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The Duke of Rovigo, who has recorded the generous heart will throb in sympathy with this above interview, says that the Emperor, on re- decision. turning to his cabinet, showed no particular indi. ' “ The Emperor,” says Caulaincourt, “ closed cations of displeasure against the legislative body. his last instructions to me, with the following With that wonderful magnanimity which ever words! I wish for peace. I wish for it, withcharacterized him, he gave them credit for the out any reservation or after-thought. But Caubest intentions. He, however, observed that laincourt, I will never accede to dishonorable he could not safely allow the existence of this conditions. It is wished that peace shall be state of things behind him, when he was on based on the independence of all nations; be it the point of proceeding to join the army, where so. This is one of those Utopian dreams of he would find quite enough to engage his atten- which experience will prove the fallacy. My tion.

policy is more enlightened than that of those It was the special aim of the Allies, aided by men who were born kings. Those men have their copartners the royalists of France, to create never quitted their gilded cages, and have never a division between Napoleon and the French read history except with their tutors. Tell them people, and to make the Emperor as odious as 1-I impress upon them, with all the authority we possible. Abusive pamphlets were circulated are entitled to exercise, that peace can be duralike autumn leaves all over the Empire. The ble only inasmuch as it shall be reasonable and treasury of England and that of all the Allies just to all parties. To demand absurd conceswas at the disposal of any one, who could wage sions, to impose conditions which can not be aceffective warfare against the dreaded republican ceded to consistently with the dignity and imEmperor. The invading kings, at the head of portance of France, is to declare a deadly war their locust legions, issued a proclamation, to be against me. I will never consent to leave France spread throughout Europe, full of the meanest less than I found her. Were I to do so, the and the most glaring falsehoods. They asserted whole nation, en masse, would be entitled to call that they were the friends of peace, and Napo- me to account. Go, Caulaincourt. You know leon the advocate for war; that they were strug- the difficulties of my position. Heaven grant gling for liberty and human rights, Napoleon for that you may succeed! Do not spare couriers. tyranny and oppression. They declared that Send me intelligence every hour. You know they earnestly desired peace, but that the despot | how anxious I shall be. Napoleon would not sheathe the sword. They | “Our real enemies," continues Caulaincourt, assured the French people that they waged no “they who had vowed our destruction, were Enwar against France, but only against the usurper, gland, Austria and Sweden. There was a dewho, to gratify his own ambition, was deluging termined resolution to exterminate Napoleon, Europe in blood. The atrocious falsehood was | and consequently all negotiations proved fruitless. believed in England, on the Continent, and in Every succeeding day gave birth to a new conAmerica. Its influence still poisons thousands fict. In proportion as we accepted what was of minds.

offered, new pretensions rose up, and no sooner Colonel Napier, though an officer in the allied was one difficulty smoothed down, than we had army, and marching under the Duke of Welling- to encounter another. I know not how I muston for the invasion of France, with noble candortered sufficient firmness and forbearance, to readmits, that the Allies in this declaration were main calm amidst so many outrages. I accordutterly insincere, that they had no desire for ingly wrote to the Emperor, assuring him that peace, and that their only object was to rouse these conferences, pompously invested with the the hostility of the people of Europe against Na- title of a congress, served merely to mask the poleon. He says the negotiations of the Allies, irrevocably fixed determination, not to treat with with Napoleon, were “a deceit from the begin- France ; that the time we were thus losing, was ning." "This fact," he says “was placed beyond employed by the Allied powers, in assembling a doubt, by Lord Castlereagh's simultaneous pro- their forecs, for the purpose of invading us on all ceedings in London. *

points at once ; that by further temporizing, we Napoleon sent Caulaincourt to the head-quar- should unavoidably augment the disadvantages ters of the Allies to make every effort in his pow- of our position." er to promote peace. They had consented to a In a private interview with Caulaincourt, as sort of conference, in order to gain time to bring reported by the Duke of Rovigo, Napoleon said, up their reserves. France was exhausted. The “ France must preserve her natural limits. All Allies had slain so many of the French, in these the powers of Europe, including England, have iniquitous wars, that the fields of France were acknowledged these bases at Frankfort. France, left untilled, for want of laborers. More than a reduced to her old limits, would not possess twomillion of men were now on the march to invade thirds of the relative power she possessed twenty the almost defenseless Empire. It is utterly years ago. What she has acquired toward the impossible but that Napoleon must have wished | Alps and the Rhine, does not compensate for for peace. But nobly he resolved that he would what Russia, Austria and Prussia have acquired, perish, rather than submit to dishonor. Every by the mere act of the partition of Poland. All

these powers have aggrandized themselves. To * For the conclusive proof of this hypocrisy on the part of the Allies, see Napier's Peninsular War, vol. iv. pp.

pretend to bring France back to her former state, 327, 328.

