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miles in order to deliver it at places much more accessible to other coal fields, whence coal could be obtained with far less tax upon the transporation energies of the country.

The Fuel and Railroad Administrations have therefore been confronted with the responsibility of deciding whether they shall knowingly be parties to this waste of transportation, which, if not so wasted, could be used so as to make practicable the production of more coal sorely needed to carry on the war. It is clear that in the interest of the Nation there should be a different policy for the future. The coalzoning plan is the result of this decision.

After prolonged conferences with coal producers, jobbers, and consumers, and with the traffic and operating officials of the railroads, zones have been established so that coal supply shall be normally derived from mines relatively near, thus preventing these abnormal and wasteful transportation movements, insuring more equal distribution of cars to the mines, and more steady employment of mine labor.

The patriotic cooperation of the many interests and individuals who may be affected by this cutting out of unnecessary transportation is confidently hoped for.

When a consumer finds that he no longer has the opportunity to get his coal from a distant mine according to his custom, it is hoped that he will realize that his using another sort of coal is an essential part of the scheme of conservation in the interest of the national defense. When a coal producer finds that he no longer has a market to which in the past, regardless of the unnecessarily long haul, he has sent his coal, it is hoped he, too, will realize that the resulting adjustment of his business is in the national interest; that there will be more cars and locomotives, and transportation energy to transport more coal from his mines to the markets he can reach within his zone; that his business in consequence should be increased rather than diminished.

The situation with which the Fuel and Railroad Administrations have thus had to grapple is one of infinite complexity, and no first effort to remove the waste can be perfect, or can fully meet all the constantly changing conditions. Realizing these limitations, the plan as established provides for elasticity through a system of special permits issued by the Fuel Administration when and as necessary.

The general effect of the zone system is to restrict eastern coal to eastern markets and fill the vacancy in the Central and Western States with near-by coal produced in those States.

In addition to the saving in transportation, the system will provide for the possible retention of something like 5,000,000 tons of coal for the Eastern States which heretofore has gone West all rail. This tonnage can be readily utilized in the East. As an indication of the saving to be effected by the system, it will eliminate the movement of more than 2,000,000 tons of Pocahontas coal to Chicago and other western points over a haul of about 660 miles. Chicago can obtain this tonnage of coal, and under this system must obtain most of it from southern Illinois mines, with an average haul of 312 miles. Allowing for the differences in quality in the two coals there will thus be saved 11,400,000 car-miles or very conservatively figured, 285,000 car days. This will permit 14 additional round trips of 20 days each from West Virginia mines to zone destinations, permitting an additional production of at least 700,000 tons of Pocahontas coal.

Similar comparisons show that on the movement of 550,000 tons annually from Kanawha districts to Wisconsin points there can be saved about 2,500,000 car-miles with a consequent increased production of some 300,000 tons. On the movement from southeastern Kentucky to Chicago the saving will be about 800,000 car-miles and 50,000 tons production. The elimination of the Indiana to Iowa movement will save 1,600,000 car-miles and permit 100,000 tons additional production. These are only a few of the instances of transportation saving to be effected by the system.

The movement of bituminous coal which is regulated by the zone system, is about 300,000,000 tons, or 60 per cent of the total production. Based on this production, there will be saved on the round trip from and to the mines almost 160,000,000 car

miles. This will permit the same cars to make almost 300,000 additional trips from the mines, equivalent to an increase of 5 per cent in the production. The increase in total production in 1917 over 1916 resulting from all efforts was about 8 per cent.

A large part of the coal which the system will prevent from moving West out of the eastern producing districts will be available for use in New England, in so far as it can be transported there. Production in the district supplying New England via all-rail routes can be increased somewhat, but there is difficulty in moving by allrail routes the amount of coal needed and the capacity of the rail gateways to New England has been nearly reached. Improvements now being made will increase the capacity of the Poughkeepsie Bridge route, but it is impossible to escape the conclusion that provision must be made for a much larger movement by water in 1918 than in 1917 or New England and its people and industries will suffer.

This situation will be made the subject of a separate study by a committee representing the United States Shipping Board, the United States Railroad Administration, the United States Fuel Administrator, coal operators in the territory involved, the railroads involved in the movement of this coal, and consumers in the territory affected.

The restrictions imposed upon the movement of coal by the zone system will make necessary some readjustment in fuel practices in various communities affected by these restrictions. The Fuel Administrator confidently expects the patriotic cooperation of every coal consumer who may be inconvenienced by reason of the use of fuel to which he has not been accustomed. The vast purposes to be served by the savings which the system effects will undoubtedly command the support of every user of coal.

Under regulations of the Fuel Administrator, coal of particular quality or characteristics for a special purpose, such as by-product, gas, blacksmith, and metallurgical coal will be permitted to move by permit beyond the limits imposed by the zone system. Permits will be issued to the individual consumers having need for this special-purpose coal where a supply is not available in the producing districts which are permitted to ship into the consuming zone where the consumer is located. Applications for permits must be made to the Zone Permit Bureau of the United States Fuel Administration in Washington. The zone system affects all bituminous coal except

Coal for railroad fuel for which special arrangements will be made by the Fuel Administrator and the Director General of Railroads.

