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was made to lay aside all other public business be- Hon. J. J. Crittenden appeared as a volunteer for fore the House, in order to take up the Nebraska Ward. The defense was that Butler struck Ward Bill, which had been referred to the Committee of first, and that the latter shot him under that provothe Whole. This proposition was considered as a cation, if not in self-defense. Ward was acquitted test of the opinions of the House in regard to the not only of murder, but also of manslaughter. Pubbill. The result was, that it was carried by a vote (lic demonstrations have taken place in various parts of 109 to 88; and at the time of closing this Record of the State, denouncing the verdict. the bill was under discussion.
From California we have intelligence to the 15th The American Association for the Advancement of April. Some excitement had been occasioned of Science held its sixth annual meeting at Wash- in San Francisco by an attempt on the part of the ington, the session commencing on the 27th of Mexican Consul to enlist an armed force of three April, and lasting five days. A large number of thousand men, mainly Germans and Frenchmen, for interesting and valuable papers were read on a great service in Mexico, to be employed chiefly in supvariety of scientific subjects, some of which were pressing revolutions and repelling aggressions in directly connected with the general interests of the Sonora and Lower California. Some three or four country. Among them were several from Lieut. hundred of the persons enlisted were embarked on Maury and the gentlemen connected with the Coast board a British ship, the Challenge, which was purSurvey. The various exploring expeditions now sued, however, by a U. S. revenue cutter and in progress under the direction of the government | brought back. The Mexican Consul was arrested, were discussed at length, and the results which may and on subsequent examination was indicted for a be expected from them were clearly set forth. The breach of the neutrality laws of the United States. meeting was even more interesting than usual, Captain Watkins, who had returned to San Franand will contribute essentially to direct popular at- cisco after having taken part in Captain Walker's tention to the worth and claims of science. A expedition against Sonora, had also been tried and Southern Convention, composed of delegates from convicted of the same offense, for which he was the several Southern States, met at Charleston, sentenced to pay a fine of fifteen hundred dollars. S.C., on the 11th of April, for the purpose of de Walker's expedition seems to have been effectually vising measures to promote the interests and inde- broken up. At the latest dates it had retreated pendence of the slaveholding section of the Union, from the valley of the Trinidad toward the Colorado, and held a session of a week. Hon. George Daw on their way to Texas through New Mexico, and son, U.S. Senator from Georgia, presided, and Lieut. had been reduced to a total of fifty officers and Maury was placed at the head of a committee to twenty men. The mining news is favorable, and prepare business for the Convention. The project the farming prospects of the State are in the highof a railroad to the Pacific by a Southern route was est degree encouraging. The coming crop of wheat the leading topic of discussion. The Convention alone is estimated at twenty millions of busheis. was unanimous in the opinion that the road ought | Indian difficulties still prevail, especially on the to be built, but was divided on the point whether it Northern frontiers. should be done by the Federal Government or by ! From Oregon, our dates being to the 25th of the Southern States alone. The decision was March, we hear that the admission of Oregon into finally in favor of the latter plan. It is proposed the Union as a State is considerably agitated. A that each of the Southern States shall subscribe to very large amount of wheat has been sown, and the the stock of the road, and that all shall form them- | crops in general promise to yield abundantly. The selves into a body corporate for the purpose of | volcanic mountain of St. Helena is in a state of building it. Resolutions were adopted in favor of eruption. acquiring the right to navigate the river Amazon, of
MEXICO. promoting manufactures in the Southern States, l From Mexico, the only intelligence of interest is and of opening direct commercial intercourse with in regard to a formidable revolt against the Central Europe.
