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greeted him which it is impossible to describe. abdication at Fontainebleau, Murat was walking He answered with smiles, with an affectionate thoughtfully and sadly in the garden of his counnod of the head, and occasionally with those ready try seat. He was freely unbosoming his perwords ever at his command, and which never | plexities and his anguish to General Coletta. A failed to rouse the enthusiasm of those to whom courier arrived and placed a note in his hands. they were addressed.

He read it in silence, turned pale, and seemed The Old Guard of Napoleon, now bivouacking struck as by a thunderbolt. Then pacing rapidly in the metropolis, occasionally threw out bitter backward and forward for a moment, he again taunts against the National Guard of Paris, for stopped, gazed intensely upon the ground, turned, surrendering so promptly to the Allies. Napo- seemed utterly bewildered. General Coletta and leon enjoined it upon his grenadiers to keep si- several officers of his suite, astonished at the lence upon that point. To obliterate all traces strange appearance of the King, gathered around of unkindness, and to cement their friendship, him. With an expression of indescribable wildhe requested the Imperial Guard to invite the ness and anguish, he fixed his eyes upon them, national troops to a dinner. This festive occa- and said, sion assembled fifteen thousand soldiers in the “Gentlemen! Paris has capitulated. The Field of Mars. At the close of the joyous re- Emperor is dethroned and a captive.” past the whole multitude of soldiers, accompa- The fearless warrior could say no more. Burynied by a vast concourse of the citizens of Paris, l ing his face in his hands, he burst into a flood proceeded to the Tuileries, bearing the bust of of tears. All the memory of the past came rushNapoleon, crowned with laurel. After saluting ing upon him, and he sobbed like a child. His the Emperor with reiterated acclamations, they irrepressible emotion overcame the whole group, repaired to the Place Vendôme, intending to re- and every eye was dimmed. place the statue upon that proud monument from The Allies, with characteristic perfidy, dewhich the Allies had torn it down. Napoleon frauded poor Murat of the wages of his treachinterrupted the work, saying, nobly, “ It is not ery. The Bourbons of France immediately deat the close of a banquet that my image is again termined, at every sacrifice, in order to strengthto ascend the column; that is a question for the en the principle of legitimacy, to dethrone Murat, nation to decide."

and to effect the restoration of the Bourbons of The nation has decided the question. The Naples. The Allies never allowed any treaties statue of the Emperor, at the bidding of united which they had signed with the popular party to France, again crowns that majestic shaft. Every stand in the way of their enterprises. Upon the evening martial bands, at the foot of the monu- pretext that Murat had joined them merely to ment, in those strains which were wont to thrill subserve his own interests, and that he had renthe soul of Napoleon, salute the image of the dered them but little assistance, England, France, most beloved monarch earth has ever known. and Austria, at the Congress of Vienna, entered And now, after the lapse of forty years, upon his into a secret convention for his expulsion from birth-day, loving hearts still encircle his statue Naples, and for the restoration of the imbecile with their annual tribute of garlands of flowers. Ferdinand and his infamous queen. Thus they

There are, however, some who can speak con refused to pay their dupe even his poor thirty temptuously of Napoleon Bonaparte. They are pieces of silver. to be pitied rather than blamed. Some persons Murat, trembling in anticipation of the apcan not discern difference of colors; others can proaching storm, was, on the evening of the 4th not perceive discord or harmony. And there are of March, surrounded by his generals and friends, those who are incapable of appreciating grandeur in the queen's drawing-room, when a messenger of character. They are not to be judged harshly. brought him the intelligence of the Emperor's It is their misfortune.

