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which this history was taken to the cruel torture | were decorated with very pretty transparencies. of having hot earthen plates bound to his temples, If you shut your eye for a minute, they seemed and his neck was then twisted by fanatic men to open on fairy land rather than reality. The till his eyes started from their sockets ; they also hushed scene, the stillness of which was only drew several of his teeth. He now said that he broken by the pattering feet of some religious had returned to the Greek faith in consequence maiden approaching the shrine, shawled and mysof the advice of an Englishman; which so ap- terious, even here, had something very quaint peased the Turks, that they offered him a pipe, and fanciful in it. I could have stopped there and wanted to dismiss him. But he soon broke all night watching them as they passed, dropping out again, and asked for the sacrament. He also buttons(substitutes for small coin given in churchasked for some soup. Both were given to him, es) into the salver of a dingy priest, who sat in the Turks offering no opposition to the adminis- the aisle, tablet in hand, to receive orders for tering of the former. When, however, he once masses to be said for the sick or the dead. I liked more began to curse and revile the prophet, some to watch the business manner in which he raised fanatic proposed that he should be shortened by his reverend hand to get the light well upon his having an inch cut from his body every time he tablet, and adjusted his spectacles as he inscribed blasphemed, beginning at his feet. The Cadi shud- each new order from the pilgrims. At last, howdered, and interposed, saying, that such a proceed- ever, he gathered up his buttons and money, tying ing would be contrary to the law ; which provid | them in a bag; and glancing round once more in ed that a renegade should be at once put to death, vain for customers, he went his way into the sacthat the faith of Islam might not be insulted. risty. I followed his waddling figure with my Then the mob got a cord to hang him. Like eyes till the last lock of his long hair, which many other things in Turkey, this cord does not caught in the brocaded curtain, had been disenseem to have been fit for the purpose to which tangled, and he disappeared. Then, as the active it was applied ; and the struggles of the maniac individual in rusty black, whom I have mentioned were so violent that it broke. But they did hang as so busy in the ceremony of the morning, seemhim at last ; thus completing the title to martyr- ed desirous of having a few minutes' conversation dom with which he has come down to us. For with me, I indulged him. It was not difficult to three days his hanging body offended the daylight, perceive, from the tenor of his discourse, that he and the simple country folk cut off bits of his was desirous of receiving some token of my clothes for relics. After a while he was carried esteem in small change. It cost little to gratify away and buried with a great fuss ; the Turks him; and then, as the church was quite deserted, having too profound a contempt for the Greeks we marched off together. to interfere with their doings in any way. Then, after a while, application was made to the Patri- A NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERMAN. arch of Constantinople to canonize the mad house-ISOME twelve years ago, a desolate, dread, and painter ; and canonized he was. His body was ominously-named locality in Newfoundland disinterred, and mummified with great care. It is had, among its other occupants, George Harvey, wrapped up in cotton, and the head is inclosed in a worthy of sixty years' standing, born and bred a silver case. Both are shown to the devout on on the spot, who may still be one of its living the anniversary of his martyrdom. The cotton tenants, as he was then a hale and hearty man. sells well, for it is said to have worked many The particular site to which we refer is toward miracles, and to be especially beneficial in cases the south-west extremity, between the settlement of epilepsy.
of La Poile and Cape Ray, where there is a clusThe anniversary of the Martyrdom of St. The- ter of small, low, rocky islets, separated from the odore occurred on the same day as his brother's main land by a narrow channel. They are called funeral. I asked if the reputation of the saint the Dead Islands, Iles aur Morts of the French had any thing to do with the honors paid to his maps, but are portions of the dominions of Queen brother? “Yes," was the answer; "the rela- Victoria. The isles and the main shore are compostives of the saint are naturally anxious to keep ed of mica-slate and gneiss, the latter being interup his reputation, which is like a patent of no sected with enormous granite veins. Their superbility to them. None dare to offer them injury ficial aspect is the most rugged and broken imor wrong, for fear of the martyr's anger." aginable, grooved in every direction by small
For the rest, the festival of St. Theodore was valleys or ravines, and covered with round humas pretty a sight as I would wish to see. mocky knobs and hills with precipitous sides.
