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Both differ'd much. Pompey was struck in years, Did vile * deeds; then 'twas worth the price of And hy long rest forgot to manage arms,

blood, And, being popular, sought by liberal gifts And deem'd renown, to spoil their native town; To gain the light unstable commons' love, Force master'd right, the strongest govern'd all; And joy'd to hear his theatre's applause :

Hence came it that th' edicts were over-ruld, He liv'd secure, boasting his former deeds, That laws were broke, tribunes with consuls And thought his name sufficient to uphold him: strove, Like to a tall oak in a fruitful field,

Sale made of offices, and people's voices Bearing old spoils and conquerors' monuments, Bought by themselves and sold, and every year Who, though his root be weak, and his own Frauds and corruption in the Field of Mars; + weight

Hence interest and devouring usury sprang, Keep bim within the ground, bis arms all bare, Faith's breach, and hence came war, to most men His body, not his boughs, send forth a shade ;

welcome. Though every blast it nod," and seem to fall,+ Now Cæsar overpass'd the snowy Alps : When all the woods about stand bolt upright, His mind was troubled, and he aim'd at war: Yet he alone is held in reverence.

And coming to the ford of Rubicon, Caexar's renown for war was less; he restless, At night in dreadful vision fearful I Rome Sharing to strive but where he did subdue ; Mourning appear'd, whose hoary hairs were torn, When ire or hope provok’d, heady and bold; And on her turret-bearing head dispers'd, At all times charging home, and making havoc ; And arms all naked; who, with broken sighs, Urring his fortune, trusting in the gods, And staring, thus bespoke : "What mean’st thou, Destroying what withstood his proud desires,

Cæsar? And glad when blood and ruin made him way : Whither goes my standard ! Romans if ye be, So thunder, which the wind tears from the And bear true hearts, stay here!" This spectacle clouds,

Struck Cæsar's heart with fear; his hair stood up, With crack of riven air and hideous sound And faiptness numb'd his steps there on the Filling the world, leaps out and throws forth fire, brink. Affrights poor fearful men, and blasts their eyes He thus cried out: “Thou thunderer that guard'st With overthwarting flames, and raging shoots Rome's mighty walls, built on Tarpeian rock! Alongst the air, and, not resisting it,

Ye gods of Phrygia and lülus' line, Falls, and returns, and shivers where it lights. Quirinus' rites, and Latian Jove advanc'd Such humours stirr'd them up: but this war's seed On Alba hill! O vestal flames ! O Rome, Was even the same that wrecks all great do. My thought's sole goddess, aid mine enterprise ! minions,

I hate thee not, to thee my conquests stoop : When Fortune made us lords of all, wealth Cæsar is thine, so please it thee, thy soldier. flowd,

He, he afflicts Rome that made me Rome's foe." And then we grew licentious and rude;

This said, he, laying aside all lets of war, The soldiers' prey and rapine brought in riot; Approach'd the swelling stream with drum and Men took delight in jewels, houses, plate,

ensign: And soru'd old sparing diet, and ware robes Like to a lion of scorch'd desert Afric, Too light for women ; Poverty, who hatch'd Who, seeing hunters, pauseth till fell wrath Rome's greatest wits, was loath’d, and all the And kingly rage increase, then, having whisk'd world

His tail athwart his back, and crest heav'd up, Ransack'd for gold, which breeds the world[8] With jaws wide-open ghastly roaring out, decay ;

Albeit the Moor's light javelin or bis spear And then large limits had their butting lands; Sticks in his side, yet runs upon the hunter. The ground, which Curius and Camillus tillid, In summer-time the purple Rubicon, W stretch'd unto the fields of hinds unknown. Which issues from a small spring, is but shallow, Again, this people could not brook calm peace ; And creeps along the vales, dividing just The freedom without war might not suffice: The bounds of Italy from Cisalpine France. Quarrels were rife; greedy desire, still poor,

• il nod) i. e. makc it nod.

to full) i. e. to make it fall.

