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domestics of all classes. Besides these he has are not surprised to see that during high church his confessor, preacher, chaplains-queer neces- ceremonies—for instance, on Palm Sunday—it sities these for the fountain-head of religion, requires "a prince, an auditor of the rota, two his porters, jesters, poultrymen, and muleteers. clerks of the chamber, and two mace-bearers." These all have rank and appointments in the sa- to present a basin of water to the Pope, in which cred household, mingling strangely with "mon- he washes his hands, while a cardinal dean holds signori” the secretaries of state, and other offi- | the towel, a senior cardinal priest hands him the cials. The private chamberlains who wait in incense, which he puts into a censer held by the the ante-chambers are clergymen. In imita- "senior voter of the signature." Verily, St. Peter tion of imperial courts, we find cup-bearers, mas- could have written all his epistles in much less ters of the wardrobe, grand esquires, a grand time than it would have taken him to learn the tiherald, private chamberlains of the sword and tles and employments of the household of his succloak, who wear the black-spangled dress, the cessors in the nineteenth century! “In the sacred most graceful of all court costumes, and a guard functions of the altar, when the Pope assists withof nobles, magnificently uniformed, a section of out officiating,” says Bishop England, he selects which attends at divine service in the Pope's the officers from a number of names presented chapel with drawn swords.
by the chapters of each of the three patriarchal Each cardinal and high officer has a little court basilics, selecting “always a nobleman, if his of his own. When the revenues of Christendom other qualifications be equal to those of his assofowed into the papal treasury, it was not difficult ciates'—the wisdom of which choice, and its to maintain this state and expense; but, now consistency with Christianity, all republicans that it falls mainly on the Roman Sacristory, it can not fail to perceive. becomes a burden which Christian humility might The mode of electing a Pope is curious. The consistently seek to lighten. When there exists conclave is the assemblage of the cardinals for so numerous a corps of servants, whether of the that purpose. They select their own place of household or church, invention must be racked meeting, in general choosing simply between the to find employment for them ; consequently, we | Vatican or Quirinal palaces.
The day after the last day of the funeral cere- Before the cardinals enter into conclave, should monies of a deceased Pope, the mass of the Holy any feel not adequate to the discipline about to Ghost is repeated with great solemnity, a Latin be imposed upon them, they are warned to rediscourse pronounced, and the procession of car- tire. Once in conclave, they are placed in solidinals enters the chapel, chanting Veni Creator. tary confinement, each in his own cell. Every The bulls concerning the election are read, and avenue to the palace is strictly guarded by dethe cardinal dean harangues them upon the du- tachments of soldiers, and each door carefully ties prescribed for the occasion. Each cardinal closed. The only communication from without then takes his place in the conclave, that is, re- is by means of small revolving shelves, or boxes, tires to his cell, a small room of about twelve like the "tours" of foundling hospitals, through feet square, modestly furnished by himself, with which the meals are passed, and also any official his arms over the door. These cells are all alike, communications, but only in the presence, and upon the same floor, and arranged in galleries. with the authorization of their military guardChimneys are not permitted, warmth being com |ians. Vocal intercourse is permitted only at cermunicated from the neighboring rooms. To tain high apertures in the walls, in Italian, and make the isolation complete, in winter the win-with raised voices, so that the guards can hear dows are all built up, excepting a single pane. and understand the conversation. The utmost In summer the cardinals are permitted to look precautions are taken to prevent the inmates of into the garden.
adjoining cells from communicating with each For the service of each cell there is allowed a other. If a cardinal become ill, he is permitted secretary and one gentleman, who are obliged to to go out, but he can not re-enter his cell during perform the duties of domestics. But as the the conclave. emoluments are great, consisting of a consider- Before the closing of the conclave, a final day is able sum before the conclave, and a distribution permitted to the visits and conferences of the car. of ten thousand crowns by the new Pope after dinals, in the hall arranged for that purpose. These his election, besides certain advantages for their interviews are according to prescribed rules. future career, these posts are much sought after All the expenses of the conclave are borne by by the younger ecclesiastics.
the Apostolic Chamber. Among these, the meals The conclave is allowed also the services of a are not the least. As nothing is done in Rome sacristan, two sub-sacristans, a confessor, four without a procession, the dinners of the cardinals masters of ceremonies, two physicians, an apoth- are served up in the same manner. The order ecary, three barbers, a mason, a carpenter, and is as follows: twelve valets, whose livery is violet.
| At the head, two footmen with wooden maces.