His body was enshrined in a neat temple of Mosses, low bushes, and berry-bearing plants green leaves, and was placed in the centre of partially cover the surface; and a few dwarf the church. The pilgrims arrived at dead of night firs appear huddled together in sheltered nooks, to pray there. They were mostly women, and where sufficient soil has been lodged to form seemed earnest enough in what they were about. a support for ihe roots. But the majority of I did not like to see them, however, buying those the isles are bare rocks, frequently in the shape little bits of cotton which lay mouldering round of a low dome, with a tuft of bushes growing the mummy, and putting them into their bosoms. at the summit. Sometimes, when the breeze is
The church was well lighted; for Mitylene is blowing from the east, the fog which pours over an oil country. Innumerable lamps hung sus- the great bank is driven to this neighborhood, pended from the roof every where, and some and adds to its uninviting aspect. The few
inhabitants, along with those thinly distributed distress, and mitigating the calamities of shipon the adjoining main, are chiefly the descend- wreck, than George Harvey. ants of British settlers, occupied with the in- ! He had a large family of sons and daughters, shore fishery. They are located in the coves, in mostly grown up. On one occasion, during a the general proportion of two or three families heavy gale, the brig“ Dispatch," full of emigrants to each.
of the poorer class, struck on a rock about three Formerly, when there were no clergy or ma- miles from his house. Though the sea was rungistrates except at St. John's, they married by ning high, the old man put off in his punt to the signing papers before witnesses, binding each rescue, accompanied by a gallant girl of seventeen party to have the ceremony performed as soon and a brave lad of twelve. By dint of great exas opportunity offered a mode of proceeding ertions, they succeeded in successively bringing equivalent to the Scotch law. They are simple, away the whole of the crew and passengers, honest, industrious, and hospitable—the virtues amounting to one hundred and sixty-three perof almost all hardy races exposed to the toils sons. This was as heroic an action as that which and dangers of an adventurous life-intensely excited such general admiration in England, when eager after news, and placing a high value upon Grace Darling adventured on the stormy deep, trilling articles of intelligence, like most people with her father, off the coast of Northumberland. in secluded positions.
Harvey hospitably entertained the shipwrecked The melancholy name of the Dead Islands is emigrants according to his means, and shared his supposed to be derived from the number and fa- provisions with them, till tidings could be sent to tality of shipwrecks in the neighborhood. George La Poile, and a vessel arrived to carry them away. Harvey was accustomed to relate, among other they remained more than a fortnight, and so incidents of his life, that he had been employed completely exhausted his stores, that the family for five days, along with some others, in digging had neither bread, flour, nor tea through the whole graves and interring dead bodies cast ashore on winter, but subsisted chiefly on salt fish. Sir T. one of these sad occasions. Two vast and differ- Cochrane, then governor of the island, on hearing ently tempered sea-streams blend their waters on of his conduct, properly rewarded him with a the great bank and its vicinity—a polar current hundred pounds, and an honorary medal. A few from the cold regions of the arctic zone, and the years afterward, the ship “Rankin," of Glasgow, gulf-stream from the warm latitudes of the tropics. struck on a rock, and went to pieces, the crew It is to the meeting of these currents, charged hanging on to an iron bar or rail that went round with such different temperatures, that the fogs are the poop, when he fetched them off by six or chiefly due, while the numerous and powerful eight at a time to the number of twenty-five, eddies caused by their junction render the navj- braving a heavy sea in his punt. gation perplexing and somewhat perilous. The Harvey's knowledge of the animal kingdom danger is increased by the boundaries of the cur- was somewhat singular. He was intimately acrents being indefinite. They advance further quainted with the inhabitants of the waters, from north and south at one time than another; and the huge finned whale to the beautiful litile capeof course the minor streams dependent upon them lin. He knew well enough the black bear, gray vary in power and extent, according to circum- wolf, and splendid caribou ; and was familiar with stances. Hence, along a coast unguarded by the osprey, ptarmigan, eider duck, and great northlighthouses, in dense fogs, or when a driving gale ern diver. But frogs, toads, snakes, and other has been blowing by night, the mariner has often reptiles he had never seen, there being none in found himself ashore, while thinking of ample the island, though no legend is current there how sea-room. Evidence of such casualties being fre-St. Patrick “banished all the varmint.” One of quent was in former days to be found in connec- the commonest domesticated quadrupeds also in tion with almost every dwelling, in the shape of the empire was equally unknown, except by reold rigging, spars, masts, sails, ships' bells, rud- port, till