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tion ceased. I felt all the horrors of my situa- riod. These fatal consequences are very commontion; but I forgot my suffering, in order to seek ly the effects of incaution; hay-makers and reapsuccor for a man whom I saw dying. I called ers in the fields, in spite of repeated warnings to him, but he did not reply. His right eye was the contrary, persisting in gathering under trees open and bright; it seemed to me as though a to screen themselves from the rain. This is the ray of intelligence beamed from it, and I hoped; most perilous position that can be assumed in a but the left eye remained closed, and on raising storm : the safest would be to lie down on the the eyelid, I saw that it was dull. I supposed, most open ground; but in all situations, approhowever, that there was still sight remaining on priately is the prayer preferred, in the words of the right side, for I endeavored to close the eye the liturgy, “From lightnings and tempeston that side ; an attempt which I repeated three good Lord, deliver us." times. It opened again of itself, and seemed animated. I put my hand on his heart; it no longer beat. I pricked his limbs, body, and lips with a compass; all was immovable : it was death, and I could not believe it. Bodily pain at last drew me from this painful contemplation. My left leg was paralyzed ; and I felt a shuddering, an extraordinary movement. I felt, besides, a general trembling and oppression and disordered beatings of the heart. The most sinister reflections took possession of me. Was I going to perish like my unfortunate companion ? I thought so from my suffering ; however, reason told me that the danger was passed. I gained with the greatest difficulty the village of Alt St. Johann. The instruments had been struck in like manner."

THE HYÆNA. Nowhere are storms exhibited with such vio- PUT scanty favor has this ill-favored, unhappylence, or are they so frequent, as within the D looking quadruped met with hitherto in the tropics in the wet season. They diminish in in- eyes of zoologists; and, as a general rule, it will tensity and number, as a general law, with the be found that the older the work on natural hisincrease of latitude, and chiefly occur in the sum- tory in which he is mentioned, the more abundant mer months. But on passing from the shores are the hard epithets lavished upon his devoted of the Atlantic into the interior of the continent, head. His personal appearance is certainly any a modification is found as to frequency, analo- thing but prepossessing; but if his countenance gous to that of rain, except in mountainous coun- is gloomy and malignant in captivity, we doubt tries. Thus, in the western districts of Europe whether it is more lowering than the physiogthere is an average of about 20 storms in the nomy of many an F.Z.S. would speedily become year; at Moscow, 17; at Kasan, 9; and at Ir- if he were transported from his snug firesidekutsk about 8. M. Arago estimates the annual which, after all, is an ice-house compared to average of storms at the places mentioned as fol- the torrid regions of Africa, whence cometh the lows: Calcutta, 60; Rio Janeiro, 50; Guada- hapless hyæna-to a crippled and narrow den, loupe, 37; Buenos Ayres, 20; Smyrna, 19; facing the north, and situate in a damp and Berlin, 18; Strasburg, 17; Toulouse, 15; Utrecht, foggy corner; or condemned to dine upon a 15; Paris, 13; Athens, 11; Petersburg, 9; Lon- leg-of-mutton bone, instead—as the hyæna has don, 8; Pekin, 5; Cairo, 3. When falling on been known to do in his native land—of discussthe surface of the earth, lightning follows the ing a repast of three courses, consisting of a young best conductors, attaching itself principally to ass, a goat, and a fox, at one sitting. It is a metals, though it may prefer a body which is not well-known fact, that no animal has a greater so good a conductor, if the latter conducts it aversion to close confinement than the hyæna; more directly to the ground. Damp substances | little wonder is it, then, that under these circumare preferred after metals—the reason why men stances he should seldom or ever appear to adand animals are struck, stunned, or killed, the vantage; but, on the contrary, generally testify dread element apparently proving fatal by the an impatient, irritable spirit, particularly when, shock given to the nervous system. Kaemtz to amuse the “gazing crowd,” he is kept in susspeaks of these melancholy events as not very pense regarding the one creature comfort which common. He mentions that at Gottingen, in the he thoroughly enjoys, viz., his dinner. The hysspace of a century, three persons only have been terical laughter of the poor beast, which gives killed by lightning, and but two at Halle. But such intense satisfaction to the spectators who though the number of victims is very limited, if usually cluster about the dens at feeding-time, only a single locality or town is examined, it is has to our ears a very pitiful sound. It has cerfrequently otherwise in the case of an entire coun- tainly a strange resemblance to, and, when heard try. In the United States, twenty-four persons at a distance, is a very close imitation of, the have been struck in the course of a year, of whom laughter of the human species; but it is any thing seventeen were killed ; and as many as twenty rather than an appreciation of a joke which calls persons have perished in France in the same pe-forth the shrill and unearthly sounds uttered by