would be to lower and to degrade her. Neither

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THE RUSSIANS SURPRISED. the Emperor, nor the republic if it should spring sought his aid. Carnot, retiring from the allureout anew from this state of agitation, can ever ments of the Imperial court, was buried in seclusubscribe to such a condition. I have taken my sion and poverty. His pecuniary embarrassments determination, which nothing can change. Can at length became so great, that they reached the I consent to le we France less powerful than I ears of the Emperor. Napoleon, though deemfound her? If, therefore, the Allies insist upon ing Carnot in error, yet highly appreciating the this reduction of France, the Emperor has only | universally recognized integrity of the man, imone of three choices left: either to fight and con-mediately sent him, with a touching letter, ample quer ; to die honorably in the struggle; or, lastly, funds for the supply of his wants. Years had to abdicate, if the nation should not support me. rolled away; gloom was gathering around the The throne has no charms for me. I will never Emperor; foreign armies were crowding upon attempt to purchase it at the price of dishonor."'* France; all who advocated the cause of Napo

In the midst of these days of disaster, when leon, were in danger of ruin. In that hour CarNapoleon's throne was crumbling beneath him, not came to the rescue, and offered himself to there were exhibited many noble examples of Napoleon, for the defense of the country. Napodisinterestedness and fidelity. The illustrious leon gratefully accepted the offer, and intrusted and virtuous Carnot, true to his republican prin- him with the command of Antwerp, one of the ciples, had refused to accept office under the keys of the empire In the defense of this place, Empire. Napoleon had earnestly, but in vain, Carnot exhibited all those noble traits of charac

"Memoirs of the Duke of Rovigo, vol. iv. p. 193. ter, which were to be expected of such a man.

“The offer,” said Carnot, in his letter to Napo- manifested no gratitude whatever toward his leon, “ of an arm sixty years old is, without English deliverers. He promptly entered into a doubt, but little. But I thought that the exam- treaty hostile to England. “Thus did the sovple of a soldier, whose patriotic sentiments are creign,” says Alison, “who had regained his known, might have the effect of rallying to your liberty and his crown by the profuse shedding of eagles a number of persons, hesitating as to the English blood, make the first use of his promised part which they should take, and who might pos- freedom, to banish from his dominions the allies sibly think, that the only way to serve their whose swords had liberated him from prison, and country was to abandon it.”.

placed him on the throne.” “Ferdinand,” says In many of the departments of France, the Colonel Napier, “became once more the King of populace, uninfluenced by the libels against Na- Spain. He had been a rebellious son in the palpoleon, enthusiastically demanded arms, and en- ace; a plotting traitor at Aranjuez, a dastard at treated that they might be led against the invading Bayonne, an efseminate, superstitious, fawning foe. The leaders of the Jacobin clubs in Paris, slave at Valençay, and now, after six years of offered their services in rousing he frenzy of the captivity, he returned to his own country an unlower orders, as in the days of the old revolution, grateful and cruel tyrant. He would have been if Napoleon would receive them into his alliance, the most odious and contemptible of princes, if surrender to their writers and to their orators the his favorite brother, Don Carlos, had not existpress and the tribune, and allow hem to sing ed.” Such were the results of the English war their revolutionary songs in the streets and in the in Spain. A greater curse one nation never intheatres. Napoleon listened seriously to their ficted upon another. What is Spain now? proposition, hesitated for a moment, a. d then What would she now have been, had the enerresolutely replied :

gies of a popular government, under Joseph “No. I shall find in battle some chance of Bonaparte, been difiuced throughout the Peninsafety, but none with these wild demagogues. sula ? This king, whom the English drove from There can be no connection between them and Spain, was a sincere, enlightened, conscientious monarchy; none between furious clubs and a man, devoted to the public welfare. regular ministry ; between revolutionary tribu- The last days of the month of January had now nals and the tribunal of the law. If I must fall, I arrived. An army of one million twenty-cight will not bequeath France to the revolution from thousand men, from the north, the east, and the which I rescued her.”

south, were on the march for the overthrow of Gustavus, the deposed king of Sweden, who the imperial republic. Such forces the world had had always strenuously affirmed that Napoleon never before seen. Napoleon, having lost some was the Beast, described in the Apocalypse, now five hundred thousand men in the Russian camstrangely offered his services to the Emperor. paign, three hundred thousand on the plains of He wished to make himself the rallying point of Saxony, two hundred and fifty thousand in the the old royalist party in Sweden. He would thus Spanish Peninsula, and having nearly a hundred greatly embarrass the movements of the treacher- thousand besieged in the fortresses of the Elbe ous Bernadotte, and stand some chance of regain and the Oder, was unable, with his utmost evering his throne. It was a curious case of a legit- tions, to bring forward more than two hundred imate monarch, who had been deposed by the thousand in the field, to meet the encrmous armies people, applying for aid to Napoleon, in order to of the Allies. He could take but seventy thouoverthrow the elected monarch, and to restore sand to encounter the multitudinous hosts crowdhim to his hereditary claims. Notwithstanding ing down upon him from the Rhine. the strength of the temptation, Napoleon refused, On Sunday the 24th of January, the Emperor, magnanimously infused, to listen to his over- after attending mass, received the dignitarics of tures.