on a visit to some settlement in Fortune ders, wheels, and other articles on the outside of Bay, he for the first time encountered a horse ! the houses, with telescopes, compasses, and por- | His emotions at the sight were akin to those of tions of incongruous furniture in the interior. At the Mexicans on beholding the steeds of the Spanthat period, there was obviously no nice observ- ish invaders. The people wished, he said, to perance of the distinction between thine and mine. suade him into mounting on its back, but “he Infractions of the rights of property were com- knew better than that," though one fellow did mon on the occurrence of disasters by sea and ride it up and down several times. It was a feat fires on land, the parties loosely reasoning that too daring for the bold fisherman, who would the goods they appropriated to themselves were sooner have mounted in his boat the stormiest much better disposed of than by being left for billow that ever rolled. His description of the the flames to consume or the billows to devour. size and appearance of the wonderful creature In some cases, this reasoning was legitimate, as highly interested his family on his return. Mr. when a vessel, deserted by the crew, came ashore, Curzon has recently told the story of a Levantine and neither her name nor that of the owners could monk who had never seen a woman--a relation be ascertained. Public sentiment and feeling have strange, but true. Yet, had we not the fact on improved upon this point in Newfoundland, as equally respectable authority—that of Mr. Jukes elsewhere, and few persons have more nobly dis--it would seem incredible, that only a few years tinguished themselves in helping the stranger in ago, there were subjects of Queen Victoria, of
British descent, speaking the English language, dreds, which are swept oil, perhaps, by the next in the oldest of our colonies, to whom the horse billow, or fall an easy prey to the women and was a strange animal.
children, who stand ready with buckets and We have said that Harvey was a fisherman ; barrows to seize upon the precious and plentiful and fishing, or some process connected with it, is booty. On a fine moonlight night, the appearthe occupation of almost every man, woman, and ance of a secluded cove, or broader expanse, is child in the country. Out of St. John's, either often very remarkable, and even splendid. fish, or some sign of the finny tribe, visible or There are whales rising and plunging, throv ing odoriferous, is met with wherever there is a pop-up spouts of water ; cod-fish flirting their tails ulation. At a distance from the capital, in the above the waves, reflecting the light of the moon small settlements, the fishermen live in unpaint from their silvery surface; and legions of capeed wooden cottages, scattered in the coves, now lin hurrying away to seek a refuge from the perched upon rocks or hidden in nooks, the neigh- monsters of the deep. Toward the beginning borhood showing small patches of cultivated gar- of August, the capelin leave the shores, and are den ground, and copses of stunted wood. Each succeeded by the small scuttle-fish, which are cabin has its fish-flake, a kind of rude platform, followed in September by the autumnal, or “ fall elevated on poles ten or twelve feet high, covered herrings," the last shoal, when the summer fishwith a matting of sticks and boughs, on which ery closes. On some parts of the shores, where the fish are laid out to dry. At a convenient the water is shallow, seines and other kinds of point on the shore is a stage, much more strong nets are employed in the capture of the cod; or ly constructed, jutting out over the water. It when the fish are so gorged that they refuse all forms a small pier, made in front to serve the baits, jigging is resorted to. A plummet of lead, purpose of a ladder, at which a landing frequent- armed with hooks, is let down, and moved ly is alone possible on the steep and iron-bound rapidly to and fro, by which the fish are caught. coast. On returning from the fishing-ground, But, notwithstanding every way, hooking, netthe boat is brought to the stage with the cargo, ting, and jigging, and the enormous annual desand, striking a prong in the head of each fish, truction, the seas swarm with undiminished multhey are thrown upon it one by one, in much the titudes of cod-fish every recurring season. This same manner as hay is pitched into a cart. The is not surprising, when Leewenhoek counted operations of cutting.open, taking out the entrails, 9,384,000 in the spawn of a single individual preserving the liver for oil, removing the back of medium size, a number that will defy all the bone, and salting, are immediately performed efforts of man to exterminate. upon the stage, in which the younger branches The island has not only its fishermen, but fishof the family are employed, males or females, asing dogs ; at least Harvey had one of this class, the case may be. The drying on the flakes is who had not been taught the craft, but took to it the last process. It is the in-shore fishery that of his own accord, and followed it apparently for is prosecuted by the British, not extending gen- amusement. The animal was not of the breed erally more than a mile or two from the harbors, distinguished as the Newfoundland dog, so celethat of the Great Bank being abandoned to the brated for beauty, sagacity, and fidelity ; but one Yankees and French.
