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Again mounting his horse, he pressed rapidly, friend Caulaincourt Fatigue and grief had proson to Laon, where he arrived at four o'clock in trated him into the last stage of exhaustion. His the afternoon. Here he dispatched various or-cheek was emaciate and pallid, and his dress disders, and sent a frank and honest bulletin to ordered by travel. His tottering limbs could hardParis, concealing nothing of the measurelessness ly support his steps, and his head drooped upon of the calamity. “Here,” said he to General his shoulder. Throwing himself upon a sofa, he Druot,“ is the bulletin of Waterloo. I wish you exclaimed, pressing his hand upon his heart, to hear it read. If I have omitted any essential “I am suffocating here. The army has percircumstances, you will remind me of them. It formed prodigies of valor. It is grievous to think is not my intention to conceal any thing. Now, that we should have been overcome after so many as after the affair of Moscow, the whole truth heroic efforts. My most brilliant victories do not must be disclosed to France. I might have thrown shed more glory on the French army than the deon Marshal Ney the blame of part of the misfor- feat at Waterloo. Our troops have not been beattunes at Waterloo. But the mischief is done. en; they have been sacrificed, massacred by overNo more must be said."
whelming numbers. My Guard suffered themAfter a few hours of unrefreshing and troubled selves to be cut to pieces without asking for quarslumber, the Emperor entered a carriage, and, ter; but they exclaimed to me, Withdraw ! accompanied by a few friends and a feeble escort, withdraw! You see that death is resolved to drove all the day, and just after midnight on the spare your Majesty.' And opening their ranks, morning of the 21st arrived in Paris. It was a my old grenadiers screened me from the carnage dark and gloomy hour. The street lamps were by forming around me a rampart of their own flickering and expiring. With characteristic pro- bodies. My brave, my admirable Guard has been priety, instead of directing his steps to the Tuil- destroyed, and I have not perished with them." eries, he modestly turned aside to the less ambi- He paused, overcome by anguish, and heaving tious palace of the Elysée. A few servants were a deep sigh, and saying, “I desire to be alone,” at the gate of the palace with glimmering torches. retired to the silence and the solitude of his cabHe was received upon the steps by his faithful inet.
A NATURALIST AMONG THE HIMA- | for the purpose of studying the botany of those LAYAS.*
sterile regions. After his return he looked about THERE are but few portions of our globe left him for fresh worlds to conquer. For a while he
I for the naturalist to explore. Dr. Hooker is hesitated between the Andes and the Himalayas; to be esteemed a fortunate man in having had for but finally decided upon the latter. Three years his share the exploration of two of these unknown were spent by him among these mountains, the regions. Many years ago he accompanied Sir loftiest upon the globe, and the results of his exJames Ross in his voyage of Antarctic discovery, plorations are embodied in a couple of handsome
volumes, which have been received with great favor by the scientific world. With the purely scientific portions of the work, we do not intend to meddle. But intermingled with these are many pictures of life and manners which it seems to us can not fail to prove interesting to the general reader.
The expedition was undertaken partly under the auspices of the British Government, who appropriated a sum of money to aid in defraying the expenses, and likewise furnished many other facilities for the prosecution of the learned Doctor's researches. His attendants and assistants were numerous, amounting often to fifty or sixty persons. We will therefore, for the occasion, appoint ourselves as honorary members of the expedition, and accompany our respected principal on his travels.
We leave Calcutta in January, 1848. Our most direct way would be to ascend the Ganges for a couple of hundred miles, which would bring us within sight of the Himalayan range, at a distance of fifty leagues. But our naturalist leader wishes to make a preliminary exploration of a tract lying far to the west of our direct route; so we set off overland. Public conveyances are unknown, and we travel, as every body else does, by a palkee or palanquin. A very pleasant and commodious mode of journeying this appears to one unaccustomed to it. The traveler has nothing to do but to stretch himself out at lazy length in a kind of bier, and be borne along upon men's shoulders. But a few days' experience is
sufficient to make one long to VALLEY OF TAMBUR AMONG THE HIMALAYAS.
exchange the palkee for the * Himalayan Journals ; or, Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepaul Himalayas, the Khasia Mount. ains, ete. By JOSEPH DALTON HOOKER, M.D., R.N., F.R.S.
