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garret under the roof, inhabited by the attendant shipers of the holy person to whom alone the monks. Passing through the outer door, we adoration is given. enter a vestibule in which are tall praying ma- One must be cold and unimaginative if his chines, which are kept continually turning, and deepest emotions are not stirred when standing the quantity of prayer and supplication thus among the memorials of a faith which counts ground out is astonishing. From this vestibule more votaries than any other upon the globe. the main body of the temple is entered by folding Turn which way you will the eye is met by some doors studded with copper bosses. The walls beautiful specimen of carving or coloring. The and floor are plastered over with clay, upon dim light which finds its way through the narrow which are depicted allegorical representations of windows pierced in the thick walls subdues into Boodh, and various other figures. The pillars harmony much that would seem harsh and glarand cross beams are ornamented with brilliant ing if beheld under a stronger light. Incense and colors, vermilion, green, gold, and azure, disposed sweet-smelling herbs, burned by the priests on enin masses of color, with slender streaks of white tering, add no little to the general effect, harmobetween. In the general arrangement of the nizing with the grave and decorous deportment of colors, particularly in separating the heavier the worshipers. In some respects the Lamas masses of color, they have in a measure antici- have engrafted the peculiarities of the old religion pated those principles of decorative art adopted of the mountains upon the purer and more spiritin the Great Exhibition of London.
| ual doctrines of Boodhism. Perhaps out of comThe altars and images are placed opposite the plaisance to the instinctive feelings of the people, entrance. The chief image is placed behind the they still make offerings and present supplications altar, under a canopy. He is represented sitting to the spirits who preside over Kinchin-junga and cross-legged, with the left heel elevated, the cor- his giant brotherhood of peaks. And in the solresponding hand resting on the thigh. In this emn presence of those great summits which rise hand he holds the padmi, or sacred lotus and in perpetual solitude, as inaccessible to any living jewel. The right hand is either raised in bene- thing of earth as are the calm stars, it is almost diction, or holds the dorje, or thunderbolt. On impossible for us not to feel sympathy with the either side of him are arranged the lesser divini- belief that peoples them with beings of a higher ties and saints, male and female. In portraying order than ourselves, whose serene existence the aspect of the divinities, the aim of the artist knows none of the cares and anxieties which dis seems to have been to represent them with an air turb our mortal life. Though we can not emof calm and serene contemplation.
brace we must yet sympathize with these fair It must be borne in mind that, properly speak- humanities of old religion. ing, the Boodhists are not idolaters. The images In the temple worship there are few or no traces are not idols; they are objects of reverence, not of this admixture of foreign elements. As you of adoration. In theory at least, no image is any enter you see a group of Lamas sitting crossthing more than the symbol of the being in whose legged upon benches running along the side of honor it is erected ; a token to remind the wor- the apartment. One, with finger upraised in the
attitude of enforcing attention, is reading aloud | out an amount of supplication too great to be from some sacred book. After a while all join in easily estimated. There is another kind borne in chanting a hymn, while the attendant boys beat the hand, which can be made to revolve by a very the gongs and cymbals, blow the conches and slight movement of the owner. These are usualthigh-bone trumpets, and wheel the manis, every | ly carried about by the wandering priests, half stroke of whose tinkling bells announces that the mountebank, half Lama, and whole beggar, who supplications of the audience have again ascended perambulate the country, managing to pick up a to the deity.
very comfortable subsistence, though they not unThe sacred implements in these temples are frequently present a very dilapidated appearance curious enough. First in importance is the mani, | in the matter of clothing. If these cylinders do or praying machine. It is a cylinder of leather, their work in a satisfactory manner-and those of any size up to that of a large barrel or even who use them have no doubts on that score—no
labor-saving machine ever invented can begin to compare with them. What is a sewing machine that makes a thousand stitches a minute, a printing machine that throws off twenty thousand sheets in an hour, compared with an instrument which repeats all the supplications in the prayer-book as often as a cylinder can be made to revolve on its axis ?
