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entered his former cabinet. Louis Stanislas baceres was appointed Minister of Justice. NaXavier had left in such haste, that many memo- poleon, as he called this illustrious man, of tried rials of his presence remained behind. The lux- integrity, to his post, frankly unvailed to him the urious easy chair, to which his enormous obesity fearful perils yet to be encountered, with all Euand his many infirmities confined him, was in the rope in arms against the independence of France. corner. A portfolio, forgotten upon the table, Carnot, the stanch republican, who had protested contained the private and confidential papers of against both the Consulate and the Empire, now the King. They were safe in the keeping of Na. convinced that there was no hope for his country poleon. His pride of character, and delicate sense save in the strong arm of the Emperor, was placed of honor, would not allow him to pry into these at the head of the Home Department. “The Rev. disclosures of the private life of his enemies. He olution," said Napoleon to Carnot, “ of which you ordered them all to be sealed, and to be sent by a and I are the children, requires my name to dedispatch to their owner. Soms officious person, fend it abroad, as I have occasion for yours to reconthinking to gratify the Emperor, had placed upon cile it to me at home. Let us both make a genthe table sundry caricatures, holding up the Bour erous sacrifice; I, of my system of government, bons to derision. The Emperur indignantly or too absolute and too personal for the new requiredere} them to be removed. He had too much ments of the time, and you of your distrust of me. majesty of soul to indulge in triumph so ignoble. Let us unite. Let us triumph together, over royCrucifixes, images, and beads, indices of the de- aity at home and the coalition abroad." votion or the superstition of Louis, were strewed | Carnot, now seeing with clearness that popular about the room. “Take them away," said the rights could by no possibility be protected but by Emperor mildly. “The cabinet of a French mon- intrusting to Napoleon a certain degree of abarch should not resemble the cell of a monk.” solute power, cordially accepted the appointment.

He ordered the map of France to be spread In a crisis so momentous and awful, with all the upya the table. As he contemplated its dimin- despotisms of Europe arrayed against the indeished borders, he exclaimed with sadness, “ Poor pendence of France, it would have been absurd to France !" Then turning to Caulaincourt, he said, trust to the tardy and vacillating movements of a “I have proclaimed peace throughout my march. deliberative assembly. For twenty years France As far as depends on me, my promise shall be had been compelled, in self-defense, to resolve fulfilled. Circumstances are imperative. I will itself into an army. And an army must have an recognize the treaty of Paris. I can now accept absolute leader. Napoleon could only confer upon what I could not accept at Chatillon without tar- France equal rights. True liberty could not be nishing my glory. France was obliged to make enjoyed until the sword could be sheathed. sacrifices. The act is done. But it did not be- The faithful Caulaincourt received the ministry come me to strip France to preserve the crown. of Foreign Affairs. Maret resumed the post of I take the affairs of the country as I find them. I Secretary of State. Napoleon, strong in his atwish the continuation of peace. It is the sound tachment to his old friends, and ever ready to forpolicy of the Powers not to rekindle the torch of give those foibles incident to humanity, deeply war. I have written to the Empress. She will regretted the loss of Berthier. “Where is he?" prevail upon her father to permit her to rejoin said he frequently ; “why does he mistrust me?

I will pardon his precipitation in abandoning me, Napoleon earnestly desired peace. He even and his pliancy to the Bourbons. They were the thought it possible, though not at all probable, gods of his youth. I will receive him with open that the Allies might now consent to the inde- arms, and give him back the place of chief of pendence of France. It consequently became the staff. I shall inflict no other punishment fatally necessary for him to make no preparation upon him than to make him dine with us in his for war. The Allies had still enormous armies new uniform of captain of the guards of Louis in the field, ready at any moment, in locust .le- XVIII.” But the indefatigable, useful, weakgions, to pour into France. The armies of France minded Berthier, was ashamed again to appear in were disbanded, and there were no military sup- the presence of the Emperor. He fled into Gerplies. Any movement of Napoleon toward re- many. Molé, a man universally popular, assumed organizing his forces would have been seized hold the direction of roads and public works. Fouché of by the Allies, and proclaimed to the world as was, by a sort of necessity, placed at the head of new proof of “the insatiable ambition and blood- the police. thirsty appetite" of the Emperor. Consequently With incredible rapidity this new government the Enperor was compelled, in the protection of was organized. It met the wishes of the nation. his own reputation, in which alone his strength The Councilors of State were all men of marked consisted, to await the result of his proposals for ability, of extended reputation, of special adminpeace, without making any preparation for war. istrative skill, and of well-known devotion to the This was a fatality from which there was no es- popular cause. The Councilors drew up an address cape. Under embarrassments so dreadful Napo- to the Emperor, which was intended for the nation. leon was doomed to abide the decision of the “Sire!" said they, “the Emperor in reascendAllies.

