« 이전계속 »
crowded around him with warm and heartfelt | abandonment by France of those gigantic schemes greetings. They thronged the streets through of ambition by which the very existence of sowhich he passed, strove to kiss his hand, and ciety in the adjoining states has so long been even to touch his horse, and with loud acclama- | menaced, would be the restoration of that line of tion hailed him as the saviour of his country. Na- | princes which for so many centuries maintained poleon immediately ordered the arrest of Vi- the French nation in prosperity at home, and dranges and Goualt. The former had escaped consideration and respect abroad. Such an event and joined the Allies. The latter was arrested, would alone have removed, and will at any time tried by a court-martial, and condemned to be remove, all obstacles in the way of negotiation shot. Napoleon, conscious of the peril he en- or peace. It would confirm to France the uncountered from the royalist conspirators in every molested enjoyment of its ancient territory; and town, thought that he could not safely pardon it would give, to all the other nations of Europe, so infamous an act of treason. The nobleman | in tranquillity and peace, that security which they was left to his fate. At eleven o'clock at night are now compelled to seek by other means." he was led out to his execution. A large pla General Pozzo di Borgo was sent by Alexancard was suspended upon his breast upon which der on an embassy to the British government. were inscribed, in conspicuous letters, the words, Count d'Artois, afterward Charles X., urged him " Traitor to his country.” He died firmly, pro- to induce the Allies openly to avow their intentesting to the last his devotion to the Bourbons. tions to reinstate the Bourbons. “My lord,” This act of severe but apparently necessary jus- General Borgo replied, “every thing has its tice, Lamartine has stigmatized as a “selfish | time. Let us not perplex matters. To sovepiece of vengeance."
reigns you should not present complicated quesSince the commencement of this brief cam- tions. It is with no small difficulty that they paign, Napoleon had performed the most brilliant have been kept united in the grand object of achievements of his whole military career. It is overthrowing Bonaparte. As soon as that is the uncontradicted testimony of history, that feats done, and the imperial rule destroyed, the quesso extraordinary had never before been recorded tion of dynasty will present itself, and then your in military annals. The Allies were astounded illustrious house will spontaneously occur to the and bewildered. Merely to gain time to bring thoughts of all.” up their enormous reserves they had proposed a Lord Castlereagh, in a speech in Parliament, truce, and now, to form a new plan, with which on the 29th of June, 1814, said: “Every pacifito plunge again upon their valiant foe, they held cation would be incomplete, if you did not rea council of war. The Kings of Russia and Prus- establish, on the throne of France, the ancient sia, and the Emperor of Austria were present, family of the Bourbons. Any peace with the and a strong delegation of determined men from man who had placed himself at the head of the the court of St. James. Lord Castlereagh was French nation could have no other final result the prominent representative of the British gov- but to give Europe fresh subjects for alarms; it ernment. The Allies, while intimating that they could be neither secure nor durable ; neverthehad not determined upon the dethronement of less it was impossible to refuse to negotiate with Napoleon, still advanced resolutely to that re- him when invested with power, without doing
violence to the opinion of Europe, and incurring “Lord Castlereagh,” says Alison, “in con- the whole responsibility for the continuance of formity with the declared purpose of British di- the war.” plomacy, ever since the commencement of the These proud despots were indeed committing war, made no concealment of his opinions either a crime which was doing violence to the sense in or out of parliament, that the best security for of justice of every unbiased mind. They were the peace of Europe would be found in the res- ashamed to acknowledge their intentions. While toration of the dispossessed race of princes to forcing, by the aid of two million of bayonets, the French throne; and the ancient race, and upon a nation exhausted by compulsory wars, a the ancient territory,' was often referred to by detested king, they had the boldness to declare him, in private conversation, as offering the only that they had no intention to interfere with the combination which was likely to give lasting re- independence of France. When the indignant pose to the world.” To mitigate the indignation people again drove the Bourbons beyond the of the world against this atrocious interference Rhine, again the invading armies of combined of the Allies with the rights of the French peo- despotisms, crushing the sons of France beneath ple to elect their own sovereign, Sir Archibald their artillery-wheels, conducted the hated dyventures to add, “but it was little his design, nasty to the throne. And England, liberty-loving as it was that of the British cabinet, to advance England, was compelled, by her Tory governthese views as preliminary to any, even the most ment, to engage in this iniquitous work. Louis lasting accommodation."
