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On the cope of bright purple color which the speak only of the effect on my own mind, conPope wears on Palm Sunday is a silver plate trasted with what I conceive to be the proper disrichly gilt, bearing, in beautiful relief, the figure play of that religion which consists in visiting of the Almighty. . This was formerly of pure and comforting the fatherless and widows in their gold, surrounded by three knobs of costly ori- affliction. There are others, as we often see, on ental pearls ; but the cupidity of the enemies of whom the glitter of a court, or the music and arPius VI. overcame their fear of sacrilege, and chitecture of a church have greater weight than they appropriated it to other purposes. Ben- | the humility and simplicity of gospel truth. They yenuto Cellini, who was employed by Clement would be loth to confess that the avenue to their VII. to engrave this plate, says, somewhat blas- minds and hearts closed with their eyes and ears; phemously, though in true artistic spirit, that he but take away the curiously wrought robes, the endeavored to represent the “Almighty Father cunning of the artificer, the genius of the artist, in a free and easy position.”
the harmonies of music, and the entire combina- His Holiness selects the cardinals, seventy in tion of pomp and venerable tradition by which number, who form the high senate of the Church Rome upholds her religion, and how much of and the privy council of the Pope. They in faith and conviction would be left to them? turn elect the Pope from their own number. Beside the officers who figure in the above proIn costume they are a shade less brilliant cession, there are a legion of others attached to than the Holy Father, wearing, when in chapel, the court, which swell its bulk to a degree that red cassocks with gold tassels, red stockings, weighs heavily upon the petty temporal dominwhite ermine tippets, and red skull or square ions of the Popes, and is out of all proportion to caps. On solemn occasions they add red shoes their necessities. There are private gentlemen and white damask silk mitres, with other changes of the bed-chamber, and among them a secret of raiment, telling with great effect in a proces- treasurer, who purveys for the alms and amusesion, but tedious in description.
ment of the Pope. So little bodily exercise does · Throughout the whole edifice of the Roman the Roman etiquette allow to the successors of hierarchy, costume forms a very important and the fisherman, that his present Holiness has been conspicuous part. It is nicely graduated with ordered by his physician to play at billiards daily, decreasing splendor and diversified cut from the to counteract his tendency to obesity. pope, cardinals, archbishops, and the inferior. There are one hundred and eight officers and valclergy, who are almost lost amid richly-laced ets, under different titles, attached to the personal petticoats and purple skirts, to the laughable at- service ofthe Pope; a modest number when the extire of the sacristans, choristers, and the dirty tent ofhis several palacesis considered. No soverand dolorous robes of the monastic orders. Each eign pays the penalty of greatness more severely rank has its mark and number, and it must be than the Holy Father. His sanctity dooms him confessed that no military display can compete, perpetually to solitary meals, except on extraorin variety and brilliancy of colors and costliness dinary occasions, there being no one on earth of uniform, with one got up by the church. The sufficiently elevated to sit as an equal at table nomenclature of papal costume is intelligible only with him. This is the rule, but a spiritual Pope to those who pass their lives in wearing it. Each no doubt finds means occasionally to reconcile his article has its peculiar uses and degree of sanctity. social instincts and rank at the same time. Then,
The etiquette of the papal court, whether in too, every dish must be previously tasted, for fear its spiritual or temporal sense, is no light service. of poison; an antiquated custom, which at presTo give an idea of the number and variety of of- ent no one would conceive to have any foundaficers attached to it, I have given a programme of tion in necessity. His chambers are coldly splenthe Procession for Easter Sunday as it appears in did. Marbles, paintings, mosaics, and gilding Saint Peter's previous to High Mass and the there are in abundance, but the whole arranged General Benediction and Excommunication. The with more than the usual chilling aspect of a engravings given of several of these ecclesiastical state palace. His private rooms, no doubt, are personages and their suites, will bear out the as- more comfortable; but the whole state and cirsertion that no operatic or theatrical spectacle cumstance that surround a Pope, so far as the can pretend to vie with the papal court when it public eye can judge, is one which makes him, dons its holiday suit. Imagine the surprise of in all the relations of personal freedom and enSt. Peter were he to be present, upon being told joyment, a being little to be envied. Each natthat that sleepy-looking old gentleman, so buried ural instinct and generous impulse