of the short-haired, sharp-nosed Labrador race, The seas swarm with almost every variety of the most abundant dogs in the country, not handfish in its season. There are incredible shoals some, but intelligent and useful. When not of lance, a small, elongated, silvery, eel-like wanted for the service of his master or the famcreature; vast armies of migratory herrings ; | ily, the dog would take his station on a projectand hosts of capelin, slight and elegantly-ing point of rock, and attentively watch the water, shaped, with a greenish back, silvery under- where it might be from six to eight feet deep, the neath the body, and some scales of a reddish bottom being white with fish bones. Upon a fish tinge. These are the small fry, They serve as appearing, easily discovered over the whitened food for the omnivorous cod, and are followed by ground, it was immediately “set” by the dog, their rapacious enemy with gaping mouth and who waited for the favorable opportunity to make helter-skelter movement, through all the sinuos- a plunge. This was upon the fish turning its ities of the coast. The cod, the great object broadside toward him, when down he went like a of attraction to the fishermen, is just as actively dart, and seldom returned without the struggling pursued by his human foes. Early in May, the prey in his mouth. The animal regularly conwork of preparation commences, laying in pro- veyed his capture to a particular spot selected visions, arranging hooks, lines, nets, and the by himself, and on a summer day would raise rigging of boats. Between the middle and close a fish-stack at the place, consisting of fifty or of the month, the spring herrings, or the first sixty individuals a foot long. To pass from shoal, arrive, and are caught in nets to be used fishermen, fish, and dogs to steamers is an abfor bait. About the middle of June, the capelin rupt transition. But it may be mentioned as come in, crowding to the shores in countless of importance in Newfoundland history, that in myriads to spawn, They remain about a month, 1497, the first ship, “ Caboto," visited its waand, being the favourite food of the cod, the ters; in 1536, the abundance of cod was disfishery is now at its height. In such numbers covered ; and in 1840, the first steam-vessel are they, that wherever there is a strip of beach, reached the shore. This was H.M.S. “Spitfire," every rolling wave strews the sand with hun- which entered the harbor of St. John's, to land a few troops from Halifax. Great was the as- | order myself, as I did when I received the comtonishment and admiration of those who had mands of the gentleman who ordered this very never been out of the island. Some boatmen off parure, I think, last February ;” and, with the the Narrows were so completely bewildered by greatest unconcern, he proceeded to search his the spectacle, that they were nearly run down by ledger, to ascertain which of the workmen exethe huge novel craft.
cuted it, and what the date of its delivery.
Not only, however, is domestic deception carIMITATION PEARLS AND DIAMONDS. ried on by means of M. Bourguignon's artistic ONE of the most curious sights in Paris, or in-skill, but he has often been called upon to lend U deed in the whole world, is afforded by a visit his aid to diplomatic craft likewise. Numberless to the vast atelier of M. Bourguignon, situated at are the snuff-boxes, “ adorned with valuable diathe Barrière du Trone, where the whole process monds,” which issue from his atelier in secret as of transforming a few grains of dirty, heavy-look the reward of public service, or skillful negotiaing sand into a diamond of the purest water, is tion; innumerable portraits, " set in brilliants," daily going on, with the avowed purpose of de- which have been mounted there, to gladden the ceiving every body but the buyer. The sand em- hearts of chargés d'affaires, attachés, and viceployed, and upon which every thing depends, is consuls. The great Mchemet Ali, like all great found in the forests of Fontainebleau, and enjoys men who, when they commit little actions, always so great a reputation in the trade, that large do so on a great scale, may be said to be the first quantities are exported. The coloring matter for who ever introduced the bright