Government, in the southwestern district, led by Public attention has been largely directed to the General Alvarez. The accounts of its progress are result of a trial for murder in Kentucky. The facts vague and unreliable. The strength of the insurof the case, as developed on the trial, were these : gents is not accurately known, nor is it believed to Professor Butler, teacher of a school in Louisville, be very considerable. At the latest dates Santa Kentucky, had chastised one of his pupils, a lad Anna was in the vicinity of Acapulco, with an army fourteen years old, named William Ward, for viola- of about five thousand men, intending to attack the tion of the rules, and for alleged falschood in deny town, which was the head-quarters of the rebeling the offense. The lad's brother, Matt. F. Ward, lion. The port had been blockaded, and one of the the next day went to the school-room, armed with American Pacific steamers, which attempted to two loaded pistols, and accompanied by his brother enter, had been driven away. The object of the Robert, who was armed with a bowie knife, and de. blockade is to prevent supplies reaching the inmanded an explanation from Professor Butler, who surgents. offered to make one, and invited him into his private room. Ward refused to go, saying that was the
GREAT BRITAIN, place to receive it. Butler declined to discuss the 'The Eastern War continues to absorb public atsubject in presence of his pupils, upon which Ward tention. The withdrawal of the Russian embas. denounced him in violent terms as a scoundrel and sadors from London and Paris has been already a coward. It was contended that upon this Butler noted: that event was speedily followed by a formstruck him ; but the only direct evidence to this al Declaration of War. On the 27th of February the fact was that of Robert Ward, who was under in- Earl of Clarendon dispatched a messenger to St. dictment as an accomplice. Matt. Ward drew his Petersburg with a letter declaring that, if the Rus. pistol and shot Butler, who lived till evening. The sian government did not immediately announce its Venue was removed from Louisville to Elizabeth. intention of ordering its troops to recross the Pruth, town, in Hardin County, where the trial was held. so that the provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia In addition to a strong array of retained counsel, should be completely evacuated by the 30th of
April, her refusal or silence would be considered, of Derby followed in a long speech, the main object equivalent to a declaration of war, and the British of which was to show, from the recent correspondgovernment would take its measures accordingly. ence between the two governinents, that Russia The messenger was directed to wait but six days for had not deceived the English government in regard a reply. The note was presented to Count Nessel. to her intentions, and that nothing but the utmost rode on the 17th of March by M. Michele, the Brit. blindness could excuse the English Ministry for ish Consul; and the Count's reply was, that he the course they had taken. It was very evident, had “taken His Majesty's commands with refer- he thought, that the Emperor counted with some ence to Lord Clarendon's note, and the Emperor reason on the friendly disposition of Lord Aberdid not think it becoming to make any reply to it.", deen, and that but for his accession to power those The receipt of this response led to the immediate attempts on the integrity of Turkey would never issue, on the 28th of March, of the Declaration of have been made which had resulted in war. He War. This important document rehearsed rapidly pledged his support to the war, which he hoped the successive steps in the progress of the diffi- | would be conducted with perseverance as well as cuity, conceding at the outset that the Emperor of enthusiasm. Lord Aberdeen retorted the personal Russia had some cause of complaint against the attack of the Earl of Derhy by reminding him that Sultan with regard to the Holy Places, but declar- he himself, when Prime Minister, had been coming that these had been amicably adjusted by the plimented by the only Austrian Minister who had advice of the British Minister, and that the Russian ever been the bitter foe of England, and that he Envoy, Prince Menschikoff, was meantime urging had acknowledged these complimentary expresstill more important demands, concerning the posisions with declarations of gratitude: for his own tion of the Christian subjects of the Sultan, which part, he could say the Emperor of Russia had rehe carefully concealed from the British embassa-ceived no such grateful recognition from him. Lord dor. These demands were rejected, and the Em- Brougham, without entering into any extended disperor of Russia immediately sent large bodies of cussion of the question, expressed his fears that troops to the frontier, and took possession of the the war would not prove to be a short one-and Principalities for the purpose of enforcing compli- said that his principal anxiety related to the southance with them. The object sought was virtual ern and central parts of Europe ; for nothing was control of the nine millions of the Christian sub- to be more dreaded than a war of propagandism, jects of the Sultan; which the Porte could not and nothing was more to be deprecated than an apgrant without yielding to Russia the substantial peal to insurrectionary movements.