The implement next in importance to the mani is the trumpet, made of a human
thigh bone, perforated SACRED IMPLEMENTS, IN BOODHIST TEMPLES.
through both condyles. hogshead, placed vertically upon an axis, so that | These are often handsomely mounted and decorit may revolve with facility. It is often painted in ated with silver. There is some peculiar sanctity brilliant colors, and is inscribed with the universal | attached to the bones of a Lama which is held to Om Mani Padmi om. Written prayers are depos- give a special efficacy to the trumpets manufactured ited within this cylinder, which is made to revolve from them. It can not fail to be vastly consolatory by pulling a string attached to a crank. An iron to these holy men to reflect that not only are their arm projecting from the side of the cylinder strikes throats exercised in performing the sacred offices a small bell at each revolution, and any one who while they are living, but for generations after they pulls the string properly is supposed to have re- are dead their bones will still continue to enact peated all the prayers contained in the cylinder at an important part in divine worship. We have heard every stroke of the bell. Some of these machines of enthusiastic devotees of science who derived are put in motion by water-power, and thus turn great pleasure from the hope that after their death
their bodies might subserve the cause to which | stant motion, praying away night and day on its they were devoted, by finding their way to the own account, or for the benefit of whom it may dissecting room; and that many a lesson upon an-concern. atomy would be illustrated by means of their Besides these religious edifices, in traversing skeletons in a lecture-room. This is doubtless the steep mountain paths we frequently encouna noble function for one's body to perform, but it ter rude memorials, consisting merely of a pile hardly equals that to which any Lama may rea- of stones, from which projects a staff ornamented sonably hope his thigh-bones may attain. . Nor with a streamer. The Lepchas never pass these is this honor exclusively destined for the Lamas. Bones of unusual size are in great demand. Any man who chances to be gifted with limbs of extraordinary length may hope to attain this preeminence. In fact, in a country where saints are more common than giants, an inch or two in the length of a bone will counterbalance a number of degrees of sanctity. The first European who died at Dorjiling was a man of extraordinary stature, and it is confidently affirmed that his body was dug up by some enthusiastic resurrectionists, for the sake of converting his thigh-bones into trumpets.
In addition to the manis and trumpets, the principal implements of worship found in the Boodhist temples are the dorje, or double thunderbolt — which the Lamas use much as the Catholic priests do the cross-bells, cymbals, gongs, conch-shells, and brazen cups. These latter are perhaps intended to represent the sacred lotus, which bears so import
LEPCHA DEVOTIONS. ant a part in Boodhist mythology.
without pausing for a moment to go through with Some of the temples are very humble edifices, their devotions. They walk slowly around them consisting merely of a building of a single room, three times, always from left to right, repeating with sliding shutters over the window-slits, fur- the mystical Om padmi ; then pause with heads nished in a rude manner; but the implements of bowed and pigtails streaming behind, apparently worship correspond in general to those found in repeating their prayers ; and conclude the ceretemples of more pretension, though of smaller mony by making a votive offering of three pine size and cheaper construction. Even in these cones. The ceremony concluded, they walk off, there are not unfrequently implements of no little smirking, grinning, nodding, and elevating the beauty, and the worship is performed with as much corners of their eyes, in the joyful consciousness apparent earnestness and solemnity as in the of having performed their religious duties in the larger structures. The most singular religious most edifying and satisfactory manner. structures are the praying-mills which occur at During our naturalist's journeyings he was preintervals along the courses of the mountain tor- sented to the Rajah of Sikkim. The reader must rents. They consist simply of a slight hut built not imagine that the ceremony was very pompover the stream, large enough to contain a mani. ous or imposing ; for the country is very small The shaft descends through the floor, and being and thinly inhabited. Still there are formalities provided with floats at the lower extremity, dip- to be observed every where in approaching royal ping into the water, the cylinder is kept in con- personages ; and as constant botanizing and geo
logizing in all sorts of rough places had reduced gar an action as dying ; but some day, when he the shooting-jacket which he wore to a state of had become tired of his earthly tabernacle and woeful dilapidation, the Doctor was obliged to pink hat, would just shift them both, and reapborrow a coat for the reception. He likewise pear somewhere else, in a new body and a fresh furnished himself with a quantity of red cloth hat to match. and beads by way of presents, and was ushered In the mean while, like many another sainted into the presence of royalty. The audience-room sovereign-such for instance as the “ royal marwas merely a shed, some twenty feet in length, tyr" Charles I. of England, and Saint Louis XVI. made of bamboos, and wattled up at the sides of France—he had suffered his dominions to fall The royal body-guard just then on duty consisted into a rather bad way. He had by way of Dewan, of a couple of soldiers in red jackets, with bows or Prime Minister, a certain Thibetan, who conslung over their shoulders. His Majesty, how- trived to display upon the limited stage to which
he was restricted all the vices proper to a royal favorite. As a natural consequence, he was thoroughly detested, and the court of Tumlong became the scene of intrigues as busy as those of Paris or Vienna.