landing at Cannes, and of his march upon Paris. It will be remembered that Murat, in order to The countenance of the King became radiant with save his crown, had joined the Allies, and turned joy. New hope dawned upon him. With charhis arms against Napoleon. He had not sup- acteristic imprudence, he resolved immediately, posed it possible that the Allies, whom Napoleon without waiting for any advices from the Emhad so often treated magnanimously in the hour peror, to make an attack upon the Allies. He of victory, would proceed to such lengths as to hoped that the promptness of his zeal would be depose the Emperor. The impulsive King of some atonement for past defection. Deaf to all Naples found his alliance with the feudal despots remonstrances, and as impetuous as when makutterly uncongenial. His energies were para- ing a cavalry charge, he said to his ministers, lyzed as he drew his sword against his old com- “ Italy waits only for a signal and a man. I panions in arms. As blow after blow, from the have eighty thousand soldiers inured to war, and multitudinous and unrelenting enemy, fell upon a powerful provincial militia. All the countries the doomed Emperor, remorse began to agitate washed by the Po invite a liberator. The genthe bosom of Murat. When Napoleon was strug- erals of the old army of Eugene, at Milan, and gling, in the terrific campaign of Paris, against those of Piedmont, write me word that they are a million of invaders, the King of Naples was ready to revolt, and, beneath the tricolored banhesitating between his apparent interest and a ner, to form the league of Italian independence. desire to return to heroic duty. On the evening The Congress at Vienna has dissatisfied all peoof the 13th of April, two days after Napoleon's ple, on both sides the Apennines. Genoa is indignant. Venice is humbled. Piedmont, thrown past achievements, dwindled into nothingness as back into the slavery of the priests and nobles, the tribunal of final judgment and the retribustruggles beneath the double yoke imposed upon tions of eternity opened before him. He called it. The Milanese murmur deep and loud at their for a clergyman, received the sacrament of the subjection to the old slavery of Austria and Lord's Supper, and wrote, with his own hand, Rome. Its provinces are falling again under that “ I declare that I die a true Christian.” sacerdotal tyranny, which besots while it enchains With a firm step he then walked to the place a people who had been for a moment free.” of execution. A company of soldiers was drawn

In vain it was represented to him that he could up in two lines before him, with loaded muskets. make no effectual headway against the million | He refused to have his eyes bandaged. For a of soldiers whom the Allies had under arms. moment he serenely, and with a smile, contemHad he ,waited until the proper moment, he plated the instruments of his execution; then might, aided by the judicious counsel and co- pressing to his lips a picture of his wife and chiloperation of the Emperor, have accomplished dren, which he always wore in his bosom, he great results. But, with characteristic daring, said to the soldiers, “Save my face. Aim at he made a premature and a headlong charge, and my heart.” A volley of musketry answered his was overwhelmed with numbers. His army was words, and, pierced by bullets, Joachim Murat fell cut to pieces. Murat, in his despair, sought dead. He was in the forty-ninth year of his age. death in the midst of the bullets, but could not Murat, notwithstanding his impetuous bravery, find it. “Death,” he exclaimed indignantly, had much sensibility and gentleness of heart. 6 will not touch me." He returned, a fugitive, He made the extraordinary declaration to Count to his palace, threw his arms around the neck of Marbourg, his friend and very able minister: his wife, and, yielding himself to uncontrollable “My sweetest consolation, when I look back emotion, exclaimed, “All is lost, Caroline!" on my career as a soldier, a general, and a king, "No," replied the queen, in the lofty spirit of is, that I never saw a man fall dead by my hand. her Imperial brother, "all is not lost. We still It is not, of course, impossible that in so many preserve our honor, and constancy remains to us charges, when I dashed my horse forward at the in adversity."

head of the squadrons, some pistol shots, fired at On the 20th of May, as Napoleon, in triumph, random, may have wounded or killed an enemy; was entering Paris, Murat, in disguise, and in a but I have known nothing of the matter. If a fisherman's boat, was escaping from Naples. He man fell dead before me, and by my hand, his reached France. The speedy overthrow of Na- image would be always present to my view, and poleon left him a fugitive, pursued by all the would pursue me to the tomb." vigilance of despotism. After wandering about The name of Murat will never die. His faults for many weeks in disguise, enduring every pri- were many; and yet there was much in his charvation and peril, he, while Napoleon was being acter to win affection. With but ordinary intelconveyed a captive to St. Helena, made a des- lectual capacities, tender affections, and the utperate endeavor, characteristically bold and in- most impetuosity of spirit, and exposed to every judicious, to regain his throne. He was arrest- temptation which could crowd upon a mortal soul, ed, summarily tried by a court-martial, and con- it is not strange that his career should have been demned to immediate death. With composure sullied. Much that passes for virtue is but the he listened to the sentence, and then sat down absence of temptation. God alone can adjust and wrote the following letter to his wife: the measurement of human guilt. At his tri