• vile) Old ed. " vild." See note 1, p. 68.

the Field of Mars) i e. the Campus Martius. fearful] "trepidantis."

the camp,


But now the winter's wrath, and watery moon Or sea far from the land, so all were whist.
Being three days old, enforc'd the flood to swell, Now light bad quite dissolv'd the misty night,
And frozen Alps thaw'd with resolving winds. And Cæsar's mind unsettled musing stood;
The thunder-hoof'd horse,* in a crooked line, But gods and fortune prick'd him to this war,
To scape the violence of the stream, first waded; Infringing all excuse of modest shame,
Which being broke, the foot had easy passage. And labouring to approve * his quarrel good.
As soon as Cæsar got unto the bank

The angry senate, urging Gracchus' + deeds, And bounds of Italy, “Here, here," saith he, From doubtful Rome wrongly expellid the tri“An end of peace ; here end polluted laws !

bunes Hence, leagues and covenants ! Fortune, thee I That cross'd them: both which now approach'd

follow ! War and the Destinies shall try my cause." And with them Curio, sometime tribune too, This said, the restless general through the dark, One that was fee'd for Cæsar, and whose tongue Swifter than bullets thrown from Spanish slings, Could tune the people to the nobles' mind. Or darts which Parthians backward shoot, march'd “ Cæsar,” said be, I “while eloquence prevail'd, on ;

And I might plead, and draw the commons' And then, when Lucifer did shine alone,

minds And some dim stars, he Ariminum enter'd. To favour thee, against the senate's will, Day rose, and view'd these tumults of the war: Five years I lengthen'd thy command in France; Whether the gods or blustering south were cause But law being put to silence by the wars, I know not, but the cloudy air did frown. We, from our houses driven, most willingly The soldiers having won the market-place, Suffer'd exile : let thy sword bring us home.s There spread the colours, with confusèd noise Now, while their part is weak and fears, march Of tru pets' clang, shrill cornets, whistling fifes.

hence : The people started; young men left their beds, Where men are ready, lingering ever hurts. And snatch'd arms near their household-gods In ten years wonn'st thou France : Rome may be

hung up, Such as peace yields; worm-eaten leathern tar With far less toil, and yet the honour's more; gets,

Few battles fought with prosperous success Through which the wood peer'd, headless darts, May bring her down, and with her all the world. old swords

Nor shalt thou triumph when thou com'st to With ugly teeth of black rust foully scarr'd.

Rome, But seeing white eagles, and Rome's flags well Nor Capitol be adorn'd with sacred bays; known,

Envy denies all ; with thy blood must thou And lofty Cæsar in the thickest throng,

Aby thy conquest past : || the son decrees They shook for fear, and cold benumb'd their To expel the father : share the world thou canst limbs,

not; And muttering much, thus to themselves com Enjoy it all thou mayst." Thus Curio spake; plain'd :

And therewith Cæsar, prone enough to wur, “O walls unfortunate, too near to France ! Was so incens'd as are Eleus' steeds Predestinate to ruin ! all lands else Have stable peace : here war's rage first begins ;

* approve) i. e. prove.

+ Gracchus') should be "Gracchi's." We bide the first brunt. Safer might we dwell

* "Casar," said he, &c.) Here, though this translation Under the frosty bear, or parching east,

professes to be “line for lino," there is nothing which Waggons or tents, than in this frontier town. answers to,

“Utque ducem varias volventem pectore curas We first sustain'd the uproars of the Gauls

Conspexit." And furious Cimbrians, and of Carthage Moors: § let thy sword bring us home] Marlowe's copy of Lucan As oft as Rome was sack’d, here gan the spoil." had "tua nos faciat victoria cives." Thus sighing whisper'd they, and none durst


Bith thy blood must thon

Aby thy conquest past] A very violent way of renderspeak,

ingAnd show their fear or grief: but as the fields

gentesque subastas When birds are silent thorough winter's rage,

Vix inpune feres." | Bleus' steeds) Old ed. "Eleius steedes, "-Is it possible

that Marlowe could have taken the adjective " Blous" * The thunder-hoof'd horse) "Sonipes."