rudest vehicie tugged over the roughest of cordu- | perpetual swinging motion, which in a few hours roy roads. You travel chiefly by night, and at becomes absolutely distressing, worse than the the end of every stage you are awakened by your uneasy jolt of camel-riding. The mahouts, or bearers letting you down with a jerk; and then, drivers, it is said, never reach an advanced age, thrusting their flaming torches in your drowsy their life is jolted out of them in a few years. eyes, they ask imploringly for bucksheesh—that They are not unfrequently afflicted with spinal word so familiar to all Eastern travelers. If you diseases caused by the perpetual motion imparted have made it a point to remember the coach to the vertebral column. The huge black back man" when bowling over the beautiful English of the animal absorbs the rays of the sun, till we roads, have given “ pour boire" to French postill- seem to be sitting on a sheet of hot iron. He ions, “ Trinkgelt" to German Postknechten, and has likewise an unpleasant habit of blowing wa“ buona mana" to Italian vetturini, you can not, ter over his parched skin, and his rider not selof course, be hard-hearted enough to turn a deaf dom comes in for an untimely shower-bath of very ear to the petition of these lean swarthy fellows questionable purity. The mahout, seated upon who in their own persons have acted the part the animal's neck, guides him by poking his toes both of coachman and horses. You set off again under one of the great flapping ears, as he wishes with a fresh relay, but somehow your new bear- him to turn to the right or the left. He carries ers can not get rightly to work until you have a huge iron goad with which to enforce obedience. been roused from your uneasy slumbers, rubbed With the butt end he hammers away upon the your eyes, and applied the universal quickener to animal's head, with force enough to crack a cotheir palms. Then, after all, you find that there coa-nut or even the obdurate skull of a negro; or are few things more wearisome than lying hour drives the pointed end through the thick skin after hour stretched out in your low, narrow palkee. down to the very quick, leaving great punctures If the blinds are closed you are stifled with the through which the blood and yellow fat ooze out heat, if they are open you are smothered with dust. in the broiling sun, occasioning us some disYou are at times half inclined, by way of experi- agreeable qualms till we get used to it. There ment, to alight and change places with one of your is one advantage which, however, goes far to bearers, convinced that any alteration in your po- compensate for these annoyances : the height of sition must be for the better.
the beast elevates his rider far above the dust. We pass numerous straggling villages, or rath-| One morning, just at sunrise, we behold a fine er collections of hovels, nestling among mango conical mountain drawn sharply up against the and fig trees, with feathery palms floating over clear gray sky. It is the sacred hill of Parastheir roofs. Water-tanks form a prominent feat- nath, so called after one of the Hindoo deities ure in the landscape, often white with water lilies. who became incarnate and abode for a hundred As we advance farther into the hill country, we years at Benares. After his death he was inenter a sterile tract, covered with stunted grass. terred on the summit of this mountain, which We encounter travelers in numbers; most of thus became a sacred spot. His worshipers, the them are pilgrims bound for the sacred temple " Jains," are very numerous; their principal obof Juggernaut. The greater part are on foot, ject of adoration being the blessed foot of their though here and there we see one of the rude deity. His worship appears to be in a flourishvehicles of the country, drawn by oxen. Here is ing condition, judging from the number and exan old man borne along in the arms of his kin- cellent condition of the temples. Beggars, of dred. He wishes to behold Juggernaut before he course, abound in their neighborhood—the lame, dies, and then he will depart in peace. What a the halt, the blind, and deformed, but above all, different nunc dimittis is his from that uttered by those suffering from the horrible diseases of lepthe aged Simeon when he held in his withered rosy and elephantiasis. arms the Desire of Ages.
We make our way still further into the hill counThe Ganges is the great highway for the com try, where the roads become almost impassable. merce of India, and we sec but little merchandise Our luggage is hauled along upon bullock carts, upon our inland route. A few wagons drag along behind which an elephant pushes with his forethe cotton of the upper country; it is clumsily head, while the oxen drag in front. At last the packed in rotten bags, and is hardly worth trans- patient creature's head becomes so sore with pushporting to market. The most thriving branch of ing that he can push no longer, and we are not business seems to be the traffic in the holy waters seldom sorely put to it to advance. In the steepof the Ganges, hawked about by wandering deal- er places we fasten eight or ten oxen to a single ers for the benefit of those who can not visit the wagon, and at the rear of each we station a driver. purifying stream. The farther they recede from At a preconcerted signal each seizes the tail of the river, the more precious and costly is the wa- an ox, and gives it a violent wrench. The poor ter; and when their jars run low, what should beasts give a simultaneous start, and the wagon hinder them from replenishing them from any is tugged up the crest of the declivity. Unluckily other stream? It would require a nice analysis it sometimes happens that one of the beasts, in to distinguish the genuine from the counterfeit his torture, breaks out of the line, at the immiarticle.
nent risk of overturning the vehicle. When we In the mean time, we have exchanged our pal- come to a river which we must cross, we skirt kee for the more magnificent conveyance of an along it till we find a shallow place; then packelephant. The huge beast sways along with a ing our baggage on our elephants, we get it
CROSSING A RIVER. over, our bullock carts getting across as they | ter p'eased to have been experimenting on our best can.