ing the throne to which he had been raised by The new cabinet was speedily organized. It the people re-establishes thereby the people in was composed of men of exalted reputation, and their most sacred rights. He returns to reign by of known devotion to the popular cause. Cam- the only principle of legitimacy which France has

me.”

past."

recognized and consecrated for twenty-five years I foresee a difficult struggle

ma long war. To

maintain it the nation must support me." * "Princes," Napoleon replied, "are but the first The Emperor's first administrative act was charcitizens of the state. Their authority is more or acteristic of his whole career. He convened the less extended according to the interests of the na- electoral colleges in each department, that his retions they govern. Sovereignty itself is heredit- sumption of power might be submitted to the ary only because the interests of nations require suffrages of the whole people. He persisted in it. Beyond this principle I know of no legit- this, notwithstanding the Council of State had imacy."

issued the following decree, whose statements no Benjamin Constant was one of the most dis- living being would venture to deny: tinguished of the sons of France. As a writer “March 25, 1815. The Council of State, in and an orator he stood at the head of the repub- resuming its functions, feels bound to make known lican party. When Napoleon, in accordance with the principles which form the rule of its opinions the wishes of the nation, assumed that dictatorial | and its conduct. power, without which France could by no possi- “The sovereignty resides in the people. They bility have sustained her independence against the are the only source of legitimate power. In 1789 combined despots of Europe, Benjamin Constant the nation reconquered its rights, which had for resolutely turned against the Emperor. But ex- a long time been usurped or disregarded. The perience had now enlightened him. He had seen National Assembly abolished the feudal monarchy, despotism triumphant, the Bourbons forced upon and established a constitutional monarchy and repFrance by foreigners, and again driven from the resentative government. The resistance of the kingdom by an indignant people. He hastened Bourbons to the wishes of the French people termnow to give in his adhesion to the Emperor. Na- inated in their downfall, and their banishment poleon received him as if he had been an old from the French territory. The people twice friend. Frankly and truly Napoleon declared that sanctioned by their votes the new form of governdevotion to the popular cause had rendered it es- ment established by their representatives. sential for him to assume dictatorial power. It “1. In the year 1799, Bonaparte, already was a demonstrable fact.

crowned by victory, was raised to the government • The nation,” said he, “ threw itself at my by national assent. A constitution created the feet when I assumed the government. You ought consular magistracy. to recollect it-you who attempted an opposition. “2. A decree of the Senate, on the 2d of AuWhere was your support, your strength? No-gust, 1802, appointed Napoleon Bonaparte Conwhere. I assumed less authority than I was in- sul for life. vited to take. The people, on my return from “3. A decree of the Senate, on the 18th of Elba, ciowding on my footsteps, hurrying from March, 1804, conferred upon Napoleon the Impethe summits of the mountains, called upon me, rial dignity, and made it hereditary in his family. + sought me out, saluted me. From Cannes to

* An admirable article upon Napoleon, in the Encyclo

+ An, Paris I have not conquered, I have administered pædia Americana, contains the following judicious rethe government. I am not, as it is said, the Em- marks, which will commend themselves to every impartial

mind: peror of the soldiers only; I am the Emperor of

"The opinions now entertained respecting him may be the peasants, of the plebeians of France. There classed, we think, under the following heads. I. That he is sympathy between us. It is not so with the was an usurper. This charge is preferred by two very privileged classes. The nobility have served me.