(Bleus sonipes,”-the Blean stoed) for a substantivet

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with us;

With clamours, who, though lock'd and chain's Speak, when shall this thy long-usurp'd power in stalls,*

end ? Souse down the walls, and make a passage forth. What end of mischief? Sylla teaching thee, Straight summon'd he his several companies At last learn, wretch, to leave thy monarchy! Cnto the standard : his grave look appeas'd What, now Sicilian * pirates are suppress'd, The wrestling tumult, and right hand made | And jaded king + of Pontus poison'd slain, silence;

Must Pompey as his last foe plume on me, And thus he spake: “You that with me have Because at his command I wound not up borne

My conquering eagles ? say I merit naught, I A thousand brunts, and tried me full ten years, Yet, for long service done, reward these men, See how they quit t our bloodshed in the north, And so they triumph, be't with whom ye will. Our friends' death, and our wouuds, our wintering Whither now shall these old bloodless souls Under the Alps ! Rome rageth now in arms

repair ? As if the Carthage Hannibal were near;

What seats for their deserts ? what store of Cornets of horse are muster'd for the field;

ground Woods turn'd to ships; both land and sea For servitors to till? what colonies against us.

To rest their bones? say, Pompey, are these Had foreign wars ill-thriv'd, or wrathful France Pursu'd us hither, how were we bested,

Than pirates of Sicilia ? they had houses. When, coming conqueror, Rome afflicts me thus ? Spread, spread these flags that ten years' space Let come their leader I whom long peace bath have conquer'd! quaild,

Let's use our tried force : they that now thwart Raw soldiers lately press'd, and troops of gowns, right, Babbling $ Marcellus, Cato whom fools reverence ! In wars will yield to wrong:ll the gods are Must Pompey's followers, with strangers' aid (Whom from his youth he brib'd), needs make Neither spoil nor kingdom seek we by these arms, himn king?

But Rome, at tbraldom's feet, to rid from tyrants." And shall be triumph long before his time, This spoke, none answer'd, but a murmuring And, having once got head, still shall he reign!

buzz What should I talk of men's corn reap'd by force, Th’unstable people made : their household-gods And by himn kept of purpose for a dearth ? And love to Rome (though slaughter steeld their Who does not war sit by the quivering judge,

hearts, And sentence given in rings of naked swords, And minds were prone) restrain'd them; but And laws assail'd, and arı'd men in the senate ?

war's love *Twas his troop hemm'd in Milo being accus'd; And Cæsar's awe dash'd all. Then Lælius, 1 And now, lest age might wane his state, he casts The chief centurion, crown'd with oaken leaves For civil war, wherein through use he's known For saving of a Roman citizen, To exceed bis master, that arch-traitor Sylla. Stepp'd forth, and cried; “Chief leader of Rome's Ax | brood of barbarous tigers, having lapp'd

The blood of many a herd, whilst with their So be I may be bold to speak a truth,

We grieve at this thy patience and delay.
They kennelld in Hyrcania, evermore
Will rage and prey; 80, Pompey, thou, having

Sicilian) Should be "Cilician."

jaded king) “lassi . . . regis."-Old ed. has, amus. Warm gore from Sylla's sword, art yet athirst :

ingly enough, “And Jaded, king of Pontus," &c. The

monarch in question is, of course, Mithridates. Jars flesh'd with blood continue murderous.

say I merit naught] Unless we understand this in the sense of—say I receive no reward (-and in Fletcher's

Woman-Hater, “merit" moans--derive profit, B and F's. Chomp lock'd and chaind in stalls, &c.) Wrongly

Works, i. 91, ed. Dyce, -, it is a wrong translation of translatod:-* quamvis jam carcere clauso," &c.

"mihi si merces erepta laborum est." i que le requite.

$ Sicilia) Should be "Cilicia." I leder) Old ed. "leaders."

they that now thwart right, & Baoxing) Old ed.“ Brabbling."_"Marcellusque lo.

In wars will yield to wrong) Is intended to express,

"arma tenenti Al Old ed "A."

Omnia dat, qui justa nogat.“ ) Old od. "flesh."

Lælius) Old ed. "Lalius."

What, doubt'st thou us? even now when youthful | Under the rocks by crookèd Vogesus;

And many came from shallow Isara,
Pricks forth our lively bodies, and strong arms Who, running long, falls in a greater flood,
Can mainly throw the dart, wilt thou endure And, ere he sees the sea, loseth his name;
These purple grooms, that senate's tyrandy? The yellow Ruthens * left their garrisons ;
Is conquest got by civil war so heinous ?