Coal for movement on inland waterways which is in no way restricted by the system. :

Coal delivered to Canada, which is subject to regulations of the Fuel Administrator. Heretofore many of the mines in many of the producing districts throughout the country have been unable to keep up their production in the summer months because of the decreased demand for their product. Under the zone system these producing districts have been allotted consuming territory which will demand a large increase in production. Thus coal which has long been available, but not used, will be added to the aggregate supply for the country as a whole. Consumers in these zones must fill their bins during the coming summer and keep these mines running every day of the week if these zones are to avoid serious coal shortage next winter.

The early buying of next winter's supply of coal by consumers throughout the country is considered imperative by both the Fuel Administrator and the Director General of Railroads.

Ample production capacity has been assigned to each of the consuming zones outlined in the system, but these producing fields must be kept working as nearly as possible at their maximum capacity if the system is to be a success.

The method of enforcement of the zoning system is that the Fuel Administration prohibits distribution beyond the limits of the zone and the railroad administration

supplements these prohibitions by railroad embargoes. When permits shall be issued by the Fuel Administration to admit of distribution beyond the zone limits such permits will operate as exemptions from the embargoes, and the embargoes will so provide.

DONE PERMIT BUREAU.

The United States Fuel Administration will issue permits for the shipment of coal for special purposes to points outside the zone in which the particular coal desired originates. The purpose of this zone plan is to save transportation by the elimination of unnecessary long hauls and avoidable cross hauls, thereby conserving the car supply and increasing car utility. This should result in an increased production of coal.

The zones apply only to bituminous and cannel coals and do not apply to anthracite coal or coke. Embargoes under this zoning plan will affect shipments of coal in any class of car equipment and will be put into effect jointly by the United States Fuel Administrator and Director General of Railroads on April 1.

It is recognized, however, that some consumers will require, for illuminating or producer gas, by-product coking, metallurgical, smithing, or other particular purposes, special coals which are not produced in the coal districts from which the zoning plan permits shipments to be made. Such requirements will be cared for by permits issued by the United States Fuel Administration upon proper evidence that requests for such permit is warranted.

Application forms may be obtained from the United States Fuel Administration and applicants should be governed by the following instructions:

All applications for permits must be addressed to the United States Fuel Administration, Coal Zone Permit Bureau, Washington, D. C.

Applications must be made by the consumer, stating in detail the necessity for the special coal and amount required during the period for which permit is requested.

In the case of a consumer having more than one plant or requiring special coal from more than one producer, separate applications for permit will be required for shipment from each producer as well as to each plant.

Separate applications for permits will be required for each railroad on which shipments originate.

Permits are revocable at the discretion of the United States Fuel Administrator.

Section 2.--Zone A and Modifications. (1) Order of the United States Fuel Administrator of March 27, 1918, Effective April 1, 1918,

Establishing Bituminous Coal Zone A,Regulating the Distribution and Apportionment of Bituminous Coal from Operations in Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Iowa.

WASHINGTON, D. C., March 27, 1918. It appearing to the United States Fuel Administrator that it is essential to the national security and defense, the successful prosecution of the war, and the support and maintenance of the army and navy, that the greatest possible supply of bituminous coal should be produced in the United States; that such production, even though all other conditions necessary therefor are present and capable of employment, is, because of the locations of the mines and the nature of the commodity, limited in part by the capacity of existing transportation facilities for the movement of the coal from points of production to points of delivery and consumption; that the amount of production, notwithstanding a continuance of the other present favorable conditions therefor, can be immediately increased by means of the greater utilization of coal cars, locomotives and other railroad facilities; and that among such means are the elimination of unnecessarily long hauls and of avoidable cross hauls of loaded and

(1) See also Chapter III, Title II, Section 15, for orders modifying the provisions of the “Zone A" order with respect to shipments of smithing coal.

empty coal cars, and the provision of the necessary supply of such coal for each consuming section of the country from the one or more coal fields nearest thereto, or most readily accessible thereto, either in actual distance or in the freedom from congestion and delays in rail movements between such coal fields and such section; and that apportionment of the bituminous coal, produced in the various coal fields of the United States, for delivery and consumption thereof in the different designated consuming sections of the United States, sometimes called a zoning system, will facilitate the movement of bituminous coal, tend to prevent either locally or generally scarcity thereof, and is necessary for the production of a sufficient quantity of bituminous coal to aid in the successful prosecution of the war.

The United States Fuel Administrator, acting under authority of an Executive Order of the President of the United States, dated 23 August, 1917, appointing said Administrator, and of subsequent Executive Orders, and in furtherance of the purpose of said order and of the act of Congress therein referred to and approved August 10, 1917.