the hyæna on these festive occasions. It is when peds than itself. It fears neither the kingly lion, agitated and irate that he thus lifts up his voice; the wily panther, nor the fierce ounce, whom, and those who have watched him, with upraised either by stealthy attacks, or by the combined bristles and exposed fangs, angrily and rapidly power of numbers, it seldom fails to conquer. pacing up and down his cage, eying with malig- Mr. Bruce, the persevering and entertaining nant glances his keeper, who holds the tantalizing Abyssinian traveler, says, “I do not think that morsel of raw flesh which is his allotted portion there is any one who has hitherto written of this suspended at the top of his iron staff far out of animal who ever saw the thousandth part of them reach, will readily believe that these discordant I have. They were a plague in Abyssinia in peals have in them much more of rage and baf- every situation, both in the city and in the field, fled desire than of joyous merriment or gleeful and, I think, surpassed the sheep in number. satisfaction.

Gondar was full of them from the time it turned As for the ancients, they not only believed that dark to the break of day, seeking the different the hyæna could laugh, but that it could speak. pieces of slaughtered carcasses which this cruel " These hideous brutes,” says Pliny in his “ His- and unclean people expose in the streets without toria Naturalis," "are wont to repair to the shep- burial, and who firmly believe that these animals herds' huts and imitate the human voice, and even | are Falasha from the neighboring mountains, learn some person's name, who, when he answers transformed by magic, and come down to eat huto the call and comes out, is immediately torn to man flesh in the dark for safety. One night in pieces.” Even Aristotle, who may be looked Maitsha, being very intent on observation, I heard upon as the father of naturalists, and who ought something pass behind me toward the bed, but to have known better, has fallen into the popular upon looking round could perceive nothing. Hayerror of his day; and, besides other apocryphal ing finished what I was then about, I went out of charges, has advanced the monstrous proposition, my tent, intending directly to return, which I imthat the neck of the hyæna consisted of but one mediately did, when I perceived large blue eyes jointless bone—an assertion which, it is almost glaring at me in the dark. I called upon my seryneedless to add, is to the full as groundless as ant with a light, and there was the hyæna standthat this peculiar bone proved of great efficacy in ing nigh the head of the bed, with two or three magical invocation; which belief is to this day large bunches of candles in his mouth. To have current among the superstitious Arabs, who, when fired, I was in danger of breaking my quadrant or they slay one of these animals, carefully bury the other furniture, and he seemed, by keeping the head, lest it should operate as an avenging charm candles steadily in his mouth, to wish for no other or spell.

prey at that time. As his mouth was full, and There are two varieties of this animal. The he had no claws to tear with, I was not afraid of spotted kind is peculiar to the Cape of Good Hope him, but with a pike struck him as near the heart and the southern division of Africa, where it is as I could judge. It was not till then he showed vulgarly known by the name of the tiger-wolf. any sign of fierceness; but upon feeling his wound, It is an object of great fear and abhorrence in this he let drop the candles and endeavored to run up region, though it rarely moves abroad during the the shaft of the spear to arrive at me, so that, in day, but passes the hours of light and heat in self-defense, I was obliged to draw a pistol from slothful slumber, concealed in a hole or den of its my girdle and shoot him, and nearly at the same own excavation, or else hidden from all prying time my servant cleft his skull with a battle-ax. eyes within the depths of some densely-covered In a word, the hyæna was the plague of our lives, bush. Till very lately bands of hyænas were in the terror of our night-walks, the destruction of the habit of paying nightly visits to the streets of our mules and asses, which above all others are Cape Town, where they were tolerated as very his favorite food.” useful in carrying away the animal refuse and of- Though ready and willing to grapple with a fal; but, partly from better regulations now ex- living prey, the hyæna is content to subsist prinisting in the town, and partly from the number cipally on the putrescent remains of such animals of these animals having decreased in the same as have been killed and only half devoured by the ratio as the population has increased, this no higher order of the carnivora; and though not longer occurs.