-In the House sovereignty over his territories. It was therefore of Commons, Lord John Russell moved the Address, refused, and the French and English governments and supported it in a speech briefly sketching the had felt called upon-by regard for an ally, the in-history of the case, and regretting that even the tegrity and independence of whose empire have passage of the Danube by the Russian troops had been recognized as essential to the peace of Eu- not elicited from Austria a declaration of war. Mr. rope, by the sympathies of their people with right | Layard followed, charging upon Lord Aberdeen against wrong, by a desire to avert from their do that he had actually abetted the designs of Russia minions the most injurious consequences, and to by his course from a very early date, and severely save Europe from the preponderance of a Power censuring the action of the Ministry, in not having which had violated the faith of treaties and defied ) more promptly ordered the fleet in the Bosphorus to the opinion of the civilized world—to take up arms the assistance of the Sultan. Mr. Bright denounced or the defense of the Sultan.—The Declaration was the war as utterly unjust and unwise, and ridiculed debated in Parliament at great length on the 31st the pretense that England was to preserve the bal. of March. In the House of Lords, the Earl of arce of power in Europe. If the United States Clarendon contended that the object of the Empe-should remain at peace for seven years longer, they ror of Russia had been to obtain such an ascend would show Europe where the balance of power ency and right of interference in Turkey as would would lie. The whole notion of the European have enabled him at any time to possess himself equilibrium was one of the most false and misof Constantinople; and that this design had been chievous delusions they had inherited from the steadily pursued in the face of the most distinct past. Lord Palmerston defended the policy of the and solemn assurances to the English government | Government, saying it was impossible for any man, that he had no such purpose in view. If he had able to see and capable of drawing a conclusion, to been allowed to carry this design into execution, doubt that there was a settled intention on the part Lord C. thought it would not be too much to say of Russia to overrun and overthrow the Turkish that more than one Western power would have Empire, for the purpose of establishing in the terribeen made to undergo the fate of Poland. It was tory of Turkey the ascendency and domination of not to protect her trade, nor to defend her India Russia; and the reason why the Emperor chose possessions, that England had resolved to go to the present moment for pushing this design, was war. For neither of these objects would she make that he feared that the progress of reform in Tur. the sacrifices she was about to make; but it was key would soon put its accomplishment out of his to maintain her honor, and to sustain the cause of power. The European balance of power, which civilization against barbarism. Russia had already Mr. Bright had declared himself unable to underreduced several of the German powers to a state stand, was simply the doctrine of self-preservation; of virtual dependence upon her, and it became ab. and the only question for England to consider now, solutely necessary to place a check upon her fur- was whether one Power is to bestride the globe from ther aggressions on the independence of Europe. North to South, from the Baltic to the MediterraAustria and Prussia had both resolved to maintain nean—to dictate to Germany, to domineer in the a position of complete neutrality. This would be Mediterranean, to have the whole of the rest of found in the end impossible ; but thus far England Europe at its mercy, to deal with it as it pleases ; had reason to be perfectly satisfied with the course or whether that Power shall be taught that there they had adopted, although she had received no are limits even to the ambition of a Czar. Mr. guarantee as to their ultimate action. The Earl Disraeli followed with an elaborate attempt to
convict the Ministry, from the secret correspond-, for the East, passed through Paris on the 11th of ence, of having connived with the Czar in his April, and were received with imposing demonstraschemes for the partition of Turkey, and to show tions on the part of the French government and that the war had been produced exclusively by one people. A grand review in honor of the Duke took man. Several other members participated in the place on the 12th, in the Champ de Mars. It is debate, at the end of which the Address, respond stated that the amount of the French contingent ing to the Queen's announcement that war had will not be limited to 50,000 ; indeed it is expected been declared, was unanimously voted in both that before the war is over it will exceed 100,000. Houses.
