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The limits of this Introduction do not admit of examples, to illus. trate the variety of tones belonging to the different passions and emo. tions. We shall, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will, in some degree, elucidate what has been said on this subject. “The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places; how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath ; publish it not in the streets of Askelon ; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice: lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings ; for there the shield of the mighty was vilely cast awav; the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil." The first of these divi. sions expresses sorrow and lamentation; therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic ad. dress to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be ex. pressed in a note quite different from the two former ; not so low as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.

The correct and natural language of the emotions is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people, who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest discourse. And the reason that they have not the same use of them, reading aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous method, in which the art of reading is taught ; whereby all the various, natural, expressive tones of speech, are suppressed; and a few artificial, unmeaning rea. ding notes, are substituted for them.

But when we recommend to readers, an attention to the tone and language of emotions, we must be understood to do it with proper limitation. Moderation is necessary in this point, as it is in other things. For when reading becomes strictly imitative, it assumes a theatrical manner, and must be highly improper, as well as give of. fence to the hearers ;, because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensable on such occasions. The speaker who delivers his own emotions must be supposed to be more, vived and animated, than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.

We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicate the passions and emotions. “ In reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in sume degree, more faintly characterized. Let those tones which signify, any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions; and, on all occasions, preserve yourselves from being so far affected with the subject, as to be able to proceed through it with that easy and masterly man. ner, which has its good effects in this, as well as in every other art.".



Such pauses

Pauses or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessation of the voice; during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measurable space of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporary rests, relieve the organs of speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action: to the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continuity. of sound; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.

There are two kinds of pauses : first, emphatical pauses ; and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this nature. lave the same effect as a strong emphasis ; and are subject to the same rules ; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequen:ly. For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of ihe matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and disgust.

But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to craw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connexion, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without the least separation. Many a sentence

miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally lost by clivisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one, while he is reading, skould be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine, that tbe breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, wben the voice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptions.

Pauscs in reading must generally be formed upon the manner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation ; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired from reading books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be suffi. cient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses which ought to be

made in reading, A mer chanical attention to these resting places, has perhaps been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of use : “ Though is


reading great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense ; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in coromon speech.

To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not only be made in the righe place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is intimated ; much more than by the length of them, which can seldom be exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required ; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate ourselves by atiending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in real and earnest discourse with others. The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing pauses : “ Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune." The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice, that gives the hearer an expectation of something further to complete the sense: the inflection attending the third pause signifies that the sense is completed,

The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state : the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice: “ If content cannot remove the dis. quie udes of mankind, it will at least alleviate them.?"

The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice ; as will be seen in this example : “ Moderate exercise', and habitual temperance strengthen the constitution."*

As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing pause : it admits of both. The falling inflection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently connected with the rising inflection, Interrogative sentences, for instance, are often terminated in this manner : as, “ Am I ungrateful' ?!! Is he in earnesi'?"

But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, it is commonly terminated by the falling inflection : as, " What has he gained by his folly?”. “ 'Who will assist him?" Where is the messenger ?!! “ When did he arrive'?”?

When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling inflection; as, “ Does his conduct support discipline', or destroy it' ???

The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with em. phasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.

The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, con. fers to much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples, to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instan. ces, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished, as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and importance.


* The rising inflection is denoted by the acule; the falling, by the grave


“ Manufacturés", trade', and agriculture', certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty of the human species.”

“ Fle who resigns the world, has to sumptation to envy', hatred', malice', anger',; but is in constant possession or repair in TE who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care', solicitude', remorse', and confusion,

“ To advise the ignorant', relieve the needy comfort the afflicted', are duties that fall in our way, almost every day of our lives.”.

* Those evil spirits, who' by long custon, have contracted in the body habits of lust' and sensuality ; malice and revenge'; and aversion to every thing that is good', just', and laudable', are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery."

“ I am pursuaded, that neither deatl', nor life?; nor angels', nor principalities', nor powers'; nor things present', nor things to come'; nor height, nor depth; nor any other creature', shall be able to separate us from the love of God is

The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investigation of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.


Manner of Reading Verse.


Wher we are reading verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse, which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own : and to adjust and compound these properly with the pauses of the sense, so as neither io hurt the ear, nor offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter, that it is no wonder we so seldom meet with guod readers of poetry. There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse: one is, the pause at the end of the line ; and the other, the cæsural pause in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end of the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhynie renders this always sensible ; and in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. respect to blank verse, we ought also to read it so as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if in reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause ; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose? At the same time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and lone, must be carefully guarded against. The close of the line where it makes no patise in tlie meaning, ough not to be marked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence ; but, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the meaning:

The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, and divides it into two hemistichs; a pause, nut so great as that which belongs to the close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 41b, 5th, 6th, or

7th syllable in the line. Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or, division in

an in the two first verses of the sense, the line can be read easily: Pope's Messiah :

Ye nymphs of Solyma?! begin the song';

“? To heav'aly, themes sublimer strains belong." But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate a connexion, as not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided from one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle between the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read such lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such cases, is to regard only the pause which the sense forms : and to read the line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the line sound somewhat unharmoniously; but the effect would be much worse,if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For instance, in the following line of Milton,

b"What in me is dark,
“Illumine ; what is losv, raise and support."

the sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly i though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot;

"I sit, with sad servility I read." the ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sast, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sadan:l civility. The sense admits of no others pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore must be to, only pause made in reading this part of the sentence.

There is another mode of dividing some veases, by introducing what may be called demi.cæsuras, which require very slight pauses ; and which the reader should manage with judgment, or he will be apl to fall into an affected sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of ibis kind. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura.

“ Warms' in the sun", refreshes' in the breeze,
“ Glows' in the stars", and blossoms' in the trees :
“Lives' through all life"; extends' through all extent;

Spreads' undivided", operates' unspent.” Before the conclusion of this introduction, the Compiler takes the Liberty to recommend to ieachers, to exercise their pupils in discover. ing and explaining the emphatic words, and the proper tones and pauses of every portion assigned them to read, previously to their being called out to the performance. These preparatory lessons, in which they should be regularly examined, will improve their judg. ment and taste; prevent the practice of reading without attention to the subject; and establish a habit of readily discovering the meaning, force, and beauty, of every senter.ce they peruse.

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