gregarious on any social principle, these animals Sparrman, who is good authority, speaks of the assemble in troops and follow in the wake of the hyæna as a cruel, mischievous, and formidable Caffre and Hottentot armies of the present epoch, animal, living by depredation and rapine, daring and gorge on the dead bodies of the slain, and too and rapacious in its attacks upon the farmer's often it is to be feared ransack the hasty, ill-made flocks and herds; and, in truth, the numbers, the graves that mark these battle-fields. It is said, nocturnal habits, and the mingled courage and too, that like other and nobler animals, the hyæna obstinacy of these animals, render them in this which has tasted human flesh is but too prone to respect even more destructive than the lion itself. retain a dangerous liking for this fell banquet. The courage of the hyæna, moreover, is equal to Steedman speaks of this in his “Wanderings and its voracity; man himself he seldom ventures to Adventures in the interior of Southern Africa," attack, save and except when driven to despera- and alleges that the hyæna will pass through the tion and in self-defense, and then it will turn fu- herds of calves, &c., which are always secured riously even upon this all-powerful assailant, but close around the Hottentot huts, and, stealing It wages fierce war against much larger quadru- into the interior, “take the children from under the mother's kaross, and this in such a gentle and of a less ferocious temper than his spotted brothcautious manner, that the poor parent has been er, and we can hardly think that this can really unconscious of her loss until the cries of the little be a fact; we should rather imagine that the innocent have reached her from without, when a placability of either species depends more on the close prisoner in the jaws of the monster.” circumstances in which they have been respect


And yet, notwithstanding this ferocity, in the ively placed than upon natural temperament. district of Scheuf berg, at the Cape, the spotted Every kind of beast is tamed and hath been hyæna is sometimes domesticated in the houses tamed of mankind," and we believe the spotted of the peasantry, among whom, we are told, “ he hyæna is to the full as susceptible of kindness, is preferred to the dog himself for attachment to and amenable to education, as is the other vahis master, for general sagacity, and even, it is riety. said, for his qualifications for the chase."