“MY DEAR CAROLINE — My last hour has bunal all these warriors who deluged Europe in sounded. In a few moments I shall have ceased blood have appeared. From his lips they have to live, and you will no longer have a husband. received that righteous judgment from which Do not forget me. My life has been stained by there can be no appeal. no injustice. Farewell, my Achille; farewell, my Letitia ; farewell, my Lucien; farewell, my | THE BATTLES OF THE NILE AND Louisa! Show yourselves to the world worthy

TRAFALGAR.* of me. I leave you without kingdom or fortune,

BY ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE. in the midst of enemies. Be united. Prove yourselves superior to misfortune. Remember

BATTLE OF THE NILE. what you are, and what you have been, and God BONAPARTE embarking at Toulon an expewill bless you. Do not reproach my memory. D ditionary force, on board the most formidable Believe that my greatest suffering, in my last fleet that had navigated the Mediterranean since moments, is dying far from my children. Re- the Crusades, left the English ministers in doubt ceive your father's blessing. Receive my em- as to the object he bad in view. Did he propose braces and my tears. Preserve always in your to pass the Straits and attack Great Britain in one memory the recollection of your unhappy fa- of her European islands, or in the Indies? Was ther.

“ JOACHIM. it his intention to seize Constantinople, and from "Pizzo, 13th October, 1815."

thence to dictate to Russia and Austria, and to In this dread hour, when Murat was about to command the seas of Europe ? Lord St. Vincent, enter the world of spirits, he felt, as every soul | not bestial must feel, the need of religious sup


moirs of Celebrated Characters. In the press of Harper port. All pride of stoicism, and all the glory of and Brothers.

the admiral in chief command of the naval forces, blow the army they had transported, and the counof England on the coasts of France, Italy, and try that expected their return. Brueys, after Spain, dared not abandon the blockade of Cadiz fruitless attempts to enter the inner harbor of Aland the French ports; he therefore dispatched exandria, which was not then supposed deep Nelson, as the bravest and most skillful of his enough to receive vessels of so much draught of lieutenants, to watch, pursue, and, if possible, de water, determined to moor his fleet in the Bay of stroy the French armament. Nelson, successive-Aboukir, the sand-banks of which he had fortified. ly reinforced by sixteen sail of the line, hoisted Six vessels at anchor, ranged in a concave creshis flag in the Vanguard, and hastened after the cent, according to the sweep of the shore, were enemy without any certain indication of their supported on one flank by the little island of course. After touching at Corsica, already left Aboukir, a natural fortress armed with cannon ; behind by Bonaparte, and examining the Spanish on the other, by an advanced arm of the bay. seas, he returned to Naples on the 16th of Janu- They formed so many immovable citadels, preary, 1798, discouraged by a fruitless search, and senting their broadsides to the sea. Their comin want of stores and ammunition. While there, bined force might be brought to bear upon each the reports of the English consuls in Sicily ap- single ship of the advancing enemy: unattackable prised him of the conquest of Malta by the French, from the land-side, according to the conviction of with the subsequent departure of the fleet as soon Brueys, this line of defense gave to a naval battle as that island was reduced, and directed his the solid impregnability of a rampart of fire. thoughts toward Egypt.

At two p.m. on the 1st of August, Brueys, apThe intrigues of Lady Hamilton, animated by prised by signal of the appearance of Nelson in her double attachment to the Queen and to Nel- sight of the Egyptian coast, recalled every sailor son, obtained from the court of Naples, notwith- of his crews on board. He ordered two brigs, the standing their avowed neutrality, all the supplies Alerte and Railleur, which drew little water, to necessary for the English squadron before they reconnoitre the English fleet within cannon shot, resumed their dangerous cruise. In a few days then to seek refuge in the bay, over the shoals, Nelson was ready to put to sea; he touched at hoping that the leading vessels of the pursuing Sardinia, coasted the shores of the Peloponnesus, enemy would follow their exact course, and run searched the Levant in its full extent, dispatched aground in the mud of the Nile. But Nelson was small vessels to look into the road of Alexandria, well aware of these dangers, and escaped the where the French had not yet appeared, traversed snare. Without bestowing any attention on the the Egyptian sea, sailed along one side of Candia brigs, he advanced in order of battle against the while the Republican fleet passed by on the other, head of the French line, as to a direct assault came close to Malta, vainly interrogated every ship upon the centre of a position. Then varying a or boat coming from the Archipelago, learned that little from his course, without sounding, hesitatthere was already an outcry against him at home ing, or firing a shot, he passed between the moorfor his dilatoriness or incapacity (accusations ings of Brueys and the islet of Aboukir, in full which redoubled his anxiety), exclaimed against sail, with half his squadron, leaving only the Culthe winds, crowded additional sail, braved contin-| loden behind, which went aground on the sandual tempests, and finally, on the 1st of August, banks. As his ships cleared the passage, they at early dawn, discovered the naked masts of the anchored successively in rear of their opponents. French fleet at anchor in the Bay of Aboukir, six The remaining half divided, and ranged up on the leagues from Alexandria, and close to the mouth outer side in front of the French vessels, who of the Nile.