ELECTION OF PIUS THE SIXTH. A valet with the silver.
selves on golden plates. Each bulletin containThe gentlemen in service, two by two, bare- | ing the vote is carefully sealed, and stamped with headed.
some fanciful design, known only to the voter, The chief cook with a napkin on his shoulder. and prepared expressly for his vote. Great care Cup-bearers and esquires.
is also taken to disguise the handwriting so that Two footmen, carrying upon their shoulders a no external clew to the voter's choice can be dehuge dish-warmer, containing the meats, &c. tected. This act is preceded by an oath to choose
Then follow the valets, with wine and fruit in him whom they believe the most worthy, and is baskets.
| accompanied by sacred chants. The officers, deUpon arriving at the palace, each cardinal is signated by lot to examine the votes, inspect them visited in turn by his procession, and the dinner with the most minute attention and precautions, deposited. But before this is done, every dish is for fear of fraud. If a cardinal has obtained twoinspected lest some letter or message should be thirds of the votes, they are verified by comparing concealed within the viands. The bottles and the names of the voters with their chosen devices. glasses are required to be transparent, and the Should two-thirds of the votes be wanting to one vases sufficiently shallow to show their depths. name, the bulletins are burned, and the voting With all these precautions, however, diplomatic commences anew. The smoke which arises from ingenuity at times contrives to convey hidden the chimney attached to the chapel at this hour, communications. The fruits often speak intelli- telegraphs to an expectant crowd without the gibly for themselves. A truffle has served to failure of the vote. baffle a rival combination, and destroy a choice Election by “adoration" is when a cardinal, in fixed upon for the succeeding day. This species giving his vote, goes toward his candidate, proof culinary diplomacy was due, as might be ex- claiming him the Head of the Church; and is pected, to an embassador of France.
followed by two-thirds of the cardinals imitating There are four modes of electing the Pope: the his example. The "compromise" is when the un** adoration,” the “compromise," the "scrutin," certain suffrages are given to certain members of and the “ accessit."
the conclave from which to elect a Pope. The The votes are deposited by the cardinals, ac- " scrutin” is the secret ballot. The “accessit” cording to certain prescribed rules, in a chalice is the last resource for a choice, but as it is selplaced upon an altar, either in the Sistine Chapel dom resorted to, and I do not clearly comprehend or one of the same dimensions at the Quirinal. the process myself, I can not give it to my readThey are summoned twice a day, at six in the ers. During the examination of the votes by morning and at the same hour of the evening, to secret ballot, the cardinals say masses upon the deposit their votes. These are carried by them- six altars of the chapel.
The excessive precautions taken to insure homage to a man which we are taught to believe purity of choice, betray the extent to which fac-are due only to God, it will be difficult for the tion and corruption must have intruded into these mass to discriminate the nice distinction they elections. In times past the most scandalous would make. Their example, at all events, is so scenes have preceded and accompanied the in- much weight in the scale of idolatry, while their trigues which, despite the severity of the regula- motives are far beyond the capacity of ignorant tions, find entrance into the holy conclave, minds to comprehend. splitting it into unholy factions. During the During the interval between the death of one comparatively recent conclave, which resulted in Pope and the election of another, the papal functhe election of Pius VI., the cardinals even pro tions are administered by an officer called the ceeded to blows, and their excitement rivaled the “Camerlingue," or Cardinal President, of the worst scenes that have ever occurred in any Court of Rome. He holds one of the three keys democratic congress.
of the treasure of the Castle of St. Angelo; the After his election the Pope selects the name dean of the sacred college another, and the Pope by which he wishes to be known. The Master the third. of Ceremonies then clothes him in the papal vest- The unity and policy of the papal court is unments, and the cardinals, each in turn, kiss his doubtedly the same in all ages, so far as concerns hands and feet, the Pope giving them upon the its claims to temporal and spiritual power. Were right cheek the kiss of peace. They then chant, it not counteracted by the spirit of the age, there - Behold the high priest, pleasing to God, and is no reason to believe it would not now assert its found just.!” The guns of St. Angelo thunder authority as distinctly and frankly as in the thirforth a salute, every bell of the city augments the teenth century, in the mandate of Nicholas III., joyous clamor, and drums, trumpets, and timbrels, cited in the ninety-sixth distinction of the canon amid the acclamations of the people--if the elec-law, viz. : tion be a popular one complete the noisy chorus. “It is evident that the Roman pontiff can not
After a special adoration in the Sistine Chapel, be judged of man, because he is God!” the Pope seats himself under a red canopy before | In a bull of Gregory IX., inserted in the Dethe grand altar in St. Peter's, where he receives cretals, under the title of “ Pre-eminence," we the adoration of the people. This finished, he is read as follows: borne in grand procession to the palace which he “God has made two great lights for the firmaselects for his residence. In the adoration paid ment of the universal Church—that is to say, he to the Pope enlightened Romanists disclaim, and has instituted two dignities : these are the ponwith justice no doubt, any act of personal idola- tifical authority and the royal power ; but that try. But while they render the same forms of which rules in these days, that is to say over
things spiritual, is the greater, and that which national system of education. Members of vapresides over things material the lesser. There- rious grades and classes in the social scale are fore all should know that there is as much differ- | instructed together, in the same schools, in the ence between pontiffs and kings as between the same mode, and on the same subjects, to a desun and moon. We say that every human creat-gree of which we have no example here. If the ure is subjected to the sovereign pontiff, and that peasant, the grocer, or the tailor, can scrape tohe can (according to the decretal of Innocent III., gether a little money, his son receives his traincalled the Prebends), in virtue of his full power ing in the same seminary as the son of the proand sovereign authority, dispose of the natural prietor, whose land he cultivates, whose sugar and divine right."