different parties ; 1. By the adherents of legitimacy, who

think his noblest course would have been to play the part They rushed in crowds into my antechambers.

of General Monk. We need not discuss this point in There is not a post they have not accepted, asked

this country, and in the year 1832. 2. The charge of for, solicited. I have had the Montmorencies, the usurpation is also made by some republicans. We have Noailles, the Rohans, the Beauveaus, the Monte

already observed that up to the time when Napoleon took

the reins of government, no republic can be said to have martes ; but there never has been any sympathy.

existed in France. We need then only ask whether the The horse curveted, he was well trained ; but I tendency of France was toward a republic, and whether felt him quiver. The popular fibre responds to Napoleon ought to have lent his power to establish it, promy own. I am sprung from the ranks of the peo

vided he could have seen the possibility of its permanence.

The forms of government, important as they are, are but ple. My voice acts upon them. There is the

secondary, compared to the primary elements of national same nature between us. They look upon me as character and political condition, and are always dependtheir support, as their saviour against the nobles. ent on the latter. The preservation of the new politicoI have only to make a sign, or simply to avert my social relations was also to be attended to. If a republic

was incompatible with justice, safety of person and propeyes, and the nobles would be massacred in all the

erty, internal peace, or national independence, the former provinces. But I do not wish to be king of the

ought to have given way to the latter. We believe that mob. Public discussions, free elections, respons- there are few persons of judgment who, at present, mainible ministers, the liberty of the press, I wish for tain that at that period a republic would have comported all that—the liberty of the press above all. It is

with the internal and external relations of France. Firmly

attached as we are to republican institutions, we yet must absurd to stifle it. I am the man of the people.

admit that, as there must be a difference in the habitations I have never wished to deprive them of liberty for of men, according to the materials which they possess for my own pleasure. I have now but one mission their construction, so governments must differ with the

character and condition of the governed." How many to raise up France again, and to give it the most

there are who are blind to these obvious truths! suitable form of government. I wish for peace. | + All historians alike adrnit the honesty of these elecBut I shall not obtain it but by dint of victories. ' tions, and the fairness of the returns. No intelligent man

“These three solemn acts were submitted to merely the work of violence. They are essenthe approval of the nation. It sanctioned them tially null, and are outrages on the honor, the by nearly four millions of votes. Thus had the liberty, and the rights of the people. Bourbons during twenty-two years ceased to reign “On reascending the throne to which the peoin France. They were forgotten by their contemple had raised him, the Emperor therefore only poraries. Strangers to our laws, to our institu- re-established the most sacred rights of the nation. tions, to our manners, to our glory, the present He returned to reign by the only principle of legitgeneration knew them not, but by the remem- imacy which France had recognized and sanctionbrance of the foreign wars which they had ex-ed during the past twenty-five years, and to which cited against the country, and the intestine divis- all the authorities had bound themselves by oaths ions which they stirred up. The foreigners set from which the will of the people could alone reup a pretended provisional government. They lease them.” assembled a minority of the Senators, and com- Notwithstanding these decisive decrees, the pelled them, in opposition to their trust and their Emperor was so scrupulous respecting any apwish, to set aside the existing constitutions, to pearance even of usurpation, that he insisted that subvert the Imperial throne, and to recall the the question of his re-election should be submitBourbon family. The abdication of the Emperor ted to the suffrages of the people. There were Napoleon was merely the consequence of the un- now four parties in France—the Bourbonists, the fortunate situation to which France and the Em-Orleanists, the Republicans, and the friends of peror were reduced by the events of the war, by the Emperor. The votes were taken, and Napotreason, and by the occupation of the capital. leon was again chosen to the chief magistracy of The abdication had for its object only the preven-France, by a majority of more than a million of tion of civil war and the effusion of blood. This votes over all the other parties. And still the act, which was not confirmed by the will of the Allies called this an usurpation.* · people, could not destroy the solemn contract The saloons of the Tuileries were constantly which had been formed between the nation and thronged. Napoleon received all kindly. Memthe Emperor. And even if Napoleon might per-bers of that Senate which had pronounced Naposonally abdicate the crown, he could not sacrifice leon's forfeiture of the throne, called tremblingly the rights of his son, appointed to reign after him. with their congratulations. The Emperor re