The striped hyæna, of the north of Africa and A TURKISH REVOLUTION. of Asia, differs in no essential particular, save in TN the year 1065 of the Hegira, on the second the substitution of a barred for a spotted dress, 1 day of the feasts of Beïram, a large group of from the above variety—the description of the one, Mussulmans was assembled in a circle before the with this single variation, will serve for that of mosque of St. Sophia. Some were standing, and the other. In many particulars the hyæna re- others were sitting cross-legged on mats or carsembles both the dog and the wolf, the latter espe- pets spread upon the sand. By degrees the group cially in disposition and size, yet, in other respects, was increased, as the Moslems issued from the it is so singular in its conformation that it is im- temple, and as passers-by, prompted by curiosity, possible to confound this race with any other class remained to see what was going on. Every eye of animals. The skull of the hyæna is short, and was turned toward one point with a look of exremarkable for its solidity and thickness; the pectation ; but a cloud of bluish smoke slowly character of the mouth, too, is peculiar—the tu- rising in the air proved that the gratification of berculous, or small teeth, generally found behind their curiosity was not the only pleasure which the carnivorous, being utterly wanting, while these Mussulmans enjoyed. these last progressively increase in size, as they In the midst of this crowd of smokers, a young are placed more and more backward. This for man of remarkably handsome features, though midable array of fangs adorns jaws which are somewhat bronzed by an Asiatic sun, was seated possessed of enormous strength, and adapted for before a small table, which was covered with crushing the hardest substances; the muscles swords and brass balls. He was dressed in a which raise the lower jaw are in consequence kind of close jacket of green silk, admirably adaptunusually developed, and appear like enormous ed to set off his light and graceful figure; a girmasses of flesh on either side of the head. The dle of antelope skin, on which some mysterious neck, chest, and shoulders of the hyæna are ex- characters were inscribed in silver, confined a tremely powerful, while the hind-quarters are dis- pair of loose trowsers, which were drawn in close proportionably low, and the hind-legs bent, crouch at the ankle. This light and attractive dress was ing, and knock-kneed, causing the pace even when completed by a Phrygian cap, from the top of rapid to be of a shuffling or dragging character. which hung a small musical bell. By this cosIndeed, it is a remarkable peculiarity about this tume, at once graceful and fantastic, it was easy animal, that when he is first obliged to run, he to recognize one of those jugglers whom the feasts always appears lame for a considerable distance, of Beiram drew every year to Stamboul, and to so much so, as in some instances to have induced whom was erroneously given the name of zinthe belief that one of his legs was broken. After / gari. running some time, however, this halting disap The spectators soon became so nurmerous, that pears, and he proceeds on his course very swiftly. many found it difficult to get even a glimpse of This is, perhaps, the only quadruped which pos- the juggler's tricks. The brass balls, glittering in sesses but four toes on either foot; the claws the sun, were flying round his head with amazing these are armed with are blunt, stout, and non- rapidity, and forming every variety of figure at retractile, but the dew-claw in the dog and the his pleasure. The ease and grace with which innermost claw of the feline kind are, strange to the zingaro performed these wonders gave promsay, utterly wanting. The coat is of two differ- | ise of still greater. At length, allowing the balls ent materials, fur or wool in small quantities be- to drop one after the other into a resounding vase ing intermixed with long, stiff, and silky-looking at his feet, he armed himself with a yataghan. hair. The general color of the hide is a dirty Seizing the brilliant hilt, he drew the blade from yellow, or yellowish brown, the oblique stripes, its costly scabbard, and dexterously whirling it and numerous spots of the respective varieties over his head, made as it were a thousand flashes being of so dark a tint as almost to arrive at a oflightning sparkle around him. The Mussulmans perfect black. A coarse, bristly mane runs down slowly bowed their heads in token of approbation, the spine, and terminates in a short and bushy much after the manner of those Chinese mandatail, while the ears, which give a good deal of rins, carried about by the Italian boys, that make character to the head and face, are nearly desti- perpetual salutations to each other. tute of hair, a fact which is the more apparent, as The zingaro continued his exploits without apthey are large, pointed, and very erect.

pearing to notice the admiration he excited. He It has been asserted that the striped hyæna is next took a pigeon's egg from a small moss bask

et, and placing it upright on the table, he struck , his voice—"Can you tell me," said he, " the it with the edge of his sword, without injuring its name of his favorite wife ?" fragile covering. An incredulous bystander took “Yes," replied the diviner, in a satirical tone, the egg to examine it, but the slight pressure of it is Assarach." his fingers served to destroy the frail object which! The bostangi put his finger on the juggler's had resisted the blow of the cimeter. Then tak- lips. ing off his Phrygian cap the juggler disclosed a "Follow me," said he; and, as he moved to large clear forehead, shaded by locks of jetty depart, the crowd respectfully opened a passage blackness. Placing upon his bare head a pyra- before him. mid of steel, which he had first submitted to the | The young man took up his yataghan, and leavcircle for inspection, he made the curved weapon ing the remainder of his baggage to be carried by fly around him with such fearful velocity, that he a slave, be followed the steps of his guide toward appeared for a moment to be enveloped within the great door of the palace. the luminous circles it described. Presently the The history of the successors of Mohammed oftsword appeared to deviate, and grazed the hair en present little beyond the melancholy spectacle of the intrepid young man. Some Europeans of a throne at the mercy of a lawless soldiery. present turned pale, and closed their eyes against Mahmoud was not the first of his race who sought the dreaded sight; but the juggler's hand was to free the seraglio from those formidable guardsure. The yataghan, which had spared the pig-ians. Soliman III. had formed this perilous deeon's egg, had severed in two the pyramid of sign before him, but he was put to death by the steel.