were thus attacked simultaneously on both flanks, Bonaparte had already disembarked the army | and the thunder of a double fire poured into their and marched across the desert toward Cairo. Ad- immovable hulls. The French fleet thus deprived, miral Brueys commanded the fleet, which consist- by the error of their chief, of the protection they ed of seventeen large men-of-war, four frigates, expected from the land, and without the power and a great number of lighter vessels. Every in- of motion by being at anchor, saw at once the disstant he expected the appearance of the English aster that awaited them. Nothing remained but squadron. His superiority in the number of ships to perish gloriously, and to envelop in their own and weight of metal, in the equalized quality of destruction as many of the enemy's ships as poshis crews, would, under any other circumstances, sible. They proved themselves worthy of their have induced him to seek an encounter with Nel-fate. Commanded still by the brave warriors of the son in the open sea, and dispute the sovereignty Revolution, they raised themselves to the level of of the Mediterranean. But naval battles are sub- ancient heroism, and presented another Salamis, ject to casualties, which the positive instructions to which nothing was wanting but the presence of Bonaparte and the objects of the expedition of Themistocles ! The Spartiate, the Franklin, forbade him to encounter. The French feet, at the Orient, the Tonnant, responded on the right once the support and arsenal of the land army, and left to the double broadsides of the English constituted the sole base of their operations. The seventy-fours, strewed the decks of Nelson with destruction of this fleet deprived them of their shattered masts and yards, with dead and woundonly means of communication and hope of succor. ed sailors. Victory was less the prize of naval They had no other bridge between France and superiority than the consequence of the fatal misEgypt. To expose the ships, therefore, to be de-take of engaging at anchor. The French marine stroyed in open sea, would be to betray at one never conquered more gloriously than they now

submitted. Every single ship became a Ther- anca rejected their entreaties. They wished at mopylæ, for the combatants fought no longer for least to preserve his son, a noble youth of twelve victory, but for death. On every deck the cap- years old, who had been induced, by affection for tains, the officers, the gunners fell successively at his father, to embark with him. The brave boy, their posts, and left nothing to the English but embracing the body of his parent, resisted their lifeless bodies and enormous funeral piles. Ad prayers and efforts, and preferred death in the miral Brueys, severely wounded by an early dis- arms of him who had given him life. charge of grape-shot, remained erect on the poop The catastrophe, which now approached rapidly, of his flag-ship, the Orient, surrounded by the compelled the generous sailors to leave the melanremains of his staff, and invoking death to cover choly group. The Orient blew up at eleven o'clock, his misfortune. A cannon ball from the Vanguard with an explosion which made the land of Egypt cut him in two; still with his dying hands he op- tremble to Rosetta, and with a burst of flame that posed the action of those who would have carried long illuminated the surrounding horizon. Her him below. “ No! no !” exclaimed he; "a masts, spars, rigging, timbers, and cannon, fell French admiral ought to die upon his quarter-down in a storm of fire into the bay, like fragdeck.” His flag-captain, Casa-Bianca, fell a mo- inents from heaven, bursting in a counter-blow ment after on the body of his chief. The Orient, among the human combatants. The rising sun deprived of her commander, still fought as if of discovered nothing in the Bay of Aboukir but the her own accord. Nelson fell, wounded in the hulls of stranded or burning vessels scattered at head by a splinter; the blood covered his face, the mercy of the heaving swell. The fleet of Neland the skin of his forehead falling over his re- son himself, dismasted, and almost without sails, maining eye, plunged him in total darkness, which could with difficulty move away from the scene for a moment he conceived to be the harbinger of of action. Two of his ships, which had sustaindeath.