“Louis Stanislas Xavier arrived in France.ceived them with courtesy, and gave no indicaHe made his entry into the capital. He took pos- tion of the slightest resentment. “I leave that session of the throne. The people, overawed by act," said he, “ for history to relate. For my the presence of foreigners, could not, freely and part, I forget all past occurrences." validly, declare the national wish. Under the The Emperor embraced an early opportunity protection of the allied army, having thanked a of visiting the institution he had established at foreign prince for having enabled him to ascend | Ecouen, for the orphan daughters of the members the throne, Louis Stanislas Xavier dated the first of the Legion of Honor. These young girls, who act of his authority in the nineteenth year of his had been provided for by the affectionate liberreign, thereby declaring that the measures which ality of Napoleon, gathered around their benefachad emanated from the will of the people were tor with inexpressible enthusiasm. They threw merely the offspring of a long rebellion. All these themselves at his feet, and with tears embraced acts are therefore illegal; done in the presence of his knees. He took up a spoon to taste their hostile armies, and under foreign control, they are food. The spoon immediately became sacred in has ventured to deny that the popularity of Napoleon was their eyes. When he left, they had it cut in real and almost boundless, and that the people of France, pieces, and moulded into little amulets, which with enthusiasm unparalleled, raised him to power. they wore in their bosoms. Nearly all the pupils There were in Paris generals and statesmen of commanding character, vast influence, and lofty pride, who were watching the proceedings with the eagle eye of rivalry. But neither then, nor since, have they ventured to

Enc affirm that there was any unfairness in the elections. | the Emperor, the rest, rushing upon him, seized Even Sir Walter Scott adinits the unanimity to be undeniable, and endeavors to account for it by saying, “The 1 * In vain will it be pretended that advantage was taken rich favored Bonaparte for the sake of protection; the poor of the astonishment of the communes to carry the election for that of relief; the emigrants because they desired to by surprise. Besides, in submitting himself to the decisreturn to France : the men of the Revolution because they lions of a ballot, he afforded every individual time for re were afraid of being banished from it ; the sanguine and flection, and sufficient leisure to reflect whether he ought courageous crowded around his standard in hope of to reject or choose him. It was not therefore surprise, victory; the timid cowered behind it in the desire of but renewal of affection, of which this election gave proof. safety."

On the contrary, in the act of forfeiture pronounced by the All agree that Napoleon was elevated to the supreme Senate, there was evidence both of surprise and constraint power by a general outburst of popular enthusiasm. That So certainly was this the case, that not one Senator could Napoleon Bonaparte was and is the idol of France, no intel- be found who did not, in his individual capacity, regret ligent man will venture to deny. Hostility must be driven what he had done. to utter desperation before it can affirm that the suffrages | "In what species of legitimacy was the Emperor wantof the French people were not given to Napoleon. The | ing? The general admiration had decreed him the crown. unconstrained election of Napoleon is as demonstrative as Victory had restored it to him. And yet he would not reany truth which history has recorded. And with this fact sume it without the national assent; without the assent thus established beyond all cavil, forever palsied must be of the whole people, expressed by every citizen individuthe tongue that could say to the Emperor, Thou art an ally and with full freedom."- Memoirs of the Duke of Usurper.""

| Rovigo, vol. iv. pp. 37, 38.

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his hands, and covered them with these pledges powdering his hair. His niece, the young and of love and gratitude. “Young ladies," said the beautiful Princess of Courlande, ran into the room Emperor, " they shall be as precious to me as the with a note from Metternich, marked, secret and jewels of my crown.” On retiring to his car- in haste. Talleyrand, looking up from the midst riage he exclaimed, with moistened eyes, “ Voici of the curling-irons, powders, and perfumes, rele comble de bonheur ; ceux-ci sont les plus beaux quested his niece to open and read the note. momens de ma vie.” “This is the height of hap- She did so, and, turning pale, exclaimed, piness; these are the most delightful moments of Heavens! Bonaparte has left Elba! What is my life.”—Hist. de Napoleon, par Emile MARCO to become of my ball this evening?" DE SAINT HILAIRE.