janissaries, led by Mustapha, his uncle, who came This act of dexterity was followed by many from the Morea for the ostensible purpose of deothers no less perilous. The boldness of the zin- fending the emperor, but in reality to seize upon garo terrified the usually impassive Turks; and, his throne. The sultan Mustapha, who had comwhat was yet more surprising, he even made them menced his reign in such a tragic manner, expesmile by the amusing stories he related. Persons rienced all the anxiety and uneasiness which must of his profession in Asia were generally silent, ever attend the acts of a usurper and a tyrant. and their only powers of amusement lay in their Sordid, suspicious, and perfidious, he broke fingers' ends; but this man possessed the varied through every promise he had made to the janisqualities of an Indian juggler and an Arabian saries, whose creature nevertheless he was. Instoryteller. He paused between almost every stead of doubling their pay, he diminished it; intrick to continue a tale, again to be interrupted stead of lessening the taxes, he doubled them. by fresh displays of his power; thus by turns He lived buried in the depths of his palace, the delighting the eyes and the ears of his audience. care of which he had confided to the Greek solDuring the more dangerous of his performances, diery, notwithstanding the murmurs of the legiteven the smokers held their breath, and not a imate guards. The mutes, dwarfs, and buffoons sound was to be heard but the quivering of the at the palace could alone obtain access to his steel and the tinkling of the bell.

presence. One of the most enthusiastic admirers of the At the time the zingaro was amusing the grave zingaro was a man apparently about forty years subjects of his highness, Mustapha was seated of age, whose carpet was placed in the first circle, cross-legged on his divan in an inner apartment and whose dress denoted him to be of superior of the palace, seeking to drive away his ennui in rank. This was the bostangi-bassa, superintend-watching the columns of fragrant smoke as they ent of the gardens, and keeper of the privy purse slowly rose from the long tube of his narghilé. to the grand signior. The juggler having at A slave stood beside him, holding a feathered fan length completed his tricks, the people remained of varied colors. The buffoons of the palace had to hear the conclusion of the story which had been vainly tried to extort one smile from their master. so often interrupted. He then continued his The impassibility of the grand signior gave them narration, which was one of the wild fictions of to understand that their time was ill chosen, and the east, in pronouncing the last words of which, that mirth would be dangerous; they had, therea melancholy expression passed over his counte-fore, one after the other, quitted the apartment, nance. He was aroused by the voice of the bos- waiting to re-enter at the good pleasure of the tangi.

prince. One among them, however, the favor“Since you are such a magician," said the bos- ite dwarf, and the most deformed of all the intangi-bassa, “ will you tell me which is the sul-mates of the palace-wished to make another attan's favorite flower ?”

tempt. He entered noiselessly, and, seating him“The poppy of Aleppo; it is red,” replied the self near the musing sultan, he took up one of the juggler, without a moment's hesitation.

tubes of the narghile, and putting it to his lips, "At what time does the sultan sleep?” resumed he imitated the looks and posture of his master. the bostangi, after a few moments' reflection, ex. When the latter perceived that the intention of pecting to puzzle him by this question.

the buffoon was to parody his sacred person, he “Never !" said the juggler.

gave the unfortunate courtier a most violent push The bassa started, and looked anxiously around with his foot, and resumed his reverie. The head him, fearing lest other ears than his own had of the dwarf hit against the marble fountain, and heard this answer. He slowly arose and beckon-blood flowed from the wound. The hapless jested the zingaro to approach him; then lowering er, whose only fault lay in endeavoring to amuse his master, left the apartment with tears glisten- only possess the secret ; I have questioned many ing in his eyes, and soon not a sound was to be fakeers, marabouts, and celebrated dervises, who beard throughout the immense palace but the voice have three times visited the tomb of the prophet, of the muezzin summoning to the duties of the but none of them were able to answer me as mosque.

thou hast. I should wish to keep thee in my Shortly afterward the hangings opposite the palace; I will make thee richer than all the merdivan were gently raised, and a man stood in a chants of Galata, if thou wilt tell me the year respectful attitude before Mustapha.

when I must die." " What would'st thou ?" said the sultan. Mehallé then approached the emperor, and tak

The bostangi-bassa, for it was he, replied | ing his hand, he appeared to study the lines of it briefly, according to the custom of the seraglio: with deep attention. Having finished his exam“ A juggler stands without ; he might perchance ination, he went to the window, and fixed his amuse your highness."

eyes for some time upon the heavens. “The The sultan made a sign in the negative. fires of Beïram are lighting up the cupola of the “This man," continued the bostangi, " knows grand mosque," said he, slowly; “night is at strange things; he can read the future."

hand." “Let him come in!”