XVIII., encircled by the sabres of WellingWhen Napoleon was elected to the chair of ton's dragoons, marched defiantly into the Tuilthe First Consul, by the almoci unanimous suf-Series. In the accomplishment of this crime Eufrages of France, he made overtures to England rope was, for a quarter of a century, deluged in for peace. Lord Grenville returned an answer blood, and shrouded in woe. And these conspirboth hostile and grossly insulting, in which he ators against popular rights, instead of doing said, “ The best and most natural pledge of the justice to the patriotism and the heroism of Na
poleon, who, for twenty years, nobly sustained | duced to conjectures. His generals were disthe independence of his country against the in- heartened ; France was in dismay. cessant coalitions of the monarchs of Europe, In the midst of these scenes of impending have endeavored to consign his name to infamy. peril, Napoleon was urged to request Maria But the world has changed. The people have Louisa, to interpose with her father, in behalf of now a voice in the decisions of history. They her husband. "No." Napoleon promptly rewill reverse—they have already reversed—the ver- plied, with pride which all will respect, “ the dict of despotisms. In the warm hearts of the archduchess has seen me at the summit of human people of all lands the memory of Napoleon has power. It does not belong to me to tell her now found a congenial throne.
that I am descended from it, and still less to beg The Allies now decided to embarrass Napo- of her to uphold me with her support." Though leon, by dividing their immense host into two he could not condescend to implore the aid of armies. Blucher, taking the command of one, Maria Louisa, it is very evident that he hoped marched rapidly across the country to the Marne, that she would anticipate his wishes, and secretly to descend on both sides of that river to Paris. endeavor to disarm the hostility of the Emperor The other multitudinous host, under Schwartzen-Francis. The Empress was with Napoleon when berg, having obtained abundant reinforcements, he received the intelligence that Austria would still trembling before the renown of Napoleon, in all probability join the coalition. He turned were cautiously to descend the valley of the affectionately toward her, took her hand and said, Seine. Napoleon, leaving ten thousand men at in tones of sadness : Troyes, to obstruct the march of Schwartzen "Your father is then about to march anew berg, took thirty thousand troops with him, and against me. Now I am alone against all! yes resolutely pursued Blucher. The Prussians, as- alone! absolutely alone!" Maria Louisa burst tonished at the vigor of the pursuit, and bleeding into tears, arose, and left the apartment. beneath the blows which Napoleon incessantly Napoleon now formed the bold resolve to fall dealt on their rear-guard, retreated precipitately. upon the rear of Schwartzenberg's army, and cut The name of Napoleon was so terrible, that one off his communications with Germany and his hundred thousand Prussians fled, in dismay, be supplies. With astonishing celerity he crossed fore the little band of thirty thousand exhausted the country again, from the Marne to the Seine, troops, headed by the Emperor.
and Schwartzenberg, in dismay, heard the thunBlucher crossed the Marne, blew up the bridges ders of Napoleon's artillery in his rear. The behind him, and escaped, some fifty miles north, Austrian army, though two hundred thousand to the vicinity of Laon. Napoleon reconstructed strong, dared not advance. They turned and the bridges and followed on. By wonderful skill fled. Alexander, Francis, and Frederick William, in maneuvring, he had placed Blucher in such mindful of Napoleon's former achievements, and a position that his destruction was inevitable, dreading a snare, turned from Paris toward the when suddenly Bernadotte came, with a power | Rhine, and put spurs to their horses. The enorful army, to the aid of his Prussian ally. Na- mous masses of the retreating Allies, unexpectpoleon had now but about twenty-five thousand edly encountered Napoleon at Arcis upon the men with whom to encounter these two united | Aube. A sanguinary battle ensued. “Napoarmies, more than one hundred thousand. With leon,” says Lamartine, “ fought at hazard, withthe energies of despair he fell upon his foes. out any other plan and with the resolution to His little army was melted away and consumed conquer or die. He renewed, in this action, the before the terrific blaze of the hostile batteries. miracles of bravery and sang froid of Lodi and The battle was long and sanguinary. Contend- of Rivoli; and his youngest soldiers blushed at ing against such fearful odds courage was of no the idea of deserting a chief, who hazarded his avail. The enemy, however, could do no more own life with such invincible courage. He was than hold their ground. Napoleon rallied around repeatedly seen spurring his horse to a gallop him his mutilated band, and retired to Rheims. against the enemy's cannon, and reappearing, as The enerny dared not pursue fiim in his despair. if inaccessible to death, after the smoke had
