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eiforts to create for themselves rural retreats in bear me company. We decided that the pleasthe neighborhood. But nature has been too pow. ure of the trip would be much enhanced by the erful for them. For leagues upon leagues there presence of a servant, who could act as interpreis not probably a single tree of native growth; ter between us and the Tartars. The very man and the strenuous efforts made to form planta- we wanted made his appearance at just the time tions have proved almost total failures. The only we were about to set out. He deserves a paratrees which have been tolerably successful are a graph to himself. species of acacia. Apart from these it would be He was a German by birth, and rejoiced in the difficult to find, nearer than the Crimea, a single name of Gottlob Werner, which the Russians specimen which a man might not clasp with four had transformed into something ending in “itch," fingers.

which I never ventured to attempt to pronounce. It has been said that Southern Russia is one He was born in the goodly town of Nürnbergvast plain, destitute of mountains. To this there the “ treue fleissige Stadt" of the old song he is a single notable exception. Midway between was always singing when his mouth was at libthe western and eastern extremities of the Black erty from his meerschaum. “ If you would know Sea, a peninsula shoots boldly out into the waters, the German land, how fair and lovely it is, you reaching almost half way from the northern to must go to Nürnberg"—thus ran the songthe southern shore. It is connected with the

“ That ancient, leal, and busy town, mainland by a narrow, isthmus, scarcely five

Forever fair and young, miles in width. Across the southern end of this

Where Albert Dürer plied his art, peninsula, at a few miles' distance from the shore,

Where Hans Sachs pegged and sung." runs a bold range of mountains, the highest peak Gottlob's father, a stout burgher and disciple of of which reaches an altitude of 5,600 feet. This St. Crispin, as was Hans Sachs before him, wishpeninsula is the Crimea, the Tauric Chersonessus ed his son to follow in his steps. So at the conof classic times; in later years the seat of the clusion of his apprenticeship, he sent him forth Khans of Crim Tartary, the terrors of whose on the “ Wanderjahr," necessary to be accomarms spread as far as Moscow. Subsequently, plished before he could be admitted a member of it fell under the nominal sway of the Sublime the ancient guild of cordwainers. Gottlob havPorte; and is now the most valuable of the do- ing received his father's blessing, a little money, minions wrested by Potemkin from Turkey. and a stout walking-stick, exchanged a kiss with

The intervention of this range of mountains Gretchen, his betrothed, and set out on his travhas a magical effect upon the climate of the els. This was nearly a score of years ago, and Crimea. Their southern slope, sheltered from they are not yet concluded. His whole story the keen blasts from the steppe, and open only to came out at intervals during our tour, and is the warm breezes from the south, rivals the glo- worth the telling—but not here. When we were ries of the most favored portions of Italy. The sitting in some post-house, a group of Tartar Russians in general are thoroughly apathetic to postillions smoking around us, and himself renthe beauties of nature. Their tame country has dered a little sentimental by the good wine of nothing to develop the taste for natural beauty, the Crimea, Gottlob would burst out into a snatch and they can travel abroad only by special permis- of his favorite song-declare that he would go sion of the Czar. But they become almost elo back to Nürnberg, marry Gretchen, and become quent in descanting upon the beauties of the a good citizen and cordwainer. It never seemed Crimea. Perpetual streams gush from the hill- to occur to him that the years which had transsides, and pour through every valley; the vine formed him from a lithe bursch into a heavy, and the fig, the olive and the orange flourish; middle-aged beer-drinker, with a huge meer. old trees, the growth of centuries, fling abroad schaum always sticking into his grizzled mustheir gnarled branches, shading the picturesque tache, had wrought a corresponding change in Tartar villages, giving grace and beauty to the her. She was still " little Gretchen.” Then he Alpine scenery. For miles along the southern would kiss her parting gift, which he had retaincoast the peninsula is thickly sown with the vil-ed through all his wanderings. It was a stout las of the Russian nobles, some of whom lavish leathern tobacco-pouch, elaborately stitched by upon their summer residences sums attainable her own hands-a little the worse for wear, it is by those only whose coffers are filled by the true, but still capable of supplying the owner's forced toils of thousands of serfs. This custom Rauchtabak for another score of years. I fear was introduced by Count Woronzow, one of the that honest Gottlob is not the first man who wealthiest men of the empire. It has been imi- thinks that he is fondly remembered long after tated by the Empress and by large numbers of he has quite forgotten others. However, he the nobles.