and coffee he supplies, and whose coat he makes. At this age of the world we may smile at these | The boy, who ought to be a laborer or a petty doctrines. But the spirit which conceived them | tradesman, sits on the same bench, and learns still exists, though the power then enforced has the same lesson, as the boy who is destined for departed. The haughty ceremonies that accom- the bar, the tribune, or the civil service of the panied these assumptions of power are yet in full state. This system arises out of the passion for sway, yearly growing in imbecility, as the au- equality, and fosters it in turn. The result is, thority which alone could make them respected that each one naturally learns to despise his own becomes more remote. That which once carried destination, and to aspire to that of his more forwith it terrible meaning has now degenerated into tunate school-fellow. The grocer's son can not pitiful farce. Spectators now gather to Rome see why he should not become an advocate, a during holy festivals, not to worship or to ac-journalist, a statesman, as well as the wealthier knowledge the great head of the Christian church, and noble-born lad, who was often below him in but to wonder at the debasing shows proffered, the class, whom he occasionally thrashed, and and the haughty magnificence displayed by priests often helped over the thorny places of his daily who found their creed on a gospel of humility and task."* love. Should these remarks be construed as un- The Allies now advanced triumphantly toward charitable, I can only add that where religion, as the Rhine. Napoleon roused all his energies to I intend showing, is metamorphosed designedly meet the emergence. “Though age,” says Bourinto a mere spectacle, it must expect to be sub- rienne, "might have been supposed to have dejected to the ordinary laws of criticism. prived him of some of his activity, yet, in that
crisis, I beheld him as in his most vigorous NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. youth. Again he developed that fervid mind, BY JOHN S. C. ABBOTT.
which, as in his early conquests, annihilated
time and space, and seemed omnipresent in its THE CAMPAIGN OF PARIS.
energies." France, from the Rhine to the Pyre
nees, assumed the appearance of a vast arsenal. MHE war had now become a struggle for the The Council of State suggested to Napoleon that
1 dethronement of Napoleon, and for the ef-l it might not be wise to announce to the people fectual suppression, throughout Europe, of those the humiliating truth that the frontiera of
the humiliating truth that the frontiers of France principles of republican equality, to which the momindad French Revolution had given birth. There nev
“Wherefore," replied Napoleon, “ should not er was a government so popular as not to have
| the truth be told? Wellington has entered the its opposition. In every nation and state allied
south; the Russians menace the north; the Austo France there were many royalists, ready eagerly to join the allied armies. In the triumph of * It is greatly to Napoleon's honor, that such men as tha
the Duke of Wellington were contending against him.
It is, in itself, evidence of the righteousness of his privileges. And in all the old aristocracies there
cause. Probably there can not be found in the world & were multitudes, of the more intelligent portion
man more resolutely hostile to popular reform than was of the populace, hungering for reform. They
the Duke of Wellington. He was the idol of the aristoc. welcomed, with enthusiasm, the approach of the racy. He was hated by the people. They had pelted armies of Napoleon. It was the existence of him with mud through the streets of London, and he had
been compelled to barricade his windows against their this party, in such strength, both in England and
assaults. Even the soldiers under his command in Spain Ireland, which roused the Tory government of had no affection for his person; and, notwithstanding all Britain, to such tremendous exertions, to crush, the calumnies of the British press, they loved, around in the person of the French Emperor, the spirit their camp-fires, to tell stories of the goodness of Napoof republican equality. The North British Re
leon. Many, too, or these soldiers, after the battle of Wa
terloo, were sent to Canada. I am informed, by a gentleview, one of the organs of the Tory party, in the
man of commanding character and intelligence, that when following strain, which will certainly amuse a child, he has sat for hours listening to the anecdotes in American readers, complains of that equality, favor of Napoleon which these British soldiers had picked which Napoleon established in France :
up in the camp. Yet, true to military discipline, they
would stand firmly to their colors in the hour of battle. “Those who have watched the interior work
They were proud of the grandeur of the “Iron Duke," ings of society in France, long and close at hand,
but no soldier loved him. We will imitate Napoleon's are inclined to attribute much of that uselessness magnanimity, in not questioning the sincerity of the Duke and discontent, which is one of its most striking
of Wellington's convictions, that an aristocratic govern
ment is best for the people. We simply state the undefeatures, and which is the despair both of the
niable fact, that his hostility was deadly to all populas friends of order and the friends of freedom, to the reform.