is so hedged in gold and jewels as scarcely to be discernible, in with sacred etiquette or pusillanimous fear as and borne under a magnificent canopy on the to be a torture rather than a pleasure to its posshoulders of twelve men clothed in the brightest sessor. A bad Pope can be personally free only scarlet, performing the pantomime of turning by being a hypocrite; a good Pope is a martyr to from one side to another his uplifted thumb and a rank which in its daily duties involves a constant two fingers as illustrative of the blessing of the contradiction of the simplest principles of ChrisHoly Trinity, was his successor! I question tianity, and is a standing reproach upon common whether at such a sacrilegious libel the old Adam sense. within him would not be more signally displayed All access to the Pope is guarded with mystethan it even was in the garden; for the zealous rious care. He has his private chamber-men apostle would least of all forgive humbug. 1] - not maids — private cooks, sweepers, and
domestics of all classes. Besides these he has | are not surprised to see that during high church his confessor, preacher, chaplains-queer neces- ceremonies—for instance, on Palm Sunday—it sities these for the fountain-head of religion requires “a prince, an auditor of the rota, two his porters, jesters, poultrymen, and muleteers. clerks of the chamber, and two mace-bearers," These all have rank and appointments in the sa- to present a basin of water to the Pope, in which cred household, mingling strangely with “mon- | he washes his hands, while a cardinal dean holds signori" the secretaries of state, and other offi- the towel, a senior cardinal priest hands him the cials. The private chamberlains who wait in incense, which he puts into a censer held by the the ante-chambers are clergymen. In imita- "senior voter of the signature." Verily, St. Peter tion of imperial courts, we find cup-bearers, mas- could have written all his epistles in much less ters of the wardrobe, grand esquires, a grand time than it would have taken him to learn the tiherald, private chamberlains of the sword and tles and employments of the household of his succloak, who wear the black-spangled dress, the cessors in the nineteenth century! “In the sacred most graceful of all court costumes, and a guard functions of the altar, when the Pope assists withof nobles, magnificently uniformed, a section of our officiating,” says Bishop England, he selects which attends at divine service in the Pope's the officers from a number of names presented chapel with drawn swords.
by the chapters of each of the three patriarchal Each cardinal and high officer has a little court basilics, selecting “always a nobleman, if his of his own. When the revenues of Christendom other qualifications be equal to those of his assoflowed into the papal treasury, it was not difficult ciates''—the wisdom of which choice, and its to maintain this state and expense; but, now consistency with Christianity, all republicans that it falls mainly on the Roman Sacristory, it can not fail to perceive. becomes a burden which Christian humility might The mode of electing a Pope is curious. The consistently seek to lighten. When there exists conclave is the assemblage of the cardinals for so numerous a corps of servants, whether of the that purpose. They select their own place of household or church, invention must be racked meeting, in general choosing simply between the to find employment for them ; consequently, we Vatican or Quirinal palaces.
The day after the last day of the funeral cere- Before the cardinals enter into conclave, should monies of a deceased Pope, the mass of the Holy any feel not adequate to the discipline about to Ghost is repeated with great solemnity, a Latin be imposed upon them, they are warned to rediscourse pronounced, and the procession of car- tire. Once in conclave, they are placed in solidinals enters the chapel, chanting Veni Creator. tary confinement, each in his own cell. Every The bulls concerning the election are read, and avenue to the palace is strictly guarded by dethe cardinal dean harangues them upon the du- tachments of soldiers, and each door carefully ties prescribed for the occasion. Each cardinal closed. The only communication from without then takes his place in the conclave, that is, re- is by means of small revolving shelves, or boxes, tires to his cell, a small room of about twelve like the "tours" of foundling hospitals, through feet square, modestly furnished by himself, with which the meals are passed, and also any official his arms over the door. These cells are all alike, communications, but only in the presence, and upon the same floor, and arranged in galleries. with the authorization of their military guardChimneys are not permitted, warmth being com |ians. Vocal intercourse is permitted only at cermunicated from the neighboring rooms. To tain high apertures in the walls, in Italian, and make the isolation complete, in winter the win-with raised voices, so that the guards can hear dows are all built up, excepting a single pane. and understand the conversation. The utmost In summer the cardinals are permitted to look precautions are taken to prevent the inmates of into the garden.