ed little damage, secured the spoils of the night. Confident of the victory, but believing his hurt Several French captains ran their vessels ashore, to be mortal, he summoned the chaplain of the and burned them, to prevent their falling into the Vanguard, and charged him to deliver his last re- hands of the conquerors. The French army, from membrances to his family. A moment of terrible that moment, became prisoners in the Egypt they and anxious silence pervaded the ship while the had conquered. The subsequent capitulation of surgeon probed the wound. A cry of joy burst that army may be considered the second victory from every mouth when they declared that it was of Nelson. Fortune refused to give all to a sinonly superficial, and that the conqueror would be gle nation. To one she assigned the land, to the preserved to his country. Night had fallen for other the sea. about three hours, but was unheeded in the fury This victory of Nelson is admitted by the French of the combat and the reflected light of the can- historians who witnessed it to have been the most nonading. The French ships were silenced, one complete that had ever been won at sea since the by one, for want of hands to man the guns. They invention of gunpowder. He was indebted for it drifted from their cables toward the shore, or found to his bold attack, and the immobility of the fleet ered on the rocks. The Orient, in flames above, of Brueys. The heroic defense of that fleet at still fired from her lower decks, ready to be con- anchor shows how they would have fought had sumed in the impending conflagration, hastened they been under sail. They were not beaten, and excited by the freshening of the night-breeze. but immolated; in their sacrifice they bore with The English ships ceased to respond, and retired | them thousands of their enemies, and obtained to a distance to escape the vortex of the inevitable for the French navy respect equivalent to the explosion. Captain Dupetit-Thouars, command-glory of victory ing the Tonnant, never slackened his fire for a mo- Nelson, after returning thanks to the God of ment at sight of this disaster. He no longer fought battles, occupied eighteen days in the repairs of for glory or life, but for immortality. One arm his squadron before he was ready to put to sea. carried off by a cannon shot, and both legs broken Fast-sailing vessels carried home intelligence of by grape, he called upon his crew to swear never the triumph. Scarcely cured of his wound, he to strike his flag, and to throw his body overboard, returned to Naples to enjoy his victory in the dethat even his remains might not become captive lirium of love. The royal family, restored to conto the English. The Tonnant, as well as the fidence, received him in the bay as a savjour, and Franklin, covered with the bodies of their officers, conducted him in joyful procession to the palace. became, in a short time, little better than floating Lady Hamilton, overpowered by emotion, fainted corpses.

in the boat, and was carried inanimate to his feet. The increasing flames of the Orient served to She speedily advocated the departure of the court light the entire bay, covered with the relics of with all the ascendency she possessed over the battle. The sailors of this vessel flung themselves mind of Nelson. The French were approaching, from the port-holes into the sea, and clung to the royal family contemplated flight, and the popbroken masts and yards, in the hope of floating on ulace watched their movements narrowly. shore. They implored their commandant, CasaBianca, who was covered with wounds, to allow

TRAFALGAR. them to save him. Whether he was unable to Nelson appeared before Cadiz, and learned move his shattered limbs, or was stoically determ- / with transports of joy that Villeneuve was still ined not to survive the loss of his ship, Casa-Bi- there. He established his cruising ground at a

sufficient distance from the land to keep his forces powered by the bellowing of reiterated broadsides. out of sight, and to encourage the sailing of the It was the morning of the 21st of October, a hapcombined fleet by the appearance of an open sea. py anniversary in the family of Nelson. On that While waiting the approach of the decisive hour, same day and hour, his uncle and early patron, Nelson animated his officers and crews with emo- Captain Suckling, had signalized his career by tions of loyalty, glory, and impatience, in expect- a gallant combat, in which four French vessels ation of the impending combat. His orders were were made prizes. Nelson partook of the superfew, his tactics simple; they were to engage in two stition common to all great men, who feel and lines, with an advanced squadron of eight ships. understand more strongly than others can the

