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strangers. We entered a grassy court-yard sur-shrubs vail the tombs of those who, with a purer rounded by structures of varied architectrue, fes- taste, chose that their last sleep should be under tooned with vines, and shrubbery. The walls the open sky. We walked reverently among the are covered with inscriptions in strange charac- tombs, while Gottlob, his meerschaum for once ters; mottoes from the Koran, scrolls, hiero- laid aside, interpreted the inscriptions upon them. glyphics, ciphers, groups of flowers, fanciful Many of them were conceived in a spirit of touchbirds and beasts bursting from arabesque scrolls, ing beauty. One prince would not have his tomb ornament every door. Tall trees and beautiful covered by any roof, because the heavens are so fountains add the living charm given only by glorious and beautiful that even from my grave I verdure and running water. Chief among the would look up into the sky, the abode of God." fountains are two at the entrance, in which the Another ordered his tomb to be thickly walled graceful invention of the East has exhausted it and roofed, “because”-so runs the inscription self. Arabesques, lightly sculptured and painted —“I am utterly unworthy that the least ray of with bright harmonious colors, surround the mar God's sun should shine upon me.” Was this ble basins filled with the brightest water that ever the utterance of a soul haunted by some inexpisparkled. “ If there be another fountain like unto able crime? or was it not rather the miserere of this"—so runs the inscription " let it come forth a spirit sensitively alive to the lightest fault, and and show itself. Damascus and Bagdad have overwhelmed by a sense of the perfections of the witnessed many things, but so beautiful a fount- Holy One, in whose immediate presence he was ain have they not beheld.” This fountain was about to stand? Let us hope the latter; and erected by the Khan - Krim Gheraï the radiant, that, like another penitent who dared not “ lift whose fostering hand hath quenched the thirst of up his eyes” from the dust," he went home justhe land." Upon its fellow, its founder still im- | tified.” Another ordered a vine to be planted plores the divine mercy for himself and for the over his head, “that he, who in life had brought sinners of his race.
forth so little fruit, might be found more fruitful Before entering the palace buildings, we visited in death.” Another had his tomb built close the mausoleum which covers the remains of many under the eaves of the mosque, in order that, as Khans. The custodian, an aged Moslem, bore a the water from the sacred roof fell upon him, "it torch, by the flaming light of which we could see might wash away the foulness of his sins, which bier-shaped tombs, with high head-stones carved were as numberless as the drops falling from the at the top into the form of turbans. Around the clouds." mausoleum spreads the cemetery. Vines and The palace is uninhabited, yet every thing is
and bathed her hands with tears. If so, his hopes were unavailing. He might be her trusted counselor, her favorite general; but the flame of lawless love, once extinguished can never be relighted. These apartments remain just as they were left by their imperial occupant more than sixty years ago. The carpets and mattings and hangings are as brilliant as ever; fresh flowers in precious vases still perfume the air ; gold and silver fishes sport in crystal bowls, as they did under the eye of the Empress, so long closed in death; the marble bath seems to be awaiting her presence.
We passed from the city, up the valley toward Tchioufout-Galeh—“The Fort of the Jews"—the chief seat of the small dispersed sect of the Karaites. Emerging from the throat of the defile in which Bagtche Seraï stands, we entered a broader valley shaded with majestic oaks and beeches. This was the “Valley of Jehosaphat," the cemetery of the Karaites. All around were tombstones, lying flat or standing at every conceivable angle of inclination; for the sanctity of the grave has been disturbed by earthquakes. The solitary fortress, perched high up on the summit of a steep rock, is the Zion of these He
brew Purists, who adhere to the written MAUSOLEUM OF THE KHANS.
law, rejecting the idle glosses of the Talas fresh as though its occupants were hourly ex- | mud, and the manifold traditions of the Rabbins. pected. We wandered through interminable suits Few inhabit the city of the living, for the sect is of rooms, connected by winding stairs and narrow widely scattered in many lands; but all, if possible, passages. They are all small, and hardly two return to have their bones laid with those of their on a level. The floors are covered with the fathers in the city of the dead. A long flight of softest carpets; Persian rugs of the richest hues | steps cut in the solid rock, leads up to the foroverspread the divans; the walls are hung with tress. At the bottom is the well which supprecious tapestry of those gorgeous colors which plies it with water. We ascended among a file charm the Oriental eye; over the arched door- of donkeys laden with water-skins, who climbed ways are suspended satin curtains. Painted and up without drivers. The place seemed deserted; latticed windows fling long bars of many-colored all the able-bodied men had descended to the light and deep shadow across floor and wall, and Tartar town to ply their different trades. A few along the furniture inlaid with gold, silver, and children too young to go out into the world, and pearl. There is none of the magnificence derived a few old men returned from their long wanderfrom amplitude of proportions or massiveness of ings, and calmly awaiting the summons which material; the charm consists rather in the ex- should bid them take their rest in the Valley of quisite taste displayed, and the perfection of the Jehosaphat, were the only human beings we saw. innumerable details, which realize all that the The view from the Jewish town is transcendently most glowing imagination can picture of the lux- | beautiful. The eye wanders over a succession urious life of an eastern serai.
