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guish, was watching the proceedings with an eagle eye, ever ready to interpose in behalf of the Emperor.
A few days of harassing diplomacy thus passed away, and on the 11th of April, the treaty, as drawn up by the Allies, was ready. It provided that the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Maria Louisa should retain those titles during their lives; and that the mother, brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces of the Emperor, should equally preserve the titles of princes of his family. The sovereignty and right of ownership of Elba was assigned to him, with an annual income from France of 8500,000. The sovereignty and full property of the duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guastclla, were assigned to Maria Louisa, to descend to her son. The Emperor's mother was to receive from France 860,000 a year; King Joseph and his queen, 8100,000; King Louis, 840,000; Hortense and her son, 880,000; Jerome and his queen, 8100,000; the Princess Eliza, $60,000; the Princess Pauline, $60,000. The annual allowance to the Empress Josephine, which Napoleon had fixed at $600,000, was reduced to $200,000. The princes and princesses of the imperial family were also to retain all their private property. Certain domains in France were set aside, the rents of which were to be appropriated to the payment of the above annuities. The private property of Napoleon, however, whether as extraordinary or as private domain, was to revert to tho Crown.
The Imperial Guard wi re to furnish a detachment of twelve or fifteen hundred men, to escort Napoleon to his place of embarkation. He was to retain a body-guard of four hundred men, who might volunteer to accompany him to Elba. Two days were allowed for the ratification of the treaty.
The unrelenting hostility with which the English government still pursued the overpowered Emperor is unparalleled in the history of nations. We record with amazement, that when every other government in Europe, without a single exception, hesitated not to recognize the legality of a nation's suffrage as a title to sovereignty, England alone refiised to recognize that rijrht, and still persisted in the insulting declaration, that the French nation vere rebels, and that Napoleon ieas an usurper. They even murmured that the illustrious monarch of the people was granted the pitiable boon of Eiba. Had the British commissioners been present at the conference, even the magnanimity of Alexander could not have rescued Napoleon from imprisonment and insult.
"There was one power," says Sir Walter Scott, "whose representatives foresaw the evils which such a treaty might occasion, and remonstrated against them. But the evil was done, and the particulars of the treaty adjusted, before Lord Castlercagh came to Paris. Finding that the Emperor of Russia had acted for the best, in the n .inr of the other Allies, the English ministor refrained from risking the peace, which had been made in such urgent circumstances, hy insisting upon his ohjections. He refused, howover, on the part of his government, to become a party to the treaty, further than by acceding to it so far as the territorial arrangements were concerned; but he particularly declined to acknowledge, 0'i the part of England, the title of Emperor, which the trcati! conferred on Napoleon. Yet, when we have expressed all the objections to which the treaty of Fontainebleau seems liable, it must be owned that the allied sovereigns showed policy in obtaining an accommodation on almost any t 4rms, rather than renewing the war, by driving Napoleon to despair, and inducing the marshals, from a sense of honor, again to unite themselves with his cause."
With a heavy heart, on the evening of the 11th of April, Caulaincourt set out with this 'reaty for Fontainebleau. He had disobeyed the
Emperor, in making no attempt to withdraw the abdication. He had been compelled to exercise his own judgment in the midst of the embarrassments which oppressed him.
Napoleon, as Caulaincourt entered his cabinet, fixed upon him a piercing glance, and said,
"Do you at length bring me back my abdication!"
Sire," Caulaincourt replied, "1 beseech your Majesty to hear me, before you address to me unmerited reproaches. It was no longer in my power to send back to you that act. My first care, on my arrival at Paiis, was to communicate it to the allied sovereigns, for the purpose of obtaining a cessation of hostilities. It has served as the basis to the negotiations of the treaty The official document of the abdication of your Majesty is already inserted in the journals."
"And what is that to ine," Napoleon responded, "that they have made it public—that they have inserted it in the journals—if I do not choose te treat in these forms? I will not sign. I want no treaty."
The painful debate was long continued. At last Caulaincourt, leaving the treaty on the table, begged leave to retire. "I had not been able," he says, "to prevail upon him to read the whole of it. I returned to my quarters. I had need of rest. My energy was exhausted in this incessant struggle. I almost gave myself up to despair. But my thoughts returned to the sufferings of this great and noble victim, and I found the will and the power to attempt to alleviate them."
In the evening he relumed again to the cabinet. The Emperor was in a state of profound dejection. He seemed bewildered with the enormity of his woe. His beloved France was handed over to the Bourbons; all the liberal governments of Europe were overthrown. All his devoted friends fell with him. The most disastrous eclipse darkened the liberties of the world. It was dif
ficult to rouse him from the apathy into which he had sunk.
Caulaincourt was overwhelmed with anguish He knew that if Napoleon should refuse to accept the terms presented him, a worse fate would be his doom. With the utmost difficulty the noble Duke had won from the Allies even the little mercy they had offered to the dethroned Emperor. But a few hours more remained for his acceptance, and then Napoleon would be again entirely at their mercy, and they might deal with their captive as they would.