Hereby orders and directs that until further or other order of the United States Fuel Administrator, and subject to revocation or modification by him from time to time and at any time hereafter, every producer (which term shall include every person firm, corporation or association operating as owner, lessee, or purchaser of the entire output of the mine) of bituminous'coal in any of the States of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma and Iowa, shall, except as hereinafter provided, sell, ship and distribute such coal only to dealers and consumers and for use and consumption within the following described sections of the United States hereinafter called consuming zone, viz:

(1) The States of Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas; that portion of the State of Iowa on and west of a line coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway from Glenville, Minnesota, to Mason City, Iowa, thence coincident with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway to Nora Junction; thence coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway through Waterloo to Cedar Rapids; thence coincident with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway to Ottumwa; thence coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway to Keokuk; that portion of the State of Texas east of the Pecos River; and that portion of the State of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, and such cities, towns, dealers and consumers as are located, or as have docks, piers, wharves or other facilities for unloading coal, upon the easterly bank of the said river;

Provided, however, that any such producer may ship such a quantity of coal for such special quality, and for such special use or purpose and to such retail dealer or consumer outside of the above designated zone, as may be described and designated in a permit issued by the United States Fuel Administration upon an application from such consumer, and in accordance with such rules and regulations as may be from time to time prescribed by the United States Fuel Administration;

And, provided further that this order shall not apply to bituminous coal(a) Shipped for use as railroad fuel,

(b) Shipped in whole or in part by inland waterways (other than the Great Lakes) excepting cases where any rail movement from the mines to the waterways would not terminate within the above designated zone;

(c) Shipped to any points in Canada or Mexico.

Wherever any boundary of the consuming zone described in this order follows a line of railway, the consuming zone shall include all places usually taking deliveries of bituminous coal from points on the portion of the line of railway included in such boundary or within switching limits of other railway lines connecting therewith. This order shall be effective on and after April 1, 1918.

H. A. GARFIELD, United States Fuel Administrator.

Order of the United States Fuel Administrator of April 18, 1918, Ejective April 19,

1918, Modifying, with Respect to Shipments from Operations in Iowa, the Order of March 27, 1918, Establishing Bituminous Coal Zone A," being Modification No. 1 of said Order.

WASHINGTON, D. C., April 18, 1918. It appearing to the United States Fuel Administrator that it is essential that the producers of bituminous coal located in the State of Iowa be permitted to make shipments to points outside of “Zone A” as described in the Order of March 27, 1918, and that further apportionment of bituminous coal in that portion of the so-called “Zoning System” covered by his order relative to bituminous coal “Zone A” of March 27, 1918, will facilitate the movement of bituminous coal and tend to prevent scarcity thereof, and is necessary for the production of a sufficient quantity of bituminous coal to aid in the successful prosecution of the war.

The United States Fuel Administrator, acting under authority of an Executive Order of the President of the United States, dated 23 August, 1917, appointing said Administrator, and of subsequent Executive Orders, and in furtherance of the purpose of said order and of the Act of Congress therein referred to and approved August 10, 1917,

Hereby orders and directs that, until further or other order of the United States Fuel Administrator, and subject to revocation or modification by him from time to time and at any time hereafter, every producer (which term shall include every person, firm, corporation, or association operating as owner, lessee or purchaser of the entire output of a mine) of bituminous coal in the State of Iowa, may, in addition to the territory to which they are permitted to ship under “Zone A," sell, ship, and distribute such coal to dealers and consumers and for use and consumption within the following described section of the United States, viz:

That portion of the State of Iowa located east of a line coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway from Glenville, Minnesota to Mason City, Iowa; thence coincident with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway to Nora Junction, Iowa; thence coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway through Waterloo to Cedar Rapids Iowa; thence coincident with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway to Ottumwa, Iowa; thence coincident with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway to Keokuk, Iowa. This order shall be effective on and after April 19, 1918.

H. A. GARFIELD, United States Fuel Administrator.

Order of the United States Fuel Administrator of June 28, 1918, Effective July 1, 1918,

Modifying, with Respect to Shipments of Slack or Screenings from Operations in Iowa, for a Period of Thirty Days from July 1, 1918, the Order of March 27, 1918, Establishing Bituminous Coal Zone A,being modification No. 2 of said Order. 1

WASHINGTON, D. C., June 28, 1918. It appearing to the United States Fuel Administrator that it is essential that the producers of bituminous coal located in the producing districts of Iowa be permitted to make shipments of bituminous coal slack or screenings for a period of thirty days to points outside of “Zone A,” as described in the order of March 27, 1918, and that further apportionment of bituminous coal in that portion of the so-called Zoning System” covered by his “order relative to bituminous coal Zone A,” of March 27, 1918, will facilitate the movement of bituminous coal, tend to prevent scarcity thereof, and is necessary for the production of a sufficient quantity of bituminous coal to aid in the successful prosecution of the war.

1 See the order of August 8, 1918, infra in this section, extending the provisions of Modification No. 2, to and including September 30, 1918.

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