of wooded slopes, far up among huge masses of Perhaps the most elegant apartments are the beetling crags and conical rocks, while the great ones fitted up by Potemkin for the Imperial Cath- Tchatir-Dagh—~ Tent-Mountain"—the loftiest arine, when she made the tour of her new do- summit of the chain of the Crimea, flings its minions. Wherever she was to pass the night steep sides and flat top against the southern sky. during this long progress—whether in some miser- From Bagtche Seras, after due consultation able village, on the broad steppe, or in the sandy with Gottlob, I resolved to make my meditated desert-she found a pavilion erected for her use descent upon Sevastopol. I found that there by the considerate gallantry of her former lover, was no obstacle in the way of the city being enwhose invisible presence thus seemed to hovertered by the neighboring German colonists, the around her. Perhaps he wished to recall the old prohibition extending only to foreigners. A fortlove which she had once felt for him, but had night's roughing it among the Tartars had neutransferred to younger and fairer men; just as tralized all the advantage in respect to wardrobe, when he met her in the famous palace of Taurida which I might have once boasted over my Teu. which she had built for him, he fell on his knees, tonic friend. A huge meerschaum, with a due
Vol. IX.-No. 49.-B
TARTAR BAKER'S SHOP. supply of the rankest tobacco, was easily attain-gations convinced the sentinels that we were able; and a little practice enabled me to inhale harmless peasants from the German coloniesthe fumes with becoming phlegm. I was sure though to make doubly sure, we threw in a few that my German was good enough to escape de- words of unmistakable High Dutch. We passed tection by any body. Brown's linguistic acquire without being even challenged, and I felt that I ments were more limited ; and after due consid- had a rightful claim to the title of Sevastopoleration, it was decided that he should not make efsky, or “ Conqueror of Sevastopol.” Soon we the attempt, but should remain behind at the were quietly dining at an obscure inn, kept by a “ Garden Palace." A stout Tartar wagon was compatriot of Gottlob's. The only precaution of hired, and Gottlob and myself, threw ourselves | which I made use during my stay, was to give a. upon the straw with which it was filled; the word vigorous whiff or two from the inseparable meerto go ahead was given, and off we set, while the schaum, whenever I supposed that any officer shadows of night yet filled the valley. By noon might be looking at me, and enter into an aniwe reached Inkermann, at the head of the inlet mated conversation in German with Gottlob. upon which Sevastopol is situated. Here com- Sevastopol is admirably adapted for the purmence the works which supply water to the docks poses to which it has been applied. An inlet of of Sevastopol, twelve miles distant. The course the sea indents the western coast of the Crimea,. of a river has been diverted into a new channel having a mouth so narrow that it is commanded cut along the face of a hill, through long excava- by the fortifications on the shore, and a depth of tions and galleries, for the whole distance. I water sufficient to float the largest vessels. Four had a little leisure to inspect these gigantic works, bays set in upon the southern shore of the inlet, while our horses were baiting.
separated by high bare limestone ridges. Upon In a couple of hours after setting off again, we one of these ridges the city is built, the streets came within view of Sevastopol, with its lofty generally winding around among the sharp and white houses, green-domed churches, and men- jutting rocks. The main street is built half way acing batteries. Stretching far into the land, up the slope of the hill, and runs parallel with beyond the lines of the streets, we could see long the principal quay. Here are the chief buildings, lines of masts rising above the intervening hills. the Admiralty with its enormous portico, a splenAs we passed the gates I followed Gottlob's ex- did cathedral, and many large and imposing resiample, and puffed away most vigorously. He dences, conspicuous from the multiplicity of answered whiff for whiff. The vigor of our fumi- blinds which form a poor defense against the
pervading dust. Attempts at introducing trees for whose protection alone Sevastopol exists, is and plants have proved failures, and the city constructed and maintained at an expense altopresents a inass of dazzling whiteness which gether unparalleled. Not a vessel of it has ever almosts bli s the eye. The streets are kept bowed to the gales of the ocean; not one of tolerably clean by gangs of military prisoners them, before the recent massacre at Sinope, has where constantly engaged in sweeping them ; ever seen a hostile flag. They are equipped; but ... spite of this precaution the air is always perform a few manœuvres in the narrow sea, and full of a fine penetrating dust which produces then quietly rot in the secure harbor fortified for the most distressing ophthalmia. The soldiers their reception. That fleet bides its time to apemployed in making excavations for the public pear in the Golden Horn: Sevastopol is for the works have suffered dreadfully from this cause. Black Sea fleet : the Black Sea fleet is for the Not unfrequently in four-and-twenty hours after future. the first attack, the eye becomes putrid and drops Although the fleet has encountered no hostile out.