As soon as Schwartzenberg heard that Napo- evaporated. A live shell having fallen in front leon was in pursuit of Blucher, he commenced, of one of his young battalions, which recoiled with two hundred thousand men, his march upon and wavered in expectation of an explosion, Paris, by the valley of the Seine. The Duke of Napoleon, to reassure them, spurred his charger Wellington was, at the same time, at Bordeaux, toward the instrument of destruction, made him with his combined army of English, Portuguese, smell the burning match, waited unshaken for and Spaniards, moving, almost without opposi- the explosion, and was blown up. Rolling in the tion, upon the metropolis of France. The Duke dust with his mutilated steed, and rising withof Angoulême was with the English army, call-out a wound amidst the plaudits of the soldiers, ing upon the royalists to rally beneath the un- he calmly called for another horse, and continued furled banner of the Bourbons. Another army to brave the grape-shot, and to fly into the thickest of the Allies had also crossed the Alps from of the battle.” Switzerland, and had advanced as far as Lyons. During the heat of the conflict a division of Wherever Napoleon looked he saw but the march Russian cavalry, six thousand strong, preceded of triumphant armies of invasion. Dispatches by an immense body of Cossacks, with wild reached him with difficulty. He was often re- hurrahs, broke through the feeble lines of the French. The smoke of their guns, and the in one resistless body, advanced once more toclouds of dust raised by their horses' hoofs, en-ward Paris, thronging, with their vast array, all veloped them in impenetrable obscurity. Napo the roads which follow the valley of the Marne. leon, from a distance, with his eagle glance, per- Napoleon was about two hundred miles from ceived the approach of this whirlwind of battle. Paris. He hoped, by doubling his speed, to dePutting spurs to his horse he galloped to the scend the valley of the Seine, and to arrive at the spot. He here encountered crowds of soldiers, metropolis almost as soon as the Allies. There some of them wounded and bleeding, flying in he had resolved to make his last and desperate dismay. It was a scene of awful tumult. At stand. that moment an officer, bareheaded and covered As soon as Napoleon learned that the combined with blood, galloped to meet the Emperor, ex- army were marching vigorously upon Paris, he claiming :
exclaimed, “I will be in the city before them. “Sire! the Cossacks, supported by an im- Nothing but a thunder-bolt can now save us." mense body of cavalry, have broken our ranks, Orders were immediately given for the army to and are driving us back.” The Emperor rushed be put in motion. The Emperor passed the into the midst of the fugitives, and, raising him- whole night shut up in his cabinet, perusing his self in his stirrups shouted in a voice that rung maps. above the uproar of the battle, “Soldiers ! rally!! “This," says Caulaincourt, “was another cruel Will you fly when I am here? Close your ranks; night. Not a word was uttered. Deep sighs forward !”
sometimes escaped his oppressed bosom. He At that well known and dearly beloved voice, seemed as if he had lost his power of breathing. the flying troops immediately re-formed. Napo- Good heaven! how much he suffered!” leon placed himself at their head and, sword in His brother Joseph was then in command of hand, plunged into the midst of the Cossacks. the city. Napoleon dispatched courier after With a shout of Vive l'Empereur ! the men fol- courier, entreating him, in the most earnest lowed him. The Cossacks were driven back terms, to rouse the populace, to arm the stuwith enormous slaughter. Thus one thousand dents, and to hold out until his arrival. He men, headed by the Emperor, arrested and drove assured him that if he would keep the enemy in back six thousand of their foes. The Emperor check but for two days, at the longest, he would then tranquilly returned to his post, and con arrive, and would yet compel the Allies to accept tinued to direct the dreadful storm of war. Dur- reasonable terms. ing every hour of this conflict, the masses of the “If the enemy," said he, “ advance upon Paris Allies were accumulating. Night at length dark- in such force as to render all resistance vain, send ened over the dreadful scene, and the feeble bands off, in the direction of the Loire, the Empressof the French army retired into the town of Arcis. Regent, my son, the grand dignitaries, the minisThe Allies, alarmed by this bold march of Napo- ters, and the great officers of the crown and of leon toward the Rhine, now concentrated their the treasury. Do not quit my son. Recollect innumerable forces on the plains of Chalons. that I would rather see him in the Seine than in Even Blucher and Bernadotte came back to join the hands of the enemies of France. The fate them.