made a capital conductor for us; he was as true Having endured the stifling heat of Odessa for as steel, and would doubtless have been as brave three weeks, and being in excellent humor with as a lion had there been any occasion for the exmyself on account of the flattering prospect of ercise of his valor. The chief drawback to the the transactions in wheat which had brought me pleasure of his society was that he had imbibed to the South, I resolved to treat myself to an ex- the Russian idea that a change of garments and cursion in the Crimea. My traveling companion a bath was a needless superfluity. This, with had been equally lucky in his tallow speculation, his perpetual fumigation, rendered the windward and needed little persuasion to induce him to side of him much the pleasanter to ride upon.

The necessary police arrangements were speed- | nor the wiser for it. The attempt was successily made. A few roubles, judiciously insinuated fully made a couple of weeks later, as I shall reinto the hands of the functionaries, secured a late in the sequel. For the present we were promise that our passports should be attended to forced to content ourselves with a sea view of sichass" forthwith ;” and a repetition of the Sevastopol, with its huge forts mounting three process procured the fulfillment of the promise tiers of cannon. One point, which every vessel in time for us all just to avoid missing the tub of must pass, is said to be commanded by twelve a steamer, which plies twice a month between hundred guns. We did not count them, though Odessa and the principal ports of the Crimea. we could almost look into their black muzzles ;

We were glad to find that among the passengers but there seemed to be enough of them to blow were two or three officers of rank to be landed at out of the water all the fleets that ever floated. Sevastopol, so that we should be able to catch a After landing our naval heroes, who seemed seaward view, at all events, of that famous naval vastly relieved by the touch of solid ground, the dépôt. These were all naval officers, and among steamer put off for Yalta, on the southern coast, them was an admiral, who wore jack-boots, with where we were to disembark. A bold headland an immense pair of spurs—an article of equip- juts out into the sea. That is Cape Parthenium, ment which struck me as not absolutely indis- of old renown. Here stood the temple of the pensable on the quarter-deck. These naval he- Tauric Diana, where were sacrificed all strangers roes gave us no very exalted opinion of their cast upon these inhospitable shores. Here was professional efficiency. The Black Sea, as if to enacted the drama of Iphigenia, and Orestes the show that it had a rightful claim to its old appel-Fury-haunted matricide. As we pored, long lation of the “Inhospitable,” got up a very tol- years ago, at Old Dartmouth over that immortal erable imitation of a storm. Our vessel pitched tragedy of Euripides, little did Brown and myand tumbled in a somewhat uncomfortable man- self dream that, bent on trade, we should togethner; the faces of the officers began to wax do- er look upon its scene. We had parted at the lorous; the admiral kept his ground for a while, gates of our Alma Mater, and never met again but it was of no use. We caught sight of him till we encountered on the Nevski Prospekt at leaning in a very suspicious attitude over the St. Petersburg. I doubt if either of us has railing; at last he made for his cabin with a woe-proved a worse trader on account of our early begone visage, and we saw him no more till next tincture in the Humanities; I know that we morning, when he was put ashore at Sevastopol. have been happier men for it. A monastery But his whole appearance indicated that he had dedicated to Saint George stands upon the site passed a bad night. Indeed, it is a common jest once occupied by the temple of the inhospitable at Odessa—as much so as men dare to jest on so goddess. perilous a theme that every one on board a Rus- | | Yalta presented nothing to detain us. Its sitsian man-of-war, from the captain to cabin-boy, uation is indeed beautiful, but it has a pert wateris sea-sick whenever there is a cap-full of wind : ing-place aspect. It was full of visitors from a circumstance that might sadly impair the effi- Odessa, who gathered about the little quay, watchciency of the feet in case it should be fallen in ing the passengers as they disembarked. The with by the French and English squadrons. street was full of ponies, whose drivers pestered

* All Russians speak of Sevastopol with a kind us with elaborate pictures of the beauties of the of mysterious awe. They seem to look upon it country seats and villas of the nobles scattered as the workshop where the Czar forges the thun- along the winding shore, and were anxious derbolts which are to sweep England and France to afford us an opportunity of visiting them from the seas. This seemed quite natural to us — for a consideration. By the intervention of after we had seen the enormous three-deckers of our serviceable Gottlob, we hired horses and a the fleet performing their evolutions, and remem