vessels, the long rows of hulks tell of a foe still Every thing here reminds you that this is no more destructive. The ships last only from five peaceful emporium of commerce. The wharves to ten years, and are then condemned as unseaare lined with vessels, but among them is not a worthy, while the vessels of other nations last solitary merchant flag. Ships of war of every for twice that period. Ask any Russian official size open their ports upon you. No picturesque the reason, and he will shake his head mysterisailors, wearing the varied attire of their own ously, and tell you of a minute worm—the teredo countries, lounge about the quay. You meet navalis-bred from the slimy river that pours into only the white uniform of the naval and military the inlet of Sevastopol, which attacks the timbers, service. Sentinels stand on guard at every turn, and reduces them to rotten powder ; adding with presenting arms toward their officers who pass a sigh, that all attempts to prevent its ravages and repass continually. Grim batteries frown have proved unavailing. Those better instructed, every where; and the only variety of prospect is shrug their shoulders at the bare mention of the obtained by gazing now into the mouth of a forty- worm, wondering how it manages to work its two and now into that of a sixty-four pounder. way through the copper sheathing. They will By day every thing presents the orderly monot- tell you that the real destroyer is the system of onous aspect of a fortress; and the stillness of corruption which pervades all the official life of night is broken only by the tinkling of bells from Russia. Contracts for timber are awarded to the the vessels in the harbor, and the measured tread men who will bribe highest; he in turn sub-lets and frequent challenges of the sentinels pacing to purveyors who bribe him; and so on until the their continual rounds. Ascending to the sum- money which should have been expended upon mit of the city, the eye wanders along the line seasoned oak, finds its way mainly into the pockof bare limestone crags which gained for the ets of venal employés, and the vessels are concoast the name of Ak-Tiar-the “White Rocks," structed of unseasoned fir and pine. A final and passes slowly down to the batteries which bribe given to the inspector insures that this guard the harbor, the enormous three-deckers of miserable substitute is accepted. If we may the Black Sea fleet, and the long rows of con- credit the testimony of those who should be demned hulks, which have been converted into competent authority, there are not in the whole magazines and prison ships. The ordinary popu- | Black Sea fleet a half score of vessels capable of lation of the city, including the military and naval sustaining the storms of the Atlantic. force stationed there, is set down at forty or fifty Now and then, it is true, some unwary functhousand; but at times, when some great review tionary is brought to summary and condign punis to be held, it is vastly increased. Yet in so ishment. It is a common report through all large a town there is no such thing as a hotel or Southern Russia that directly after a recent visit an inn, worthy of the name. A few miserable of the Emperor to Sevastopol, the soldiers endens in an obscure quarter of the town give gaged in sweeping the streets were surprised at shelter to the few inhabitants of the surrounding | the appearance of a comrade whom they did country who now and then pass a night here. not recognize, though somehow his features
Yet, after all, there is something imposing in seemed not unfamiliar to them. At length the this great naval station. Its foundation and rumor began to spread that the new sweeper maintenance are a part of that great system of was none other than the Governor of the city, policy which aims sooner or later at bringing the who had been degraded from his post to the shores of the Bosphorus within the bounds of the ranks, and condemned to perform the most menial Russian Empire. Every thing that can conduce offices. What his precise crime was nobody could 10 this end is contrived on the largest scale. say; though official corruption, being the most The public works are ably planned, and executed common, was at once fixed upon as the most without regard to cost. I have already alluded probable. It is but fair to add, that I could never -0 the aqueduct by which the water necessary quite satisfy myself whether this story was wellfor the careening-dock has been conveyed from founded. The public has so little access to relia distance of four leagues. The stone of the able sources of information, that the most absurd neighboring cliffs is too soft for the construction rumors find easy credence. At all events, the of the basins and docks; that which is used has fact that nobody seemed to find any improbability all been brought from a distance. The fleet, in the story, shows conclusively the low estimate every where put upon official morality. If it was religious standard. By its effects on its follownot true, nobody doubted that it might at any mo- ers it can rightly be judged. To keep within the ment be so.