of Astyanax, prisoner of the Greeks, has always Soon after the battle of Arcis, the Austrians appeared to me the most unhappy fate recorded intercepted a French courier who had, with other in history.” dispatches, the following private letter from Napoleon at Arcis, was four marches further Napoleon to Maria Louisa. “My love! I have distant from Paris than were the Allies at Chabeen for some days on horseback. On the 20th lons. It was a singular spectacle which the two I took Arcis-sur-Aube. The enemy attacked me armies now presented. The Allies, numbering there at eight o'clock in the evening; I beat him some three hundred thousand, were rusbing down the same evening ; I took two guns and retook the valley of the Marne. The war-wasted army two. The next day the enemy's army put itself of Napoleon, now dwindled to thirty thousand in battle array, to protect the march of its columns men, with bleeding feet, and tattered garments, on Brienne and Bar-sur-Aube; and I resolved to and unhealed wounds, were hurrying down the approach the Marne and its environs, in order to parallel valley of the Seine. The miry roads, drive them further from Paris, by approaching just melting from the frosts of winter, and cut up my own fortified places. This evening I shall be by the ponderous enginery of war, were wretched at St. Dizier. Farewell, my love! Embrace my in the extreme. But the soldiers, still adoring son!”
| their Emperor, who marched on foot in their Another council of war was held by the Allies. midst, sharing their perils and their toils, were The dread of Napoleon was so great, that many animated by the indomitable energies of his own argued the necessity of falling back upon the spirit. Rhine, to prevent Napoleon from entering Ger- Throwing aside every thing which retarded many, and relieving his garrisons which were their speed, they marched nearly fifty miles a blockaded there. Others urged the bolder coun- day. Napoleon, before leaving Arcis, with charsel of marching directly upon Paris. Napoleon acteristic humanity, sent two thousand francs, was now at Areis. The Allies were thirty miles from his private purse, to the Sisters of Charity, north of him at Chalons, on the banks of the to aid them in relieving the wants of the sick Marne. On the 25th of March the Allies, united and wounded. At midnight, on the 29th of March, the French army arrived at Troyes. In Marshal Marmont also, who was contending the early dawn of the next morning, Napoleon against Blucher, sent a similar proposition to the was again upon the march, at the head of his Allies. But the fire was so dreadful, and the guard. Having advanced some fifteen miles, confusion so great, that seven times the officers, his impatience became so insupportable, that he who attempted, with flags of truce, to pass over threw himself into a light carriage, which chance to the hostile camp, were shot down, with their presented, and proceeded rapidly to Sens. The horses, on the plain. During this scene, Marnight was cold, dark, and dismal, as he entered mont slowly retreated, with one arm severely the town. He immediately assembled the mag-wounded, the hand of the other shattered by a istrates, and ordered them to have refreshments bullet, and having had five horses killed under ready for his army, upon its arrival. Then, him during the action. mounting a horse, he galloped, through the long In the gloomy hours of the night, when Napohours of a dark night, along the road toward | leon was galloping along the solitary road, the Fontainebleau.