Tartar guide to convey bered that the inhabitants had no other opportu

us across the mountnity of seeing any vessels, except these, larger

ains to Bagtche-Serai— than the very moderate-sized merchantmen that

“ The Garden Palace,” alone frequent the ports of the Black Sea. The

the ancient capital of most that we could learn was that it would be

the Tartar Khans. It is quite out of the question for us to attempt to

but a long day's ride in visit the town, since no foreigner was allowed to

a direct line; but we repass its walls without an express order from the

solved to take a week in governor, which was always obtained with the

reaching it, and ordered utmost difficulty, and never without far higher

our guide to conduct us influence than we could bring to bear. Any at

through as many Tartar tempt at a clandestine entrance, we were assured,

villages, and along as would be most severely punished. Siberia—if we

many mountain valleys should chance to survive the knout and a season

as he could. of cotton-picking among the mortussi in the laz

Ismael, our guide, aretto—was the lightest penalty we could expect.

presented a comical fig. A private conversation with honest Gottlob con

ure to our eyes. His vinced me that the matter might be managed by

dress was much like a little finesse, and the Czar be never the worse


that worn by boys at



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home in the intermediate unfrequently erected neat stone fountains for the
stage between long-clothes refreshment of the tired wayfarers. Frequently
and the full-blown dignity of our small caravan would be increased by the ad-
jacket and trowsers. His dition of a mounted traveler, for the Tartars never
head was surmounted by the think of walking. These would fall into our
Tartar cap, made of shumski, ranks with a “Salaam aleikoum-Peace be with
a grayish sort of lambskin ; you ;" and they would leave us with the same
this was drawn tightly over Oriental salutation.
his head, inside the ears, A Tartar village is very picturesque. They
which seemed to protrude always prefer to build on the slope of a hill.
from his head like those seen Three low walls form the sides of their dwellings
on the images of the South-| —the fourth being cut into the hill itself. Over
Sea idols. His badge of these walls is built a flat roof, with projecting
office was a whip with a flat eaves, forming a sort of veranda. The roof is
piece of leather at the end the Tartar's home. Here he breathes the cool
of the lash. This made a evening air, solacing the hours by friendly chat,
great rattling when applied smoking, and watching what goes on around.
to the flanks of our baggage Regular street there is none, and the unwary
horse ; but did not seem to traveler is likely, without notice, to find himself
do execution proportioned to on the roof of one of the dwellings. Thick-
the noise it made. How-branched walnuts shadow the vacant spaces, with
ever, our shaggy ponies did fountains beneath, around which stand chattering
not need much urging groups of women, in long white vails. The ap-
Though small, they were proach of our cavalcade was always the signal
wonderfully stout and hardy, for a general break-up, and we could see their
getting over ground at a fa- white forms flitting among the trees, or turning

mous rate; they were, more their backs upon the infidel strangers. Lively, KNIFE-WHIP.

over, as sure-footed as goats. bright-eyed boys, clad in narrow sacks, with red The handle of the whip formed a convenient caps on their heads, peered cautiously out at us sheath for the long blade of a knife, which looked from behind the trees. The whole spirit of the like a very efficient weapon in case of need. scene was one of luxurious indolence and ease.

For a few miles we followed the road along The Tartar, in fact, is naturally an idle fellow, the shore; then struck northward among the and can see no reason why men should fatigue mountains. Before many hours all traces of themselves by over-work. Russian dominion had disappeared, and for aught. We were not a little amused by the odd method that appeared to the contrary, we might still be of shoeing their oxen, which we saw more than within the sway of the old Tartar Khans, whose once. The unconscious beast is flung upon his picturesque little fortresses crowned the summit back, where he is firmly held by the smith's asof every precipice. The valleys were richly sistant, who sits upon his head. His four feet wooded, and capable of the highest cultivation. are then drawn closely together by a cord. As Abundant springs gushed out at brief intervals, they thus lie, with their feet pointing directly upover which the pious care of the Moslem had not ward, the operator has a fair field for his opera

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tions. The poor beasts do not seem to relish this to a stone bridge, and a large Oriental archway, mode of procedure, if we might judge by the with a Cossack before it, standing sentinel. This smothered moans which proceeded from their big was the entrance to the palace of the ancient chests, and the alarmed glances of their dark Khans. Onward we rode through the thickening eyes.