necks instead of our arms. He regarded us with It is a hot, unpleasant journey altogether. Our such a look as quaint old Izaak Walton might skins peel with the heat and dryness of the atmo- have given his writhing victim just as he was sphere, our nails crack, while all our implements impaling him on his hook, “gently as though he of wood and tortoise-shell become as brittle as loved him.” These gentle stranglers had favorglass, and are fractured by the slightest blow. ite stations all through the country-lonely spots
We come upon the Ganges at Mirzapore, a among the jungle where some tree or well made great town with a hundred thousand inhabitants. a favorite halting-place for travelers. Here they Here is the main establishment for the suppres- would encounter a stranger, seat themselves cossion of the numerous gangs of robbers, poisoners, ily by his side, enter into confidential discourse and murderers who until within less than a score with him, in the midst of which the fatal cord of years infested the whole country. One of the would be wound about his neck. A vigorous • Thugs,” who has been admitted as "approver,” pull or two, and all is over. Of these favorite or government witness, is introduced to us. He stations there were 274 in the little kingdom of is as mild-looking a man as you would wish to Oude, a territory 170 miles long by 100 broad. meet ; but born and bred to his pleasant profes- They looked upon these stations precisely as the sion, he never thinks of looking upon it as any gentle Izaak regarded some quiet reach of the thing but a perfectly reputable one. The Doctor, Thames, where he was always reasonably sure who is something of a phrenologist, examines of a fish or two. During the half score of years his head, and finds the organ of destructiveness” previous to 1835, more than 1500 Thugs were aplargely developed. At our request, the Thug lets prehended, of whom some 400 were hanged and us into some of the secrets of his profession. He twice as many transported. Their murders were takes off his linen girdle, and slipping it around numbered by thousands every year; how many our arm, shows us the peculiar turn with which thousands no man knows. Of a gang numbering they strangle their victims; he does this with the a score, one member confessed to having been in same self-satisfied air with which some “old at the death of 931 persons, while the least emisalt" will show some intricate knot to a “green- nent of his associates had assisted in taking off horn." We could not help thinking that our four-and-twenty. The victims were mostly travmild-looking friend would have been all the bet-elers from distant parts of the country, for whom
no inquiries were ever made. Major Sleeman, duce an unpleasant irritation. Worse than all is the officer at the head of the establishment for a species of flying bug that makes its way under the suppression of the Thugs, states that he was our clothing. Try to remove one of them, and he for three years in charge of a district which was resents the liberty by emitting an odor tenfold a favorite spot with them. He supposed that more nauseous than that of our familiar “boardnothing took place there without his hearing of ing-house companion." it; but he subsequently learned that during that At Patna we stop to visit the opium godowns, time one hundred people had been murdered and or stores. The production of this drug in all its buried within a quarter of a mile from his resi- stages is a monopoly of the East India Company. dence. These “gentle Hindoos” can upon oc- No one can cultivate the poppy without a special casion do very ferocious things.
license, and the Company purchase all produce, From Mirzapore we drop down the Ganges, at certain fixed rates. The opium is delivered to past the holy city of Benares, with its crumbling collectors, who transmit it to Patna, where it is temples and narrow, filthy streets. The images prepared for market. The operation is carried on of the sacred bulls and the obscene symbols of the in a large paved room, where the drug is first Hindoo faith, of all shapes and sizes, are the most flung into great vats. The workmen are all tickprominent objects in this “ Athens of India." eted. Each has before him a table upon which is Ghazepore, fifty miles further, is famous for the a little basin of opium and a brass cup. By his tomb of Lord Cornwallis, who regained in India side is a box of poppy leaves. His business is to the laurels he lost in America. Here are the make the drug up into round balls of a specified celebrated gardens of roses from which is pro- weight, for which purpose the cup is used, and to duced the finest attar of roses. The weight of a cover them neatly with the leaves. At night he half-dollar of the first quality of this perfume costs deposits his balls in a rack bearing a number corfifty dollars ; to produce this quantity requires responding to his own. They are then placed twenty thousand flowers.
separately in a cup of clay, and conveyed to a drySo we float down the sacred stream. It is ing room, where they are carefully watched by here four' or five miles broad, and is covered with little urchins who creep about among the racks. boats of all forms and dimensions, among which | Their special mission is to keep away a species of we now and then see a square-built steamer puff weevil, who are as fond of the sedative drug as ing along, tugging huge passenger-barges. Upon John Chinaman himself. But as our friend of the shore at frequent intervals we see the rotting the pigtail has money, while the weevil has none, charpoy, or bedstead, once occupied by some de- he of course gets the preference. In fact the disvotee who has been brought to die upon the banks tinction goes further. John Bull shoots the Chinaof the holy river. Now and then the disgusting man if he does not take the opium, and kills the form of a huge aligator is seen basking in the sun, weevil if he does. A good workman makes thirty or a pariah dog making his meal from a corpse or forty of these narcotic balls a day. During a flung upon the silent shore. Sundry annoyances season nearly a million and a half of balls are try us on board our boat. Flies and mosquitoes manufactured here for the Chinese market alone. abound of course. Great spider webs as large as Great care is taken to prevent the smallest loss of fine thread float in the air, and when inhaled pro- the drug. Each workman undergoes a thorough