delusions of M. imitating emeralds, rubies and sapphires, is en- Bourguignon to the unconscious acquaintance of tirely mineral, and has been brought to high per | the children of that prophet, “who suffered no fection by M. Bourguignon. He maintains in deceivers to live." constant employment about a hundred workmen, The wily old Mussulman, who knew the world besides a number of women and young girls, too well not to be conscious of the value of an whose business it is to polish the colored stones, appearance of profusion on certain occasions, had and line the false pearls with fish-scales and wax. announced that every pasha who came to the The scales of the roach and dace are chiefly em- seat of government, to swear allegiance to his ployed for this purpose, and form a considerable power, would return to his province laden with source of profit to the fishermen of the Seine, in presents of jewels for his wives. It may readily the environs of Corbeil, who bring them to Paris be imagined that, under such conditions, the duty in large quantities during the season. They must became a pleasure, and that there needed no seca be stripped from the fish while living, or the ond bidding. Meanwhile, Mehemet, with charglistening hue which we admire so much in the acteristio caution, had dispatched an order to his real pearl can not be imitated. It is, however, to envoy, then sojourning in Paris, to send him the "cultivation" of the diamond that M. Bour- forthwith as many of the diabolical deceptions of guignon has devoted the whole of his ingenuity; the lying Franks, in the way of mock diamonds, and were he to detail the mysteries of his craft, as he could collect. Bourguignon undertook to some of the most singular histories of “ family furnish the order, which was executed in due diamonds” and “heir-looms" would be brought to course, and duly appropriated, no doubt, causing light. A few months ago a lady entered his shop, many a Mashallah! of delight to fall from the looking rather flushed and excited, and drawing lips of the harem beauties of Egypt, and many from her muff a number of morocco cases of many an Allah Hu! of loyalty from those of their husshapes and sizes, opened them one after another, bands, at sight of so much generosity. and spread them out on the counter. “I wish to A visit to Bourguignon's shop will inspire the learn the price of a parure to be made in exact mind with wonder to behold the perfection with imitation of this," she said ; “that is to say, if which art can be made to imitate the most exyou can imitate the workmanship with sufficient quisite productions of nature. The lustre of the precision for the distinction never to be observed." diamond: the richness, the double reflection of Bourguignon examined the articles attentively, the ruby, even the caprice and deviation in the named his price, and gave the most unequivocal form and color of the pearl, escape not the cunpromise that the parure should be an exact coun- ning eye of the artist. Some of the parures are terpart of the one before him. The lady insisted valued as high as five or six thousand francs. again. She was urgent overmuch, as is the case The workmanship, however, is as tasteful and with the fair sex in general. Was he sure the costly as any produced by the first jewelers in imitation would be perfect? Had he observed the world. The setting is always of real gold, the beauty and purity of these stones? Could he and the fashion of the newest kind. A tiara imitate the peculiar manner in which they were from the shop of Bourguignon, of the price of cut, &c. “Soyez tranquille, madame," replied | six hundred francs, will rival in effect and deliBourguignon, " the same workman shall have the cacy of finish its neighbor which may have cost job, and you may rely upon an exact counterpart twenty times as much ; none can tell the differof his former work." The lady opened her eyes ence but those who have been allowed to handle in astonishment and trepidation, and M. Bour-it, and breathe upon it, and touch it with the guignon, with unconscious serenity, added, by tongue, and apply an acid to it, in order to see way of reassuring her : “I will attend to the whether or no it becomes tarnished.
VOL. IX.-No. 49.-H
THE UNITED STATES.