strictest limits of charitable evidence, I shall conAfter a two day's stay at Sevastopol, Gottlob | fine myself either to papal authorities or cereand myself once more replenished our meer- monies; for it is solely upon them that it founds schaums, seated ourselves in our wagon, gave its high pretensions, and by them exhibits its the sentinels at the gate a farewell whiff, to con- righteousness. vince them that we were honest Germans, and Bishop England, in a little work published at drove back to Bagtche Seras. There we rejoined Rome, entitled an “ Explanation of the Cereour companion, who was awaiting our return. monies of the Holy Week,” sets forth the claims The time we had fixed for our tour had already and objects of the Roman Church at this particbeen exceeded; so putting ourselves under the ular festival. We, therefore, can not go amiss conduct of our guide, we made the best of our in briefly quoting from him the doctrines which way back to Yalta, by another route from the one he asserts to be animating principles of the pracby which we had come. We were fortunately, tices he advocates. just in time to catch the steamer, on board which “The object," he says, “ of our church-cerewe embarked for Odessa. So ended our trip mony is not mere idle show ; such exhibitions through the Crimea—a brief but pleasant episode would, in religion, be worse than a waste of in a year's residence in Southern Russia. time.” “God can never be pleased by any hom
age which is not internal and spiritual.” “The THE HOLY WEEK AT ROME. | legitimate objects of external rites in religion, FIRST ARTICLE.
are the instruction of the mind and amelioration ņHE Holy Week at Rome! What! unholy rem- of the heart ; their object is the promotion of
1 iniscences of crowding, struggling, conten- enlightened piety. Whatever does not tend to tion; of extortion and cheating; of dirt and dis- this, is at least useless ; probably mischievous. comfort; in short, of all the ills attendant upon The Catholic Church is desirous of having all the multiplication of the population of the holy her observances tested by this principle." By city tenfold in proportion to its capacity of ac- this principle, I beg all, whether Protestant or commodation, does not this solemn church-festi- Catholic, to test even the few of the manifold obval vividly recall to every traveler, who has un servances that I shall be able to quote within dergone its purgatorial experience, either to view my prescribed limits, and to frankly confess their its vain show, or to stir anew languid devotion in own conclusions as to the degree in which they witnessing the significant facts in man's redemp-promote “ enlightened piety." tion which it is intended to commemorate ? Rome, The Pope, as we all know, claims to be the during this period, is the focus of Christendom. representative of Christ, with spiritual and temThe Protestant hurries up to the Eternal City to poral powers commensurate with a divine aubehold the scarlet lady in all her pomp and cir- thority. Although our Saviour expressly decumstance, with the charitable object of seeing clared his kingdom not to be of this world, yet with his own eyes whether her color is not even his successor, and “visible head of the Church,” more deeply dyed than it has been represented. is also a “ temporal sovereign;" and, in addition The Catholic devoutly makes his pilgrimage to to his ecclesiastical state, surrounds himself with lay alike his sins and offerings on her altars, and as brilliant a court as can exist, in which females with renewed heart and faith to carry back with are outwardly excluded. In judging, then, of him the blessing and absolution of Christ's Vicar these incompatible functions, a charitable distincon earth. Both are not unfrequently alike dis- tion should be drawn between that which propappointed. I have known the scorning Protest-erly belongs to the one or the other. Inasmuch, ant to go away the disciple of infallibility, while however, as the temporal power had its origin in the simple-hearted Catholic, gradually losing him- his spiritual position, and is intimately blended self among the mazes of doubt and hypocrisy with it in all its phases, it will be difficult to define which, fungus-like, cluster around the claims of the line of demarkation between his duties as papacy, at last acknowledged himself a pagan, high-priest and sovereign. We must therefore or worse, an unbeliever in all religion.
take him simply as he shows himself to the adoNo city, both from its past and present influ-ration of the faithful. ence on the world's history, presents more claims | “His throne is placed on the Gospel side of to interest than Rome. The many who visit it the altar," says Bishop England. From perare as nothing in comparison with those who de-sonal inspection, I can assure the curious reader sire and can not. I shall therefore give, for the that no imperial robes surpass those of the Holy benefit of the latter class, so far as I am able, a Father, in rich and curious embroidery, gold, practical view of its ceremonies and principles precious stones, and general value of materials during that period which it has set apart to com- and cunning workmanship. Description would memorate with all its sanctity and splendor, as fail to illustrate the variety and pomp of costume one of peculiar solemnity-embracing the most of the Roman ecclesiastical courts. Therefore I momentous events that ever dawned upon the shall present-60 far as uncolored cuts can-the human race—the death and resurrection of our extent and costliness of this branch of service of Saviour. What papacy thus openly spreads be- the successor of Him who exalted poverty in the fore the whole world must be considered as its priesthood to the rank of a virtue.