- The Moniteur has published the text of the conThe English government immediately on the vention between France and England, which was proclamation of war, issued a declaration of a good signed by the representatives of the two powers at deal of interest concerning the rights of neutrals. | London on the 10th of April. The two powers In order to render the war as little onerous as pos- agree (1.) To do what depends on them to bring sible to the powers with whom she remained at about the re-establishment of peace between Russia peace, the declaration says England is willing to and Turkey on a solid and durable basis, and to waive, for the present, a part of the belligerent rights guarantee Europe against the return of those laappertaining to her by the law of nations. She mentable complications which have so disturbed could not forego the exercise of her right of seizing the general peace; (2.) To receive into their alliance, articles contraband of war, and of preventing neu. for the sake of co-operating in the proposed object, trals from conveying the enemy's dispatches; and any of the other powers of Europe who may wish she must also maintain the right of a belligerent to to join it; (3.) Not to accept, in any event, any prevent neutrals from breaking any effective block- overtures for peace, nor to enter into any arrangeade sustained by an adequate force. But she would ment with Russia, without having previously dewaive the right of seizing enemy's property laden liberated upon it in common; (4.) They renounce in on board a neutral vessel, unless it be contraband advance any particular advantage to themselves of war; nor would she claim the confiscation of from the events that may result; (5.) They agree to neutral property, not being contraband of war, found supply, according to the necessities of the war, deon board enemy's ships. Being anxious, moreover, termined by a common agreement, land and sea to lessen as much as possible the evils of war, and forces sufficient to meet them, to restrict its operations to the regularly organized forces of the country, it is declared that it is not
THE GERMAN STATES. her present intention to issue letters of marque for The position of Austria and Prussia in reference the commissioning of privateers.
to the Eastern war, continues to be a source of On the 1lth of April, Lord John Russell with. perplexity and anxiety. Both these powers have drew the Reform Bill which he had introduced as a declared their determination to maintain a complete Government measure at the beginning of the session. neutrality. The Prussian Chambers granted perHe acknowledged that the Ministry was pledged to mission to the King to raise a loan required, but not it, and said that his confidence in its justice and until after very positive assurances from the Minispropriety had not been in the least degree shaken ter of War that union with Russia was utterly imby the criticisms to which it had been subjected. possible, and then only upon the adoption of resoBut he said it was evident that the attention of lutions designed to pledge the government to a Parliament and of the country was absorbed by the close co-operation with the other German States, war, and that there was, therefore, no general desire and to efforts for the speedy restoration of peace that this measure should be pressed just at present. on the basis of the Vienna Conference. The leanThe Ministry, moreover, must stake its existence ings of the Prussian Court are supposed to be toon its success, and he did not think the immediate ward Russia; but the sentiment of the Chambers importance of the measure was sufficient to justify and of the people is very decidedly the other way. them in so doing on the eve of a general war. He | It is stated that a private treaty has been negotiated declared himself indifferent to the censures which between Prussia and Austria, intended to pledge the act would elicit from the opposition, but ex- them to a united and concerted action, and likely to hibited and professed deep sensibility to the opin- exert a controlling influence on the action of the ions of the sincere friends and advocates of reform. smaller German States. The Austrian governThe withdrawal of the bill was acquiesced in as ment continues to give assurances to the Western necessary and proper by the House.