"Sire," exclaimed Caulaincourt, in tones thrilling with anguish, "I entreat you, in the name of your own glory, come to a decision. Circumstances do not admit of temporizing. Sire! I can not express the agony which preys upon me. But when Caulaincourt, yojir faithful, your devoted friend, implores you, on his knees, to considerthe position in which your Majesty is placed, there must be reasons, most imperative, which urge his perseverance."
The Emperor languidly raised his eyes, fixed them earnestly upon Caulaincourt, and alter a moment's pause sadly said, " What would you have me do?" He then arose, clasped his hands behind his back, and slowly paced the floor for a long time in silence. Then turning again to his faithful friend, he said, " It must come to an end I feel it. My resolution is taken. To-inorrow, Caulaincourt."
It was now late in the evening. Caulaincourt pressed the burning hand of the Emperor and retired. At midnight he was hastily summoned to the bedside of the Emperor, who was taken suddenly and alarmingly ill. It will be remembered that Napoleon, just after the battle of Dresden, was seized by a violent attack of colie. Fatigue, sleeplessness, and woe had apparently renewed the attack These were probably the early paroxysms of that fatal disease, which, subsequently developed by captivity and insults, in a few years consigned him to the grave. The Emperor was writhing upon his bed, in frightful convulsions of pain The big drops of agony oozed from his brow. His hair was milted to his forehead. His eyes were livid and dull, and he smothered the cries which agony extorted by grinding a handkerchief between his teeth. The Emperor evidently thought that he was dying, and, utterly weary of the world, was glad to go. Turning his eye to the Djke, he said,
"I die, Caulaincourt. To you I commend my wife and son. Defend my memory. I can no longer support life."
His physician, Ivan, simply administered a little hot tea. Gradually the cramp in the stomach became less violent, the limbs became more supple, and the dreadful- paroxysms passed away.
'' The interior of tl.is chamber of death," says Caulaincourt, "this agony, by the pale light of the tapers, can not be described. The silence was uninterrupted but by the sobbings of those present. There was no witness of this terrible scene who would not have given his own life to have saved that of Napoleon, who, in his domestic retirement, was the best of men, the most indulgent of masters. The regrets of all who served him survive him."
It has been asserted that Napoleon, on this occasion, attempted to commit suicide. There is no sufficient ground for this accusation. In that hour of grief, desertion, and awful agony, that Napoleon longed to die there can be no doubt. No man, under these circumstances, could have wished to live. Breathings for a release from life, which pain extorted from him, have been tortured into evidence that Napoleon had attempted the crime of self-murder. But the nature of his disease, the remedy applied—simply hot tea—the rapid recovery, and his previous and I subsequent conduct, have led all impartial n en
to discharge the dishonoring accusation as groundless.*
The lofty nature of Napoleon ever condemned self-destruction as an ignoble and a cowardly act. "Self-murder," said he, "is sometimes committed for love. What folly! Sometimes for the loss of fortune. There it is cowardice. Another can not live after he has been disgraced. What weakness! But to survive the loss of empire—to he exposed to the insults of one's contemporaries—that is true courage."
* Dr. Antomarchi, who was with Napoleon at St. Helena during the last eighteen months of the Emperor's life, very decisively re;ects the idea of his having attempted suicide. He says:
"Amiable, kind, hasty, but just, he took a pleasure in exalting the services, and in recalling the noble actions of even those who had offended him. His mind was as inaccessible to hateful passions, as it was incapable of yielding to the blows of fate. He loved to revert to the events of his life, without omitting the slightest details or the most trivial incidents. It is, therefore, highly improbable, that, in those moments of unreserved confidence, of a patient to his physician, he would have concealed from me the fact of his having made an attempt which must ever be attended with consequences of a most serious nature. The scenes and preparations which snch an event suggest may have a most dramatic effect. But their only existence, in the case alluded to. has been in the imagination of the writer who is pleased to allude to them."
The Emperor slept for a few moments that profound sleep which follows the exhaustion of intolerable agony. He soon awoke. The morning sun was shining brightly in at his window. With energetic action he drew aside his bed-curtains, rose up in his bed with his accustomed energy, and silently and thoughtfully gazed upon the glories of the lovely morning. The forest and the shrubbery of Fontaincbleau were bursting into luxuriant foliage. Innumerable birds, free from all mortal griefs and cares, filled the air with their songs. Napoleon, after a few moments of apparently serene thought, turned to Caulaincourt, and said, in serious tones,
"God has ordained that I should live. I could not die."
"Sire!" Caulaincourt replied, "your son— France, in which your name will live forever— impose upon you the duty of supporting adversity."
"My son! my son !" exclaimed the Emperor in accents of peculiar tenderness and sadness "What a dismal inheritance I leave him. A child born a king; to-day without a country. Why was I not permitted to die? It is not the loss of the throne which renders my existence insupportable. There is something harder to bear than the reverses of fortune. Do you know