gloom, along narrow streets, unrelieved by a single light, or the appearance of a passer-by. Ismael, however, knew the place, and brought us to the khan where we were to pass the night. A light burned dimly over the entrance. The court in the centre was filled with uncouth vehicles bullock-wains, camel-carts, and donkey-wagons. Around it ran a balcony a few feet from the ground, upon which opened all the doors. In the lower story were the stalls, where the animals were secured. We mused upon the time when, , in such a caravanserai as this, a young mother “ brought forth her first-born son, and laid him in | a manger, because there was no room for them in | the inn.” The pictures in the old Family Bible, of the infant Redeemer laid to sleep among the

" horned cattle,” came back with the freshness SHOEING AN ox.

of childhood, and the low hymn with which a

gentle mother used to hush my boyish fears for We could perceive no traces of oppression on the babe's safety, rose calm and clear above the the part of the Russian government. In fact, noisy din of the crowded khan. In the centre of the Crimea seems to be treated by the con- | what might be styled the “public room," a comquerors much like a beautiful slave who has had pany of Tartar postillions formed a picturesque the grace to please her master. Yet somehow group. They had built a fire on the clay floor, the Tartar race is disappearing year by year, and were preparing their evening meal. another illustration of that natural law, in virtue Next morning we set out to explore the town. of which the bare presence of a stronger race in places the sides of the valley rose in precipinevitably, and often involuntarily, destroys the itous cliffs, threatening momentarily to topple weaker one.

down. Where they were less steep, their slopes Punctual at the time appointed, Ismael con- resembled an amphitheatre, the flat-roofed dwellducted us across a stony plateau overlooking aings rising like steps, half visible amid the crowndeep valley. From its bottom we could discern ing foliage. Abundant springs of the purest water glittering spires and minarets shooting far up into gushed forth at every turn, falling into basins the clear air. This was the famous old capital of where the faithful were performing their abluthe descendants of Ghenghis Khan—the “Gar- tions. Early as it was, as we passed a coffeeden Palace" of the Crimea. We clattered down house, we saw within groups of sedate Tartars the stony slope, when a sudden turn brought us coiled upon low divans, luxuriously smoking or

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drinking black coffee from the tiniest of cups. I been steeped in water and fermented. To judge, Passing through the streets occupied by the art- however, from the immense quantities of it stored isans, we gained some insight into the industrial up in the hogsheads which lined the walls of the habits of the place. All the operations that with dingy room, this must be the favorite beverage of us are performed in obscurity are there patent to the Tartars. view. The houses and shops are destitute of Some branches of business appear to be wholly windows, having instead broad shutters which are in the hands of the Karaite Jews, whose chief let down during the day, so as to form counters seat is an ancient fortress perched upon one of for the display of wares and manufactures. Here the most inaccessible crags overlooking the valley, was a baker's shop, the oven so close to the street whence they descend every morning to the town, that by extending your hand from without you returning in the evening. Besides the Cossack could feel its heat. Turners sat cross-legged, guard at the palace gates, we saw not a sign or patiently boring long cherry sticks for pipe-stems, token of Russian supremacy. The aspect of or fitting the amber mouth-pieces. At a cook- every thing was purely Tartar, just as it might shop groups of morning customers were fishing have appeared three centuries ago, when the Czar out huge bits of meat from the bubbling caldrons, trembled in the Kremlin at Moscow at the bare and devouring them in the open air. Here a mention of the names of the fierce Khans of the black-bearded cook bore a joint in his hands, Crimea. We were assured, I believe with truth, catching the drippings upon a loaf of black bread. that all Russians are forbidden by an Imperial This he laid down before a customer on the bare ukase from settling in this lovely valley. plank which served for a table within. Still fur- A broad gleam of sunlight lay like a golden bar ther on we came to the fruit-market, abounding across the gateway of the ancient palace, as we in grapes, figs, pomegranates, and fruit to which entered. Its exterior is unpretending enough, we could not even give a name ; but chief among affording no indication of the fairy-like beauty inall were the pastecs, the luscious melons from the closed within the blank walls. With a refinement adjoining plains, heaped up like piles of cannon- | of taste hardly to have been expected, this palace balls in an arsenal. Still beyond, were the tip- has been restored, precisely as it was in the palmy pling shops, whither the thirsty souls of the town days of its original possessors ; even the claims resort to drink booza, an abominable astringent of Eastern hospitality have not been neglected, a liquor extracted from millet-seeds, which have portion of it being assigned as a resting place for

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