Powers which are pronounced satisfactory in Par
liament, and she has recently sent a very large force FRANCE.
to her Eastern frontiers. A good deal of discontent In France, proceedings in regard to the formal is evinced at her failure to regard the crossing of opening of the war have taken place analogous in the Danube by the Russians as a hostile act, and to all respects to those of Great Britain. An Im- resent it as such. The state of siege in Hungary perial message was read to the Chambers on the has been abolished; but the condition of the coun27th of March, announcing that the last resolution try is very far from tranquil. of the Cabinet of St. Petersburg had placed Russia in a state of war with respect to France-a war, it
EASTERN EUROPE. is added, the responsibility of which belonged! On the 12th of April the Russian government wholly and entirely to the Russian government published its counter statement in reply to the EnThe Chambers unanimously pledged the support glish Declaration of War. In the presence of such of France to the war. The same regulations in re declarations and demands as those made to him by gard to the rights of neutrals, and the commission England and France, the Emperor has only to acing of privateers, have been adopted in France as cept the situation assigned to him, reserving to in England, and the action of the two countries is himself to employ all the means which Providence made to harmonize on all points. The Duke of has put in his hands to defend with energy and Cambridge and Lord Raglan, with a large number constancy the honor, independence, and safety, of of subordinate officers in the British army destined his empire. All the imputations which they have made against Russia are declared to rest on no l the internal affairs of Turkey. The Sultan has just foundation whatever. If their honor has been declared that the possessions of the mosques are placed in jeopardy, it has been by their own act; the property of the State, and has deposed the for, from the beginning, they have adopted a sys. Sheik for refusing his assent. This is one of the tem of intimidation, which would naturally fail. most important changes to which the internal policy They made it a point of honor that Russia should of the Ottoman empire has ever been subjected. bend to them; and because she would not consent | The mosques in Turkey form religious corporations. to her own humiliation, they say they are hurt in independent of the State, and exercising over it at their moral dignity. The policy of aggrandizement, times unbounded authority, through the ulemas, or which they attribute to Russia, is refuted by all doctors of the law and the Koran, who are the sole her acts since 1815. None of her neighbors have possessors of the vast wealth belonging to these rehad to complain of an attack. The desire of pos-ligious foundations. Turkish landholders, from gensessing Constantinople has been too solemnly dis- eration to generation, in consequence of the inseavowed for any doubts to be entertained on that curity of property, and other causes, have been in point which do not originate in a distrust which no- the habit of making over the fee-simple of their thing can cure. Events will soon decide whether property to the mosques, reserving to themselves Russia or the Western Powers have struck the only the use of them for life. In this way it is said most fatal blow at the independence of Turkey. that full three-fourths of the soil of Turkey has The Sultan has already renounced, by treaty, the come to be the property of these religious foundadistinguishing privilege of every sovereign power, tions, held by the ulemas, of whom the Sheik is the that of making peace or war at its own free will; head. The confiscation of such a vast amount of and changes in her internal policy have already the property of the Church to the purposes of the been exacted, far greater and far more fatal to her State can not fail to exert a very marked influence independence than any Russia ever desired to se on the internal affairs of the empire. cure. It is for Europe, and not for the Western The extensive insurrections of the Greeks, foPowers alone, to decide whether the general equi- mented undoubtedly by Russian agents, have been librium is menaced by the supposed preponderance so far countenanced by the Greek government as of Russia ; and to consider which weighs heaviest to lead to the rupture of all diplomatic relations beon the freedom of action of states-Russia, left to tween Greece and Turkey. The Turkish Minister herself, or a formidable alliance, the pressure of of Foreign Affairs, in a note dated April 1, to the which alarms every neutrality, and uses by turns Greek Minister, M. Metaxa, sent him his passcaresses or threats to compel them to follow in its ports, and announced that all diplomatic and comwake. The true motive of the war has been avow-mercial relations between the two countries were ed by the British Ministry to be the abatement of at an end. It had been proved, he alleged, inconthe influence of Russia; and it is to defend that testably, that the Greek government had actually influence-not less necessary to the Russian na- tolerated and aided the insurrectionary movements tion than it is essential to the maintenance of the of which complaint was made. The Greck Chamorder and security of the other states--that the bers had previously refused to concede the measEmperor, obliged to embark in war in spite of him-ures demanded by the Sultan, but had positively self, is about to devote all the means of resistance denied all participation in the insurrection. M. which are furnished by the devotion and patriotism Metaxa replied to the Minister's note, appealing to of his people. He closes by denying that the re-ihat Supreme Tribunal whose judgments are unersponsibility of the war rests upon him, and invokes ring, and whose decrees are infallible, to decide the aid of God, who has so often protected Russia whether Greece was justly responsible for the rein the day of trial, to assist him once more in this volts which discontent had provoked in Epirus and formidable struggle.