the empire in the grand saloon of the Tuileries. "I have reflected," he said, “ that if I received The Emperor entered the apartment, preceded by him, my dignity would require me to make ex- the Empress, and leading by the hand his idolertions in his favor; and as I no longer rule the ized son, a child of extraordinary beauty, not yet 'vor!”, common minds would not have failed to three years of age. The child w dressed in the discover, in the interest I might have displayed uniform of the National Guara, while luxuriant for him, an impotent hatred against Bernadotte. ringlets of golden hair were clustering over his Besides, Gustavus had been dethroned by the shoulders. The Emperor was calm, but a deep voice of the people, and it was by the voice of shade of melancholy overspread his features. The the people that I had been elevated. In taking most profound sadness reigned in the assembly. up his cause I should have been guilty of incon In a ceremony, grave and solemn, the Empress sistency in my conduct, and have acted upon dis- was invested with the regency, and took the recordant principles."

quisite oath of office. The Emperor then advancThe Duke of Wellington, with a hundred and ing with his child into the centre of the circle, in forty thousand British, Portuguese, and Spanish tones which thrilled upon every heart, thus adtroops, having driven the French soldiers out of dressed them :* Spain, was now overrunning the southern derartments of France. Spain was lost. Napo.

* It is to be regretted that Lamartine can not record tho

most simple fact respecting Napoleon without interweavicon consequently released Ferdinand, and re

n ing some hostile comment. In reference to this extraor. stored him to his throne. The perfidious wretch dinary struggle he says: “Seventy thousand troops con.

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“Gentlemen, I depart to-night to place myself | your faithful guardianship. To you I confide at the head of the army. On quitting the capital what, next to France, I hold dearest in the world. I leave behind, with confidence, my wife and son, Let there be no political divisions. Endeavors upon whom so many hopes repose. I shall de- will not be wanting to shake your fidelity to your part with a mind freed from a weight of disqui- duties. I depend on you to repel all such peretude, when I know that these pledges are under fidious instigations. Let the respect for property,

the maintenance of order, and above all the love stituted the only army with which Napoleon had to of France, animate every bosom." As Napoleon maneuvre and combat a million of men in the heart of uttered these words his voice trembled with emoFrance. Victory itself could do nothing for so small a number. It could only waste them less rapidly than de

| tion, and many of his auditors were affected even leat. Did he depend on impossibilities ; or was he only to tears. At an early hour he withdrew, saying desirous of illustrating his last struggle? No one knows to those near him, “Farewell, gentlemen ; we what was passing in that soul, maddened for so many l sl years by illusions. The most likely solution is, that he calculated upon some brilliant but passing success, which

At three o'clock in the morning of the 25th of might serve as a pretext for the Emperor of Austria to Regotiate with him. He never thought a father would private papers, and embraced his wife and his dishonor his son-in-law, or that kings would dethrone the

son for the last time, left the Tuileries to join conqueror of the revolution. But at all events, he did not doubt that if conquered or deprived of his throne, the em

the army. He never saw either wife or child pire would be transmitted to his son."


The Allies had now crossed the Rhine, and gave the most affecting demonstrations of their were sweeping all opposition before them. They gratitude and their love. “The humblest cabins," issued the atrocious proclamation that every' says Lamartine, “ gave up their little stores, with French peasant who should be taken with arins cordial hospitality, to warm and nourish these in his hands, endeavoring to defend his country, | last defenders of the soil of France.” Napoleon, should be shot as a brigand ; and that every vil- in the midst of a column of troops, marched fre. lage and town, which offered any resistance, quently on foot, occasionally entering a peasant's should be burned to the ground. Even Mr. hut, to examine his maps, or to catch a moment's Lockhart exclaims, “ This assuredly was a fia- sleep by the fire on the cottage hearth. grant outrage, against the most sacred and in- About noon on the 29th, with but twenty alienable rights of mankind.”

thousand men, he encountered sixty thousand Napoleon drove rapidly in his carriage, about Russians, commanded by Blucher, formidably one hundred miles east of Paris, to Vitry and posted in the castle and upon the eminences of St. Dizier. Here, at the head of a few thousand Brienne. Napoleon gazed for a moment upon these soldiers, he encountered the leading Cossacks of familiar scenes, hallowed by the reminiscences Blucher's army. He immediately fell upon them, of childhood, and ordered an immediate assault, and routed them entirely. Being informed that without allowing his troops a moment to dry Blucher had a powerful army near Troyes, about their soaked garments. Before that day's sun fifty miles south of Vitry, Napoleon marched all went down behind the frozen hills, the snow was the next day, through wild forest roads, and in crimsoned with the blood of ten thousand of the a drenching rain, to surprise the unsuspecting Allies, and Blucher was retreating to effect a and self-confident foe The ground was covered junction with Schwartzenberg at Bar-sur-Aube, with snow, and the wheels of the cannon were some few miles distant. with the utmost difficulty dragged through the As Napoleon was slowly returning to his quardeep quagmires. But intense enthusiasm in- ters, after the action, indulging in melancholy spired the soldiers of Napoleon, and the inhabit thought, a squadron of Russian artillery, hearing ants of the country through which they passed, the footfalls of his feeble escort, made a sudden

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