allied monarchs were congratulating themselves Dreadful was the scene which was then occur- upon their astonishing victory. Napoleon had ring in Paris. The Allied army had already ap- avoided Fontainebleau, lest he should encounter proached within cannon-shot of the city. Mor- there some detachments of the enemy. The tier and Marmont made a desperate, but an un- night was intensely cold; gloomy clouds darkavailing resistance. At last, with ammunition ened the sky, and Napoleon encountered no one entirely exhausted, and with their ranks almost on the deserted roads who could give him any cut to pieces by the awful onslaught, they were information respecting the capital. Far away in driven back into the streets of the city. Mar- the distance the horizon blazed with the bivouacmont, with his sword broken, his hat and clothes fires of his foes. The clock on the tower of the pierced with balls, his features blackened with church was tolling the hour of twelve as he ensmoke, disputed, step by step, the advance of the tered the little village of La Cour. Through the enemy into the suburbs. With but eight thou- gloom, in the wide street, he saw groups of dissand infantry and eight hundred cavalry, he held banded soldiers, marching toward Fontainebleau. at bay, for twelve hours, fifty-five thousand of Riding into the midst of them, he exclaimed with the Allies. In this dreadful conflict the enemy astonishmentlost, in killed, wounded, and prisoners, fourteen “How is this! why are not these soldiers thousand men. The Empress, with the chief marching to Paris ?" officers of the state, and with the ladies of her General Belliard, one of Napoleon's most decourt, had fled to Blois. Her beautiful child, in- | voted friends, from behind a door recognizing the heriting the spirit of his noble sire, clung to the voice of the Emperor, immediately came forward curtains of his apartment, refusing to leave. and said, “ Paris has capitulated. The enemy
“ They are betraying my papa, and I will not enters to-morrow, two hours after sunrise. These go away,” exclaimed the precocious child, who troops are the remains of the armies of Marmont was never destined to see that loved father again. and Mortier, falling back on Fontainebleau, to join * I do not wish to leave the palace. I do not the Emperor's army at Troyes." wish to go away from it. When papa is absent, The Emperor "seemed stunned by the blow. am I not master here?” Nothing but the ascend- For a moment there was dead silence. The cold ency of his governess, Madame Montesquieu, drops of agony oozed from his brow. Then, with could calm him. And she succeeded only by rapid step, he walked backward and forward on promising faithfully that he should be brought the rugged pavement in front of the hotel, hesiback again. His eyes were filled with tears as tating, stopping, retracing his steps, bewildered he was taken to the carriage. Maria Louisa was by the enormity of his woe. He then, in rapid calm and resigned; but pallid with fear, she took | interrogatories, without waiting for any answer, her departure, as she listened to the deep boom- as if speaking only to himself, exclaimed, ing of the cannon, which announced the sanguin | “Where is my wife? Where is my son? ary approach of her own father.
Where is the army? What has become of the The batteries of the Allies were now planted National Guard of Paris, and of the battle they upon Montmartre, and upon other heights which were to have fought, to the last man, under its commanded the city, and the shells were falling walls? and the Marshals Mortier and Marmont, thickly in the streets of Paris. Joseph, deeming where shall I find them again ?" further resistance unavailing, ordered a capitulation. Mortier, in the midst of a dreadful fire,
acquainted with his skill in the management of affairs.
Ile would have had no hesitation to have thrown the arwrote, upon a drum-head, the following lines to
senals open to the people. His presence would have inSchwartzenberg:
fluenced the multitude. He would have imparted a salu“ Prince, let us save a useless effusion of blood. tary direction to their enthusiasm, and Paris would no I propose to you a suspension of arms for twen
doubt have imitated the example of Saragossa ; or, to
speak more correctly, the enemy would not have ventured ty-four hours ; during which we will treat in or
to make any attempt upon it ; for, independently of the der to save Paris from the horrors of a siege ; Emperor's being for them a Medusa's head, it was ascerotherwise we will defend ourselves, within its tained, at a later period, that in the battle which preceded walls, to the death."*
the surrender of the capital, they had consumed nearly
the whole of their ammunition. Tears of blood are ready + " Had Paris held out for two days longer, Napo. to flow at the bare recollection of these facts."-Memoirs leon's army would have entered it, and every one is well of the Duke of Rovigo, vol. iv. p. 44.
After a moment's pause, he continued, with years, I can never forget these scenes. They are impatient voice and gesture : “ The night is still the fixed ideas of my sleepless nights. My remine. The enemy only enters at daybreak. My miniscences are frightful. They kill me. The carriage! my carriage! Let us go this instant ! repose of the tomb is sweet after such sufferings." Let us get before Blucher and Schwartzenberg! It was now past midnight. Caulaincourt Let Belliard follow me with the cavalry! Let mounted another horse, and galloped in the deep us fight even in the streets and squares of Paris ! obscurity by another route to Paris. Napoleon My presence, my name, the courage of my troops, also mounted his horse, and in silence and in the necessity of following me or of dying, will sadness took the route to Fontainebleau. A arouse Paris. My army, which is following me, group of officers, dejected, exhausted, and woewill arrive in the midst of the struggle. It will worn, followed in his train. At four o'clock in take the enemy in rear, while we are fighting the morning he arrived at this ancient palace of them in front. Come on! success awaits me the kings of France. Conscious of his fallen forperhaps in my last reverse !"
