, supplies, fuel, fuel oil, ballast, passengers, or baggage. There shall be nó charge for Sundays and legal holidays, except for watercraft discharging or receiving freight, stores, supplies, fuel, fuel oil, ballast, passengers, or baggage, in which case they shall pay full rates. A full day's wharfage shall be from midnight to midnight, and a half day's wharfage from midnight to noon, or from noon to midnight, and wharfage charges shall be made accordingly.

(c) All such watercraft as shall receive or discharge freight, stores, supplies, fuel, oil, molasses, ballast, passengers, or baggage (first) from or upon any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to or controlled by the Territory, by means of boats, lighters, or otherwise, while lying at anchor, or under steam, in any bay, harbor, or roadstead, whether such boats or lighters are loaded from or unloaded onto such wharf during, before, or after the time while such watercraft is at anchor or under steam, as aforesaid, provided such loading or unloading is of the freight, supplies, stores, fuel, oil, molasses, ballast, passengers, or baggage of such watercraft, and as a part of the trip of such watercraft, or (second) while lyirg in any slip or dock belonging to or controlled by the Territory, but not made fast to, or lying alongside of, any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay or landing-shall pay to the Board of Harbor Commissioners as wharfage the sum of 1 cent per ton per diem on the net registered tonnage of the vessel, except as otherwise provided for in d of Rule X.

(d) Any watercraft discharging or receiving freight by means of boats, lighters, rafts, or otherwise, that are made fast to, or lying alongside, any wharf, pier, quay, bulkhead, or landing, belonging to or controlled by the Territory, while lying at anchor, or under steam, in any bay, harbor, or roadstead, or while lying in any slip or dock belonging to or controlled by the Territory, but not made fast to, or lying alongside of, any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing, shall pay to the Board of Harbor Commissioners on the net registered tonnage of the vessel, as per the following schedule: 6 hours or less..

Over 6 hours and less than 12 hours..
12 hours or more and less than 18 hours..
18 hours or more and less than 24 hours,

$0.0025

.005 .0075 .01

Provided, however, That if any such watercraft, during a trip, shall so use only one wharf, pier, quay, bulkhead, or landing during a day of 24 hours, and for a less period than 12 hours the charge therefor shall be $0.005 per ton: Provided further, That if any such watercraft, during a trip, shall so use only one wharf, pier, quay, bulkhead, or landing during a day of 24 hours, and for a period of 12 hours or more, the charge therefor shall be $0.01 per ton.

(e) Any wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing belonging to or controlled by the Territory shall be considered as in continuous use, for the purpose of these rules and regulations, by any vessel lying at anchor, or under steam, in any bay, harbor, or roadstead, from the time of arrival at any such wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing of any boat, lighter, or raft from said vessel, and the actual receiving or discharging of freight or passengers on or from said wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing, until the final departure of the last boat or lighter from said wharf, pier, bulkhead, quay, or landing for said vessel: Provided, however, That if any such vessel while anchored is compelled by stress of weather to discontinue loading (and) or unloading temporarily, such time of discontinuance shall not be included in the time for which the above wharfage rates are charged: Provided further, That, in case any sailing vessel so anchored has completed loading (and) or unloading, and has cleared for another port, and, being otherwise ready to sail, is detained at anchor awaiting favorable winds or a tow, no charge shall be made for such period of detention.

(f) The board may, in its discretion release, parties from the obligation of paying wharfage on vessels in the manner required by these rules, provided such parties make written application to be placed on the credit wharfage list. Such application shall give the names and classes of vessels of which they are the owners, managers, agents, or consignees, and shall agree to pay on presentation, until written notice to the contrary, wharfage bills on all such vessels. In case of failure to pay such bill on presentation, the permission granting release as aforesaid shall be revoked.

RULE XI. - DEMURRAGE.

(a) On all wharves at the ports of Honolulu and Hilo freight direct from foreign ports must be removed from the wharf beginning at midnight after a general order has been issued by the collector of customs, as follows: (1) Cargoes of less than 2,500 tons, 48 hours; (2) cargoes of over 2,500 tons, 72 hours: Provided, That the above rules shall not apply to freight for transshipment when such transshipment is designated in original bills of lading and on packages: Provided further, That freight for transshipment must be removed not later than the time of sailing of the first vessel whose destination is the port for which the freight is intended in accordance with the route as per the bill of lading.

(6) All freight other than that direct from foreign ports must be removed as follows, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c): Cargoes up to and including 2,000 tons delivered to any one wharf within 48 hours after completion of discharge of vessel; for each additional 1,000 tons or fraction thereof an additional 24 hours will be allowed.

(c) All outgoing freight shall be entitled to free storage on the wharf beginning three days prior to the commencement of loading of vessels: Provided, however, That demurrage will be waived on freight from United States ports, other than in the Hawaiian Islands, destined for transshipment, up to the time of sailing on the first vessel in accordance with the route as per bill of lading and whose destination or port of call is the port for which the freight is intended.

(d) A demurrage charge of 25 cents per ton of 2,000 pounds, or 40 cubic feet, will be made per diem, or fractional part thereof, on all freight remaining on any wharf at the ports of Honolulu and Hilo not in accordance with these rules.

(e) No freight subject to demurrage shall be removed from the wharf by the con signee, or any other person, until all charges thereon have been paid and a written release given by the harbor master.

RULE XIII.-SHIPS.

(a) A master or person in charge of any vessel, and the master of any tug having a vessel in tow, shall obey and carry into effect any orders given by the harbor master in relation to the plans and manner of bringing vessels to an anchorage, coming alongside, or leaving wharves before securing or mooring vessels.

(b) The master of every vessel shall anchor, moor, or place his vessel where the harbor master may direct, and shall not move, nor allow the said vessel to be moved, from such place without permission of the harbor master, and shall remove his vessel from any such place when so ordered by the harbor master: Provided, That vessels engaged in island or interisland traffic may be exempt from this regulation at the discretion of the harbor master.

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