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from whence she sailed in twenty-eight days after laying het keel, and mounted with 18 twelve pounders--the Maria scho011er, mounting 14 six pounders--the Carleton, 12 ditto--the Thun: derer, a flat-bottomed radeau, carrying 6.twenty-four pounders and-6. twelve, beside two howitzers-some gondolas, one have ing-7 nine pounders-twenty gun-boats, carrying each a brass field-piece, from 9 to 24 pounders, and some with howitzers and four long boats, with each a carriage gun, serving as armed tenders. These were all designed for, or appertained to battle, and were attended with a vast number of vessels, batteaux and boats destined for the transportation of the army, with its stores, artillery, baggage and provisions. The armament was conducted by capt. Pringle, and the fleet navigated by about 700 primè seamet, of whoni 200 were volunteers from the transports, who boldly and freely partook with the others in the danger of the expedition. The guns were worked by detacliments from the corps of artillery. The equipment was well appointed and anply furnished with every thing necessary. ..
The Americans went on with the greatest possible dispatch, and, before any action could commence, had reinforced gen. Ar nold with a cutter, 3 gallies and 3 gondolas, carrying from 4'to 18 pounders. The American force was in no degree equal to the British, either as to the goodness of the vessels, the number of guas, the weight of metal, or other furniture of war. Gen. Arnold had only two schooners' with him, and so but 15 vessels, when Sir Guy Carleton proceeded up the lake, and found him forming a strong line to defend the passage between ValicourIsland and the western main. A warm action ensued [Oct. 11.1 and was vigorously supported on both sides for some hours; but the wind being unfavorable, the Inflexible, with some other vessels of force, could not be worked up, so that the weight of the action feli upon the schooner Carleton and the gun-boats, which (say the British) they sustained with the greatest firmness, men and officers displaying such extraordinary efforts of resolution as merited and received the highest applause from their commanders. The Americans therefore could not have been deficient in their exertions, but must be entitled to a proportionable share of praise for having made such a formidable resistance. Gen. Waterbury fought inost intrepidly, walking upon the quarter-deck the whole time; all his officers were killed or wounded, excepte ing a lieutenant, and the captain of the marines.
: . ? The continuance of the impediments which prevented the Carleton and gun-boats being seconded by the Inflexible and other vessels, induced capt. Pringle, with the approbation of Sir Guy, to withdraw those that were engaged, from the action. Two of Vol. II.
their gondolas were sunk, and one blown up with 60 men, The Americans had a schooner-burnt, and a gondola sunk. Being now sensible of their inferiority, they took the opportunity of the night for attempting an escape. Gen. Arnold executed his design with ability, and they were out of sight by next morning. But the chace was continued, and one gondola taken on the 12th. The rest were overtaken and brought to action, a few leagues short of Crown-Point, about noon on the 13th. A warm engage, ment followed. The Washington galley, commanded by gen. Waterbury, had been so shattered, and had so inany killed and wounded in the first action, that she struck after receiving a few broad sides. The Congress galley was attacked by the Intiexible and the two schooners, two under her stern and one on her broad-side, within musket shot. The British kept up an incessant fire on the Americans for four hours, with round and grape shot, which was returned az briskly. Gen. Arnold was determined that his people should not become prisoners, nor the vessels a prey to the enemy. He covered the retreat of the few which escaped, at the expence of one-third of his crew; and then with equal resolution and dexterity, ran the Congress gala ley, in which he was, with four gondolas, on shore in such a manner as to land his men safely and blow up the vessels, in spite of every effort to prevent both. Officers and men behav, ed with the utmost gallantry. Some vessels, they had lost all their officers, continued fighting, for the crews refused to yield but with their lives. The Americans glory in general Arnold's bravery, though unsuccessful, and much in the dangerous atten. tion he paid to a nice piece of honor, in keeping his flag flying, and not quitting his galley till she was in flames, lest the enemy should have boarded her and struck it. The American fleet consists now of only two gallies, two schooners, one sloop and one gondola, for the 8th is missing.
But though general Arnold's bravery is highly applauded, he is thought by many to have been guilty of a great oversight, in not having stationed his fleet just above Split Rock, * about thirty-five miles from Ty, so as to have brought the guns of every (one of his vessels to have borne upon the British as they should have passed through singly, which they must have done from the narrowness of the channel at that place.
On Monday morning (Oct. 14.] the wind came about, and blew fresh after the remainder of the fleet got in, and so continus -ed for eight days, and prevented the enemy's coming up the
* It is known in the neighborhood by the name of Split Rock only, though generally put down in the maps Cloven Rock.
bake to Ty. Within that period the Americans made carriages for forty-seven or more pieces of cannon, and mounted them; finished and strengthened their works; surrounded their redoubts with abbetis; received a considerable reinforcement, and acquir: ed a preparedness for defence in every quarter. Could the enciny have proceeded immediately on the Monday to Tyconderoga, they inust have succeded. You will be entertained with some sprightly letters written by an officer, at the moment and upon the spot, to the daughter of a next door neighbor ; take the copies of them, and judge who it is that saves the Americans from impending. ruin. “ Tyconderoga. the twentieth of October, six o'clock-The returns of the shattered remains of our fleet soon let us know the worst.--Atine story ! after all the pompous ac= counts of our naval superiority.--Fine as it is, Jenny, it is true.