Thessaly. The British Minister, Lord Stratford The progress of the war thus far has not been de Redcliffe, had issued a circular letter repudiatmarked by any general or decisive engagement. ing all sympathy with the Greek insurrection, and The English fleet in the Baltic, under Admiral declaring the purpose of England and France to Sir Charles Napier, has seized ten Russian mer- sustain the Sultan against all who might threaten chant vessels, and, at the latest dates, was off Goth the peace and safety of his Empire. land. All the Russian ports have been blockaded. From Japan we have intelligence of some interThe Russian forces have crossed the Danube at est concerning the movements of the Russians. several points, and have taken possession of the From accounts that reach us by way of China, it Dobrudscha, the peninsular country inclosed be seems that a Russian fleet, which had been rapidly tween the Danube and the Black Sea. They had augmented during the past year, entered the port also attempted to cross at other points, but were of Nangasaki, and was received with great pomp repulsed. About 50,000 Russian troops were on by the Governor, after the departure of the squadthe Turkish side of the river, and were fortifying ron of Commodore Perry. A letter from the Rusthemselves at various points. The Turks had fall- sian Chancellor was immediately forwarded to Jeden back upon Varna, which was supposed to be do; and it is reported that assurances were remenaced by the Russian movement, and the Enceived in return, that the Emperor had decided glish and French fleet in the Black Sea had also within the coming year to throw the commerce of moved up to its defense. The Russians have also the country open to the whole world, under certain sent a force into Servia. Rumors are abundant restrictions necessary for the interests of Japan. concerning frequent engagements of severity be. | The American squadron had gone to Loo Choo in tween the Russian and Turkish forces, but they January, where Cominodore Perry had purchased are evidently greatly exaggerated accounts of mere a naval depot and erected a fort; an officer and skirmishes.
small garrison had been left in this fort, and the The war with Russia and the alliance with the Commodore had sailed for Jeddo. The report of West, are making themselves very sensibly felt on the death of the Emperor of Japan is confirmed.
THE POSITION OF THE CLERGY among icy to dwell on these secular benefits. Pious people
I the powers of the age, is a topic closely sug- and clergymen, therefore, rejoice when they can get gested by the remarks we ventured to make in a a member of Congress, or an actual or Ex-Governprevious editorial. Would that we could discuss or, or better yet, some old hero of a General it in a manner which its importance demands. One to harangue on such utilities before the annual rething, however, may be safely affirmed. Whatever ligious gatherings. Politicians, too, are very glad may be thought of our strictures or our commenda- of opportunities for such display. It may be a contions, they are certainly from the hands of a friend. venient currency wherewith to buy them votes in We yield to no one, not merely in respect for the some time of political need; or, if it is a want of * clergy, but in an earnest desire to see them occupy charity to suspect them of so poor a motive as this,
the place which alone befits the intrinsic dignity of it enables them, at all events, to occupy a new and their calling and its relation to all that is highest or flattering position, where their political greatness most saving in our humanity.