Mustapha anxiously awaited the answer of the The bostangi bowed profoundly and retired. astrologer. The latter continued in a mysterious

Black slaves, armed with drawn and glisten- manner: “The declining day still eclipses the ing cimeters, surrounded the imperial sofa when light of the constellations. I will answer you, the zingaro was introduced. After a slight salu- signior, when the evening star appears." tation, the young man leaned gracefully upon his! The sultan made a movement of impatience ; yataghan, awaiting the orders of the emperor. anger was depicted in his countenance, and the - Thy name?" demanded Mustapha.

look which he darted on the mutes showed the “Mehallé.”

zingaro that he had incurred his highness's dis“ Thy country ?"

pleasure. Curiosity, however, doubtless prevail“ Jugglers have no country.”

ed over every other feeling of the prince's mind; “ Thine age ?"

for, turning to Mehallé, he said: “I am little “I was five years old when you first girded on accustomed to wait; I will do so, however, if the sword of Ottoman."

thou canst amuse me until the propitious hour “Whence comest thou ?"

arrives.” “From the Morea, signior," replied the zin- “Would your highness like to see some feats garo, pronouncing the words with emphasis of juggling ?” said Mehallé, drawing his sabre

The sultan remained silent for a moment, but from the scabbard. soon added, gayly: “Since you can read the fu- “No! no !” exclaimed the sultan, making the ture, I will put your knowledge to the proof. circle of slaves close in about him. “Leave When people know the future, they ought to thine arms." know the past !"

“Would you prefer a story, signior ?" “You say right, signior; he who sees the “Stories that lull an Arab to sleep under his evening star rise in the horizon has but to turn tent? No, I must have something new. Of all his head to view the last rays of the setting sun." known games, there is but one I care for; I used “Well! tell me how I made my ablutions yes to play it formerly; but now, there is not a sin

gle person within my empire who understands " The first with Canary wine, the second with a chess-board.” wine of Cyprus, and the third with that of Chios." The zingaro smiled, and taking an ebony box

The chief of the believers" smiled and stroked from a velvet bag, he presented it to the sultan, his beard; he was indeed in the habit of deroga whose wish he understood. ting in this respect, as in many others, from the | The words of Mustapha will require some exprescriptions of the Koran.

planation for the reader. The sultan was pas“Knowest thou,” replied the sultan, whom the sionately fond of the game of chess. At the comzingaro's answer had put into a pleasant humor mencement of his reign he easily found adver—“knowest thou that I could have thee behead- saries, and played for considerable sums. He ed?"

possessed the secret of keeping fortune always “Doubtless,” said the juggler, undauntedly, I at his side: when he lost, the happy conqueror * as you did the Spanish merchant, who watered was strangled. Those of his adherents whom he his wine before he sold it to you."

admitted to the honor of his imperial company, Mustapha applauded the knowledge of the zin- were compelled to submit either to their ruin, or, garo. He hesitated, nevertheless, before he ven if they preferred it, to their death. In a short tured to put the dreaded question that tyrants, time, not a person could be found within the who are ever superstitious, never fail to demand whole extent of the empire who knew any thing of astrologers— How long have I to live ?” of the game of chess. Mehallé was not ignorant

The grand signior assumed a persuasive tone, of these circumstances ; nevertheless, it was a and even condescended to flatter the organ of des- chess-board that he offered to the sultan. The tiny, in hopes of obtaining a favorable answer. stern countenance of the prince relaxed at the

“Thou art a wonderful youth,” said he; "thou sight, and the board was immediately placed on knowest things of which, beside thyself, the mutes the bowed back of a slave. Before commencing


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