However we did all that men could do, in the time and with the advantagešwe had.Can-ourcountry expect more? I would not have you think we are defeated however.---The fleet was strong, but our posts are much stronger.--The enemy may give us another defeat, but it will cost them dear.---- We expect an attack every moment.--I have been up these two hours, and through the guards and posts--to see them alert and vigilant. We will eadeavor not to be surprised. The attack whenever it comes will be furious, and the defence obstinate, cruelly obstis nate. We are busy in making every preparation for the most efa fectual security of our posts and shall in two or three day more, have little to fear from an assault." «Ty-Oct. 21, 1776. The fear is now past, Jenny, but not the hurry.--Heaven has been pleased to give us a southerly wind for almost the whole week past --this hasallowed-us time for a very considerable preparation. We would now gladly be attacked in two or three more days. The enemy are at Crown-Point, and we expect that they may fancy this ground in a day or two : they must pay a great price for it however, as we value it highly.”. “ Ty-Oct. 27. If we are not attached within six days, gen. Carleton deserves to be hanged.-We expect him indeed every morning. --We have been favored with a strong southerly wind, almost constantly since the defeat of the flect, and are now ready.The enemy have forsaken us-I am not sorry indeed, Jenny. We should have been much at a loss had they invested us.-An attack.we were prepared for, but they must have been madmen, to risque their all on the event of -day, when a few weeks perseverance would have given them all they could wish.--How much is gained by chance or as the doctor will call it, Providence.-They did not happen to know our situation, but supposed we must be internally, what our external appearance (formidable enough) pronounced us, and
what they, with our advantages, would have been.- Providence indeed, has once more saved us."
General Gates was about 12,000 strong, when the enemy was at Crown-Point. Most of the men were effective, many of the troops having recovered. For some days after gen. Arnold's defeat, Gates had only two top of powder, and when he had received a supply, no more than eight. It has been thought, from information gained since, that the enemy sent one of their engineers, disguised like a countryman, into the American camp, as a spy; and that after two or three hours he returned ; and by his reports might occasion their going off the next day. The day they went off, Mr. Yancey, the commissary general, had no flour in store for the army. Gen. Gates sent him out of the way, that as he had no flour to deliver out, the men night be kept easy, under a notion of their being enough in the store, and upon the plea that they should be supplied on his speedy return, but that it would not do to break open the doors. The commissary had not even a barrel under his care. The Yorkers, chiefly of Dutch extraction, inhabiting the neighborhood of Lake George, declineu crossing it with the supples designed for the army, through fear of the Indians. This fear however was needless ; for gen, Carleton, while he allowed them to take prisoners, laid thern under strict restraints not to kill and scalp. When he found he could not keep them trom scalping, he acted with dignity, and dismissed every one of them, saying, he would rather forego all the ad. Vantage of their assistance, than make war in so cruel a manner This conduct reflects great honor upon his character, as the gentleman and the soldier. The day Sir Guy withdrew from CrownPoint, Gates, upon being assured of the fact, instantly dissmissed the militia, with thanks for their service, wbich he wished not to prolong--for he had no provision for them. For near a week af ter, the army had but a daily supply of between 20 and 30 barrels by land from Bennington.
General Carleton, before he commenced his operations on the lake, had prudently shipped off the American officers (made prisoners in Canada) for New-England, supplying them at the same time with every thing requistie to render their voyage comfort. able. The other prisoners, amounting to about 300, were returned also by a flag, after being obliged to take an oath not to serve during the war, unless exchanged: many of these, being almost naked, Sir Guy clothed, out of compassion. By his tenderness and humanity, he has gained the affections of those Americans, who had fallen into his hands ; and has done more toward subduing the rest than ever could have been effected by the greatest cruelties.
... The only danger to be guarded against by the Americans at Ty, and the neighbouring posts, is, gen. Carleton's attempting to possess himself of them, when Lake Champlain shall be frozen om ver, so as to be capable of bearing horses, which probably will not be till the middle of January. The troops occupying these posts will not tarry longer than the end of the year: before that there is time enough to procure a sufficient force from the Massachusetts, Connecticut and New-Hampshire, to defend them. And if the weeks, between Sir Guy's returning to Canada and the frost's setting in so as to şuspend all operations, are duly improved, something considerable may be wrought toward securing the ens trance into the northern states. During the summer season, a road has been cut through the woods, for some miles, leading to Mount Independence, and communicating with the one leading to Hubbarton, so that the intercourse between that post and the northern states can be carried on by land, without coming ein. ther through Lake George, or by water from Skeensborough. That the road is horridly bad for carriages and horses in many places but not impassable, my own experience convinces mé. 'feams have travelled them with heavy loads, though not without ropes fastend to each side, and men attending to keep them from falling over, through the, unevenness of the ground. But it is, astonishing, that loads of tent-poles should be sent scores of miles to pass through these woods to the American camp, instead of being ordered to cut in the neighbourhood, where there, was little other than woodland. By some strange fatality, or folly, the Americans conduct their business in a most expensive way, whereas they ought to exercise the greatest economy practicable without injuring the common cause. If the fate of war depends upon the expenditure of money, and the ability of the parties to continue the expences, the United States must be, a-ground much sooner than Great-Britain, unless the latter practises and continues an equal degree of extravagance and profusion. Lori:
Mr. James Lovell, who has at length recovered his liberty by an exchange, was chosen, ten days ago, by the Massachusetts general court, one of their delegates to congress.