Mild Atax glad it bears not Roman boats, t
Well, lead us, then, to Syrtes' desert shore, And frontier Varus that the camp is far,
Or Scythia, or hot Libya's thirsty sands.

Sent aid ; so did Alcides' port, whose sens
This band, that all behind us might be quail'd, Eat hollow rocks and where the north-west wind
Hath with thee pass’d the swelling ocean, Nor zephyr rules not, but the north alone
And swept the foaming breast of Arctic Rhene.* Turmoils the coast, and enterance forbids;
Love over-rules my will ; I must obey thee, And others came from that uncertain shore
Cæsar: he whom I hear thy trumpets charge, Which is nor sea nor land, but oftimes both,
I hold no Roman; by these ten blest ensigns And changeth as the ocean ebbs and flows;
And all thy several triumphs, shouldst thou bid Whether the sea roll'd always from that point

Whence the wind blows, still forced to and fro; Entomb my sword within my brother's bowels, Or that the wandering main follow the moon; Or father's throat, or groaning woman's womb,+ Or flaming Titan, feeding on the deep, This hand, albeit unwilling, should perform it; Pulls them aloft, and makes the surge kiss hearea; Or rob the gods, or sacred temples fire,

Philosophers, look you; for unto me, These troops should soon pull down the church Thou cause, whate'er thou be, whom God asa zis of Jove; I

This great effect, art bid.I They came tbs: If to encamp on Tuscan Tiber's streams,

dwell I'll boldly quarter out the fields of Rome; By Nemes' fields and banks of Satirus, What walls thou wilt be levell’d with the ground, Where Tarbell's winding shores embrace the sea; These hands shall thrust the ram, and make them The Santons that rejoice in Cæsar's love ; || fly,

Those of Bituriges, I and light Axon “ pikes; Albeit the city thou wouldst have so raz'd And they of Rhenett and Leuca, ti cunnig Be Rome itself.” Here every band applauded,

darters, And, with their hands held up, all jointly cried

And Sequana that well could manage steeds; They'll follow where he please. The shouts rent The Belgians apt to govern British cars; heaven,

Th' Averni $$, too, which boldly feign themselves As when against pine-bearing Ossa's rocks

The Romans' brethren, sprung of Ilian race ; Beats Thracian Boreas, or when trees bow $

The stubborn Nervians stain'd witb Cotta's down

blood; And rustling swing up as the wind fets || breath. When Cæsar saw his army prone to war,

Lucan had “Lingones," and was perhaps faulty in otber And Fates so bent, lest sloth and long delay

respects. The right reading is,

Castraque, quæ Vogesi curvam super ardua rupem,
Might cross him, he withdraw his troops from

Pugnaces pictis cohibebant Lingonas armis."

* Ruthens) “Ruteni." And in all quarters musters men for Rome.

+ boats] Old ed. “ bloats."

art hid] Marlowe's copy of Lucan had "lates" (inThey by Lemannus' nook forsook their tents;

stead of "late"). They whom the Lingones | foild with painted § Satirus] Marlowe's copy of Lucan had "Satiri* (inspears,

stead of “Aturi ").

|| The Santons that rejoice in Cæsar's love) Marlowe stems to have read here, very ridiculously, "gaudetque custa

(instead of "amoto ") Santonus boste." * Arctic Rhene) Old ed. "Articks Rhene."-Rhene, i.e. | Bituriges) Here, oddly enough, we have the name of Rhine.

the people put for that of their country, t or groaning woman's womb] Old ed. "or womens ** Aron) Marlowe's copy of Lucan bad " Axones (ingroning wombe":—"plenæque in viscera partu conjugis." stead of “Suessones"). * of Jove) No;- of Juno. " Numina miscebit castren

Rhene] Marlowe's copy of Lucan hsd " Racewque* sis flamma Monetae."

(instead of " Rhemusque"). & bow old ed. "bowde."-Here our translator has 1: Leuca] A place of Marlowe's own inrention. (The made two similes out of one.

original has “Leucus".) Il fets) i. e. fetches.

$$ Averni] Was the reading in Marlowe's copy of Loone They whom the Lingones, &c.) Here Marlowe's copy of (instead of "Arverni").