| amples to be followed. A debate followed the SEVERAL topics of considerable public import- receipt of the Message, in which its positions were D ance have been discussed in Congress during sustained by the Democratic Senators, and opposed the past month, but no decisive action has been by the Whigs. Mr. Gwin, on the 4th, moved to taken upon any. The controversy on the Nebraska take up the Pacific Railroad Bill-saying that he Bill, and the issues connected with it, has to some should consider the vote on that proposition deciextent disorganized both the great political parties, sive of the fate of the bill at the present session. and seriously interfered with practical legislation. | The Senate refused to take it up, by a vote of 23 The most important measure of the Senate has to 20.- On the 1st, Senator Slidell introduced been the ratification of the treaty negotiated with a resolution authorizing the President to suspend Mexico by General Gadsden, though this was not the operation of our neutrality laws so far as Spain effected until the treaty had undergone some very is concerned, whenever, in his judgment, such a important modifications. The extent of territory measure should be expedient. He supported the to be acquired was reduced one half, the portion resolution in an extended speech, in which he cited purchased including a route for a railroad to the various facts to prove that the Spanish government, Pacific. The sum to be paid to Mexico is reduced acting under the advice and protection of England from twenty to ten millions of dollars, and the and France, was taking steps to abolish slavery in eleventh article of the treaty of Guadalupe, by the island of Cuba-a measure which, in his judgwhich the United States agreed to protect Mexico ment, would be so hostile to the interests of the from the incursions of the Indians on her frontiers, United States that it ought to be forbidden and is abrogated. The treaty does not embrace any prevented by our government. The repeal of our stipulation for the satisfaction of American claims, neutrality laws, he thought, would compel Spain but it recognizes, and to some extent protects, the to desist from the policy on which she has entered. grant for a railroad route across the Isthmus of Te- He urged the proposition, also, on the ground that huantepec. These modifications in the treaty must it would aid in the emancipation of Cuba, and her of course be submitted to the Mexican government ultimate annexation to the United States. The for its approval. On the 2d of May a Message resolution was referred to the Committee on For was received in the Senate from the President, giv-eign Relations. The movement of Mr. Slidell exing at length his reasons for withholding his signa- cited a good deal of interest throughout the country; ture from a bill which had passed both branches of especially as rumors at the same time, received Congress, appropriating ten million acres of public from Madrid through the British press, attributed land to the several States, for the relief of the in- to Mr. Soulé, our Minister in Spain, very perempdigent insane within their limits. The President tory demands on the Spanish government for reobjects that the Constitution does not confer upon dress for injuries sustained by American interests the General Government any power to make such at Havana. These rumors, however, all lack conappropriations, and ihat its assumption would be a firmation. very dangerous procedent, and would lead to the com- | In the House of Representatives the Nebraska plete reversal of the true theory of the government, Bill has been the principal topic of discussion, alwhica regards the Union as merely the creature of though debate upon it has been mainly incidental, the several States. He fears, moreover, that if and while other subjects were before the House. Congress were thus to assume the offices of charity On the 25th of April, Mr. Benton spoke against it, which properly belong to local authorities, the sev. the first part of his speech being a vehement protest eral States, instead of relying on their own resources against the practice of citing the opinions of the for such objects, would become suppliants for the President with a view to influence legislation, bounty of the Federal Government, and that the which, he said, was unconstitutional, inasmuch as fountains of charity would thus be dried up at home. there was only one way in which the President The faith of the government is pledged also, by the can properly communicate his opinions to Congress; acceptance of that portion of these lands ceded by namely, by message. Col. Benton also denounced the older States, to dispose of them exclusively for the newspapers employed to do the public printing, the common benefit of all the States; and by the act for assuming to dictate to Congress; and proceeded of 1847 they are still further pledged for the pay- to resist the proposition to repeal the Missouri Comment of certain portions of the public debt. On promise, on the ground that it was one of the three grounds, therefore, both of right and of expediency, great measures by which the Union had been formthe President is opposed to the principle of the ed and its harmony preserved the first being the bill. He refers to the fact that previous donations ordinance of 1787, and the second the Federal Conof land for educational purposes, for the construc-stitution. He said he came into public life on the tion of railroads, etc., will probably be cited as Missouri Compromise, and he intended always to precedents to justify the appropriation proposed in stand upon it, even if he should stand alone. It this instance. But in these cases, he says, the partook of the nature of a contract, and could not government merely acted as a wise proprietor, and be repealed now without a violation of good faith. gave away part of its lands in order to enhance the It had given peace and harmony to the country, value of the rest. The only cases in the history of and its repeal would inevitably involve us in usethe country which can be properly cited as prece- less and mischievous agitations. Not a petition dents, are an act passed in 1819, granting a town for its repeal had come into Congress from any ship of land to the Connecticut Asylum for the ed quarter. The Slave States had nothing to gain by ucation of the Deaf and Dumb, and another passed | passing it; the pretense that it was necessary in in 1826, making a similar grant for a similar purpose order to carry out the principle of non-intervention, in Kentucky. Both these cases he is inclined to was utterly fallacious; and on every account the bill .consider warnings to be shunned, rather than ex- ought not to pass. On the 7th of May, a motion