The imperturbable minister, whose external The allied sovereigns in the Congress of Vienna equanimity no possible surprise could derange, had been for months quarreling respecting the di- after a moment's pause, said, in those low tones vision of the spoils of reconquered Europe. One of gravity which he had carefully cultivated, “ Do hundred thousand distinguished strangers were not be uneasy, niece, your ball shall take place attracted, by the splendors of the occasion, within notwithstanding.” Though the well-trained dithe walls of that voluptuous capital. Eighty thou- plomatist could thus conceal his alarm, it was sand of the most brilliantly dressed soldiers of the not so with the other guilty revelers at this Belallied armies formed the magnificent cortége for shazzar's feast. “If a thunderbolt,” says Alithis crowd of princes and kings. Seven hundred son, “had fallen in the midst of the brilliance embassadors or envoys participated in the delib- assembled in the Imperial ball-room at Vienna, erations of those haughty conquerors, who had it could not have excited greater consternation now again placed their feet upon the necks of the than this simple announcement. It was deempeople. The regal revelers relieved the toils of ed, nevertheless, expedient to conceal the alarm diplomacy with feasting and dances, and all lux- which all really felt.” Talleyrand quietly conurious indulgence. The Emperor of Austria de- tinued his toilet, and, after shutting himself up frayed the expenses of this enormous hospitality for several hours with M. Metternich and Lord The Imperial table alone was maintained at an Castlereagh, wrote to Louis XVIII., advising him expense of twenty-five thousand dollars a day to place no reliance upon the people of France,

The Allies were involved in a desperate quarrel but assuring him of the continued support of the respecting the division of the spoils of Poland, | Allies. Saxony, and Italy, and were just on the point of No one knew toward what point the Emperor breaking up, and turning their arms against each intended to direct his steps. Five days of doubt, other, when a courier brought to Lord Castlereagh conjecture, and intense anxiety passed before any the tidings that Napoleon had left Elba. Talley- further intelligence was received. The festivi. rand was at that time making his toilet for a ball, ties were all suspended, and Europe thought of in accordance with the etiquette of the voluptu- but one idea, and of one man. A proscribed aries around him. His hands were wet with the exile, without money and without arms, floating perfumes which his valets de chambre had poured upon the waves of the Mediterranean, simply by upon them; and two barbers were curling and the magic of his name plunged all the courts and

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all the armies of Europe into commotion. Two of a nation's love and homage for a moment powers at that moment equally divided Europe. struck dumb these lips of falsehood. “The anOne power was Napoleon Bonaparte, solitary ger of the sovereigns and their ministers against and alone; the other power was all the combined Napoleon," says Lamartine, " turned into resentmonarchs, and armies, and navies of Christen- ment against France herself, the accomplice, eidom.

ther through connivance or servility, of BonaOn the 5th of March the Congress received the parte. So long as this focus of war and revoluintelligence that Napoleon had landed in France, tion should exist, there could be no durable peace and was borne along on resistless waves of popular for the nations—no security for crowns. An enthusiasm toward. Paris. Amazement and con- European war of extermination against France, sternation were depicted upon every countenance. which had executed Louis XVI., and twice The Allies immediately held a council, and, after crowned Napoleon, was the first cry of the sova few reproaches, all their differences were laid | ereigns and their councils. Its immediate conaside in dread of their common foe. The anger quest, before the nation should have time to furof the Allies was vehemently aroused against the nish armies to Bonaparte, its partition afterward, people of France, for their invincible attachment that the members of this great body should never to Napoleon. The coalesced despots had here- be able to join to upheave the weight of the tofore, in defiance of human intelligence, declared whole world; these were the resolutions uttered Napoleon to be an usurper and a tyrant, crushing in an undertone." the liberties of the people beneath iron hoofs and It seemed in vain again to attempt to force sabre strokes. But this unexampled exhibition l upon France the Bourbons. All the Powers

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