appears to more striking advantage in their conThere is, then, only one place they should occu- descending patronage ofthe Church and the Church's py. We rejoice when we see them in possession movements. Now in all this it is doubtless supof it ; we grieve deeply, as for a most deplorable and posed that the State and statesmen are made subcalamitous event, when compelled to admit that servient to the spiritual kingdom; and yet there may they have fallen, or are falling, behind it. This be room for a doubt, at least, whether the real effect place is in the extreme van of the world's true pro- may not be directly the reverse. Through the congress, in the "forefront of the hottest battle" with tinued dwelling upon the secular benefits-either by the powers of evil, whether they be the fiends of politicians directly, on such occasions, or by clergysin, of ignorance, of false knowledge, false theol. men out of a conciliating deference to the politician ogy, false philosophy, or that most deadly of all the worldly side of all these questions becomes Satanic falsities-false sentiment. When we thus predominant, the spiritual power is lost, and thus speak of the world's progress, no one will mistake there is eventually a failure even in that secular our meaning. We have but one idea in the use of good which might have been secured had it only the term-progress in truth. And here, too, another been kept in its subordinate place. Religion will kind of cant necessitates a caution in the use of cease to be politically useful when its political utility language. It is progress, not so much in new truths is presented as the true or pretended ground of its -there may be a vast accumulation of these with support. In other words, it will no longer be reout any substantial advance-as in the wider diffu. ligion, but a base and far from harmless counterfeit. sion, the deeper appreciation, and stronger hold of The best things, when debased, are ever the source those truths it is most important for man to know- of the direst mischiefs. This is the peril at which those ancient truths, those never obsolete truths, we hold those priceless gifts-the Christian Revelawithout which all other progress is but progress in ' tion and the Christian Church. a labyrinth, and all other light but a darkness vis. There can be no doubt that the tendency, at the ible.
present day, is to magnify the political, the social, Do our clergy stand boldly and strongly upon this the secular,' or what may be called the worldly. advance position? If any of our remarks take the humanitarian aspects connected with professedly form of censure, it is in reference to this alone. We religious movements. Even on the anniversary can not bear to see Christ's army, and especially platform it is becoming almost as common to hear his commissioned hosts, occupying any rank behind about the regeneration of the race as the salvation the first, or falling in the wake of any other move- of souls. The millennium is to be ushered in by ments originated and directed by other and secular political movements, and be itself a sort of politicominds, whether those movements be for good or evil, religious golden age. Christianity is to cover the in harmony with revelation, or directly opposed to earth with railroads and telegraphs, and these, again, its most vital teachings.
to diffuse Christianity with a speed unknown to There is among us a tendency to make almost apostolic times. It may be thought that this is everything subservient to the political. The Church making fast friends of the Mammon of unrighteousand the clergy share in it. It is a very common de- ness; but is there not some reason to fear that in ception to suppose that they are in no danger of such such a course, instead of the Church's spiritualizan influence, in consequence of the abolition of all ing the world, the world will secularize the Church, outward connection between the Church and the or that it will be made as completely subservient as State ; but mere forms here, or the want of forms, though it had been bound to the State by some direct can furnish no protection. The true position of the and clearly-defined connection? clergy may be as much affected by falling into the It is this same feeling that leads religious men, current of popular sentiment in a democracy, as by and especially clergymen, to be peculiarly sensitive dependence on any of the ruling powers in a mon- about certain points in which the State may be suparchy.
posed to possess an outward religious character, But in other modes besides that of direct sub- and which are, therefore, prized at far more than serviency may this vantage ground be lost. Even their intrinsic value. We have an example in what where the object aimed at is right, is religious, there is often said in respect to Congressional chaplains. may be too much importance attached to it in its | A nation that expressly banishes prayer, or religious mere political aspect-an aspect which, if made acts of any kind, from its public proceedings, can prominent, is sure, in time, to cast a shade upon the not be called a Christian nation. And yet if the more vital and essential features. Thus Mission practice is only the result of a hollow condescenary and Bible societies will doubtless advance civil. sion, if it is only adopted to show how graciously ization ; Sunday-schools aid the cause of law and the politician can manifest his respect for the util. order; they promote morals, and are not morals the ities of religion; above all, if it comes to be looked foundation of our liberties ? It is thought good pol. upon as furnishing a part of “the spoils,” as the