The only manœuvre recommended to his cap- vast disproportion between their actual weakness tains was to cut the opposing line at about the and the great deeds they are permitted by Provtenth or twelfth sail from the admiral's flag, while idence to accomplish Anniversaries are, to elehe fell upon the centre, and the leading vessels vated minds, a compelled acknowledgment of the engaged the head. “But as the smoke of the controlling interference of the Divine power in broadsides,” he added, in his order of the day, human affairs. Nelson partook of this religious “ may hide the signals and prevent them from sentiment peculiar to true heroes; he felt assured being clearly understood, every captain of a ship of victory, since chance had offered him battle on will be sure to do right in engaging whatever a day so fortunate in the annals of his race. vessel of the enemy he finds the closest to his While the English feet was hastening under own.” He concluded by issuing an order that a crowd of canvas to diminish the distance which the name of every officer, sailor, or marine, killed divided it from the enemy-Nelson, in the Vicor wounded in the battle, should be immediately tory, leading one column, and Collingwood, in communicated to him, that, being transmitted the Royal Sorcrcign, at the head of the otherwithout delay to England, they might become the admiral descended once more to his cabin, subjects of national gratitude.

and inscribed the following prayer in his private At daybreak on the 20th of October, the frigates journal : stationed by Nelson between the coast of Spain "May the great God, whom I worship, grant and his own position, announced by signal that to my country, and for the benefit of Europe in the combined fleet had issued from the harbor of general, a great and glorious victory; and may Cadiz. From hour to hour they indicated also no misconduct in any one tarnish it ; and may the course taken by the enemy, who appeared humanity, after victory, be the predominant feaundecided whether to incline toward the Straits ture in the British fleet. For myself individualof Gibraltar, or to steer boldly into the open sea. ly, I commit my life to Him who made me, and Toward evening, a heavy gale from the south- may his blessing light upon my endeavors for west seemed to alter their movements, and com- serving my country faithfully. To Him I resign pel them to tack about, so as to return to Cadiz. myself, and the just cause which is intrusted to Under any circumstances, it was evident they in- me to defend. Amen! Amen! Amen!" tended to keep this retreat open in case of acci- After thus committing his life to the hands of dents. Nelson passed alternately from hope to his Creator, the thoughts of Nelson returned to disappointment as the varying signals were re- her who, whether for good or evil, for happiness ported to him. The night closed in uncertainty. or remorse, had ruled his destiny, and whose

Traversing his quarter-deck with the earliest image at that moment stepped between him and dawn, the first signals of his frigates which were death. He hastily penned the following note, in discernible informed him that the combined fleet the form of a testament, or last request to his was still at sea, and steering toward the north. country : His anxiety increased, and he hoisted all sail, “ October the twenty-first, one thousand eight hastening obliquely in the same direction. At hundred and five, in sight of the combined fleets, sunrise, Captain Blackwood, of the Euryalus, a of France and Spain, distant about ten miles. particular friend of the admiral, made a telegraphic “Whereas, the eminent services of Emma signal that Villeneuve had changed his course, Hamilton, widow of the Right Honorable Sir and was now inclining toward the south and the William Hamilton, have been of the very greatStraits. “And that is exactly what he shall not est service to our king and country, to my knowldo, if Nelson can prevent it,” said he. The En-edge, without her receiving any reward from either glish admiral, having inserted this paragraph in our king or country-first, that she obtained the his journal, re-entered his cabin.

King of Spain's letter, in 1796, to his brother, A few minutes later, the sun, which rose from the King of Naples, acquainting him of his ina misty but calm horizon, striking upon the lofty tention to declare war against England, from sails of the combined fleet, made them appear suc- which letter the ministry sent out orders to then cessively through the haze, and exhibited to the Sir John Jervis to strike a stroke, if opportunity sight of Nelson and his crews the extended line offered, against either the arsenals of Spain or of Villeneuve, consisting of forty-two men-of-war her fleets. That neither of these was done is not and eight frigates. A distance of eight leagues the fault of Lady Hamilton. The opportunity separated the rival armaments; a light breeze might have been offered. Secondly, the British swelled their sails. A heavy sea, with a long fleet under my command could never have reswell but without foam, beat against the sides of turned the second time to Egypt, had not Lady the vessels with sullen murmurs, soon to be over. Hamilton's influence with the Queen of Naples

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