adjoining cells from communicating with each For the service of each cell there is allowed a other. If a cardinal become ill, he is permitted secretary and one gentleman, who are obliged to to go out, but he can not re-enter his cell during perform the duties of domestics. But as the the conclave. emoluments are great, consisting of a consider- Before the closing of the conclave, a final day is able sum before the conclave, and a distribution permitted to the visits and conferences of the car. of ten thousand crowns by the new Pope after dinals, in the hall arranged for that purpose. These his election, besides certain advantages for their interviews are according to prescribed rules. future career, these posts are much sought after All the expenses of the conclave are borne by by the younger ecclesiastics.
the Apostolic Chamber. Among these, the meals The conclave is allowed also the services of a are not the least. As nothing is done in Rome sacristan, two sub-sacristans, a confessor, four without a procession, the dinners of the cardinals masters of ceremonies, two physicians, an apoth- are served up in the same manner. The order ecary, three barbers, a mason, a carpenter, and is as follows: twelve valets, whose livery is violet.
| At the head, two footmen with wooden maces.
ELECTION OF PIUS THE SIXTH. A valet with the silver.
selves on golden plates. Each bulletin containThe gentlemen in service, two by two, bare- ing the vote is carefully sealed, and stamped with headed.
some fanciful design, known only to the voter, The chief cook with a napkin on his shoulder. and prepared expressly for his vote. Great care Cup-bearers and esquires.
is also taken to disguise the handwriting so that Two footmen, carrying upon their shoulders a no external clew to the voter's choice can be dehuge dish-warmer, containing the meats, &c. tected. This act is preceded by an oath to choose
Then follow the valets, with wine and fruit in him whom they believe the most worthy, and is baskets.
accompanied by sacred chants. The officers, deUpon arriving at the palace, each cardinal is signated by lot to examine the votes, inspect them visited in turn by his procession, and the dinner with the most minute attention and precautions, deposited. But before this is done, every dish is for fear of fraud. If a cardinal has obtained twoinspected lest some letter or message should be thirds of the votes, they are verified by comparing concealed within the viands. The bottles and the names of the voters with their chosen devices. glasses are required to be transparent, and the Should two-thirds of the votes be wanting to one vases sufficiently shallow to show their depths. name, the bulletins are burned, and the voting With all these precautions, however, diplomatic commences anew. The smoke which arises from ingenuity at times contrives to convey hidden the chimney attached to the chapel at this hour, communications. The fruits often speak intelli- telegraphs to an expectant crowd without the gibly for themselves. A truffle has served to failure of the vote. baffle a rival combination, and destroy a choice Election by "adoration” is when a cardinal, in fixed upon for the succeeding day. This species giving his vote, goes toward his candidate, proof culinary diplomacy was due, as might be ex- claiming him the Head of the Church; and is pected, to an embassador of France.
followed by two-thirds of the cardinals imitating There are four modes of electing the Pope: the his example. The compromise" is when the un" adoration,” the "compromise,” the "scrutin," certain suffrages are given to certain members of and the “accessit."
the conclave from which to elect a Pope. The The votes are deposited by the cardinals, ac- "scrutin" is the secret ballot. The “ accessit” cording to certain prescribed rules, in a chalice is the last resource for a choice, but as it is selplaced upon an altar, either in the Sistine Chapel dom resorted to, and I do not clearly comprehend or one of the same dimensions at the Quirinal. the process myself, I can not give it to my readThey are summoned twice a day, at six in the ers. During the examination of the votes by morning and at the same hour of the evening, to secret ballot, the cardinals say masses upon the deposit their votes. These are carried by them- six altars of the chapel.