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Add Vangions who, like those of Sarmata, * These being come, their huge power made him Wear open slops ; † and fierce Batavians,

bold Whom trumpet's clang incites; and those that To manage greater deeds; the bordering towns dwell

He garrison'd; and Italy he fill'd with soldiers. By Cinga's stream, and where swift Rhodanus Vain fame increas'd true fear, and did invade Driver Araris to sea; they near the hills, The people's minds, and laid before their eyes Under whose hoary rocks Gebenna hangs; Slaughter to come, and, swiftly bringing news And, Trevier, thou being glad that wars are past of present war, made many lies and tales : thee;

One swears his troops of daring horsemen fought And you, late-shorn Ligurians, who were wont Upon Mevania's plain, where bulls are graz'd; lo large-spread hair to exceed the rest of France; Other that Cæsar's barbarous bands were spread And where to Hesus and fell Mercury I

Along Nar flood that into Tiber falls, They offer human flesh, and where Jove seems

And that his own ten ensigns and the rest Bloody like Dian, whom the Scythians serve.

March'd not entirely, and yet hid * the ground; And you, French Bardi, whose immortal pens

And that he's much chang’d, looking wild and Renown the valiant souls slain in your wars, Sit safe at home and chant sweet poesy.

And far more barbarous than the French, his And, Druides, you now in peace renew

vassals ; Your barbarous customs and sinister rites : And that he lags + behind with them, of purpose, in unfelld woods and sacred groves you dwell ;

Born 'twixt the Alps and Rhene, which he hath And only gods and heavenly powers you know,

brought Or only know you nothing; for you hold

From out their northern I parts, and trat Roine, That souls pass not to silent Erebus

He looking on, by these men sbould be sack'd. Or Pluto's bloodless kingdom, but elsewhere Thus in his fright did each man strengthen fame, Resume a body ; 80 (if truth you sing)

And, without ground, fear'd what themselves Death brings long life. Doubtless these northern

had feign'd. men,

Nor were the commons only struck to heart Whom death, the greatest of all fears, affrights With this vain terror; but the court, the senate, not,

The fathers selves leap'd from their seats, and, Are blest by such sweet error; this makes them flying, Ran on the sword's point, and desire to die, Left hateful war decreed to both the consuls. And shame to spare life which being lost is won. Then, with their fear and danger all-distract, You likewise that repuls’d the Cayc foe,

Their sway of flight carries the heady rout, $ March towards Rome ; and you, fierce men of That in chain'd troops break forth at every port: Rhenell

You would have thought their houses had been Leaving your country open to the spoil.

Or, dropping-ripe, ready to fall with ruin.

So rush'd the inconsiderate multitude
• Sarsato) Used wrongly for Sarmatia.
topou siopa) "laxis ... bracis."

Thorough the city, hurried headlong on,
And where to Hesus and fell Mercury

As if the only hope that did remain
They offer human flesh, and where Jove seems To their afflictions were t' abandon Rome.
Bwody like Dian, &c.) Old ed. ;

Look how, when stormy Auster from the breach ** And where to Filesus, and sell Mercury (Joue)

Of Libyan Syrtes rolls a monstrous wave,
They offer humane flesh, and where it seemes
Bloudy like Dian," &c.

Which makes the main-sail fall with hideous That the printer misunderstood the M8., which gavo

* Jerse * as a correction of "it" in the second line, is evi-
dent from the original;-
" Et quibus inmitis placatur sanguine diro

hid] Old ed. "hide."
Thieutaten, horrensque feris altaribus Esus ; + And that he laga, &c) In this passage, which is
Et Taranis (i. e. Jupiter, so called by the Gauls] wrongly rendered, Marlowe's copy of Lucan had Hunc
Scythicæ non mitior ara Dianxe."

inter Rhenum populos," &c. (instead of "Tunc," &c.). I death .... offright) See note 8, p. 166.

I northern | Even if we proounce this word as a triand you, Merce men of Rhene, &c.] Here Marlowe, by syllable, the line will still halt. mietranslaung

§ Their sway of Right carries the heady rout, &c.) “Rheniqne feroces

quo quemque fugee tulit impetus, unguet Deseritis ripas," &c,

Præcipitem populum; serieque hærentia longa nakes a distinction which the original has not.

Agmina prorumpunt."

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