tunes, he seemed to shrink from every thing which General Belliard then acknowledged to him could remind him of the grandeurs of royalty. that, by the terms of the capitulation, the army Passing by the state apartments which his glory. of Paris was bound to fall back upon Fontaine- had embellished, and to which his renown still bleau. For a moment Napoleon was again silent, attracts the footsteps of travelers from all lands, and then exclaimed : “ To surrender the capital | he entered, like a private citizen, into a small and to the enemy! What cowards ! Joseph ran off obscure chamber in one angle of the castle. A too! my very brother! And so they have capit- window opened into a small garden, shaded with ulated ! betrayed their brother, their country, their funereal firs, which resembled the cemeteries of sovereign; degraded France in the eyes of Eu- his native island. Here he threw himself upon rope! Entered into a capital of eight hundred a couch, and his noble heart throbbed with the thousand souls without firing a shot! It is too pulsations of an almost unearthly agony. But he dreadful. What has been done with the artillery?was calm and silent in his woe. The troops They should have had two hundred pieces, and which had followed him from Troyes, and those ammunition for a month. And yet they had only which had retired from Paris, soon arrived, and a battery of six pieces, and an empty magazine, were cantoned around him. They numbered about on Montmartre. When I am not there, they do fifty thousand. Their devotion to the Emperor nothing but heap blunder upon blunder.” was never more enthusiastic, and they clamored
A group of officers successively arriving, now loudly to be led against the three hundred thouclosed sadly around their Emperor. Napoleon sand Allies, who were marching proudly into became more calm, as he interrogated them, one Paris. by one, and listened to the details of the irreparable disaster. Then taking Caulaincourt aside,
THE POOR CHILD'S CRADLE. he directed him to ride, with the utmost speed, to RABYHOOD is certainly an important period the head-quarters of the Allies. “See,” said he, D of human existence. Important, not only to “if I have yet time to interpose in the treaty the individual in that juvenile stage, who has his which is signing already perhaps, without me and long career of three score and ten before him, and against me. I give you full powers. Do not is forming the shape of his legs, the configuration lose an instant. I await you here.” Caulain- of his features, and, for aught we know, going court mounted his horse and disappeared. Na- | through an analogous process of mental developpoleon then, followed by Belliard and Berthier, ment, but also to his anxious parents, and his entered the hotel.
kindred more or less remote. Caulaincourt speedily arrived at the advanced How important a personage is the first-born of posts of the enemy. He gave his name, and de- the family on his first appearance! How his manded a passage. The sentinels, however, re- coming is heralded, like that of the hero on the fused to allow him to enter the lines. After an stage, by flourish of(their own)trumpets, by nurses absence of two hours, Caulaincourt returned to and doctors! What stores of baby linen and soft the Emperor. They conversed together for a few outer wrapping! What consultation over Chrismoments, during which Napoleon, though calm, tian names; what balancing of choice between the seemed plunged into the profoundest grief, and plain patronymic and the tempting surname of Caulaincourt wept bitterly.
pet hero, presidential candidate, or parson! The "My dear Caulaincourt,” said Napoleon, “go baby is born, and is at once king of the houseagain, and try to see the Emperor Alexander. hold, Grand Lama of the domestic Thibet. GenYou have full powers from me. I have now no tle must be the footfall about his couch, that his hope but in you, Caulaincourt.” Affectionately slumbers be not rudely broken, pleasant-featured he extended his hand to his faithful friend the countenance that greets his waking eyes, ten
Caulaincourt pressed it fervently to his lips, der the touch, gentle the hand and arms that move and said, “ I go, Sire; dead or alive, I will gain and dandle. Not only are father and mother abentrance into Paris, and will speak to the Em ject slaves themselves of the new comer, but they peror Alexander.”
see to it that all others shall be so as well. The As, several years after, Caulaincourt was re- stranger within their gates must play the courtier lating these occurrences, he said, “My head is if he would maintain his occasional right to draw burning; I am feverish; should I live a hundred his chair to the fireside, and ply knife and fork