It was a great point with the Dewan to prevent any interview between the Rajah and the English Resident at Dorjiling. When, after a while, the interview was appointed to be held at a little. town situated on the banks of a river which formed the boundary between the dominions of the Rajah and the acquisitions of his European neighbors, the Minister tried every
means to frustrate it. SIKKIM SOLDIERS.
Arrows were shot over ever, possesses a few Sepoys armed with mus- the stream, to which were attached letters urging kets. As they entered the audience-chamber, the visitors to return, and demonstrating that it was they saw a score or so of the Rajah's relatives— quite impossible that the interview should take the royal family, in fact-drawn up on each side place. The reasons assigned were conclusive of the apartment. At the further end was a enough, though hardly consistent with each other. wicker platform covered with purple silk, em- One letter would solemnly assert that the Rajah broidered in white and gold; above this was a was very sick at his capital; the next would just tattered blue canopy. This platform was the as solemnly declare that he had gone to Thibet, throne, and upon it was seated cross-legged an whence he would not return for nobody knew insignificant, funny-looking old fellow, whose lit- how long. This was scarcely read and considertle angular eyes winked and twinkled like stars ed before another missive would be seit over anin a cold night. He wore a robe of yellow silk, nouncing that he was deeply engaged in his deand had upon his head a broad-brimmed, low-| votions, and could by no possibility receive the crowned hat of pink silk, covered with tassels of foreigners, and so on. silken floss. The wearer of this very juvenile Finding at last that the interview could not be costume had apparently passed man's allotted prevented, the Dewan concluded to be present. three-score years and ten, without having picked He made his appearance in the audience-chamber up much wisdom by the way. He was a great clothed in a superb robe of purple silk wrought saint, and quite above attending to any sublunary with gold, and gave the visitors a very cool recepbusiness, but kept himself in a state of serene tion. He had contrived to have the articles they self-contemplation ; and, as his subjects believed, had brought for the Rajah delivered before the was quite prepared to be absorbed in the divine audience was granted, instead of during its conessence of Boodh. They thought that he was tinuance, thus giving them the appearance of besomething quite out of the common way, who ing intended as tribute rather than as presents. could not think of doing so common-place and vul- He managed to have the interview cut down to a
brief period. As a signal for its close white silken rious obstacles in their way. At length, at the scarfs were thrown over the shoulders of the vis-close of the following year, he ventured upon a itors, to whom presents were also made, consist- decisive step, which ultimately lead to his dising of China silks, bricks of tea, cattle, ponies, I grace and ruin. In company with the English and a quantity of the precious commodity, salt. Resident, together with a considerable party, the
This was in December, 1848. The whole of Doctor was on his way to the capital of the Rajah, the ensuing year was spent by Dr. Hooker in when they were all suddenly seized by a band traversing the mountains in various directions, of the followers of the Dewan, and detained as making botanical and geological collections. The prisoners, in the hope of extorting certain stipu. Dewan was much opposed to these journeyings, lations which the Minister was very desirous of and succeeded on some occasions in throwing se- gaining. They were carried to the capital, and
kept in close confinement for a month, though | ure in the Parliamentary Blue Book. The exact subjected to no very serious ill-treatment. The sum is stated to have been twelve shillings. Doctor spent the time in making meteorological | Here we must part with our worthy friend the observations, playing upon a sort of Jew's harp, Doctor. We have abstained from all mention of and smoking. At length the news reached the his scientific labors. Those who would know Rajah that the English were actually sending a how he botanized and geologized, watched the body of troops to punish him for his seizure of thermometer and barometer, registered the rain their representative. He became terribly fright- gauge, measured the heights of mountains and ened, and packed the prisoners off with all the the depth of valleys, will find all these particu haste he could muster. The Dewan was dis-lars laid down in his “ Journals." After exhaustgraced, and his property taken from him, in pun- ing the natural history of the Himalayas, he had ishment for having led his master into such a still a year at his disposal. Bhotan and Nepaul difficulty. The upshot of the matter was that were untrodden fields; but no European could the English government seized upon a portion visit them without imminent peril. So he deof the Rajah's territories, lying at the foot of the cided upon the Khasia Mountains, at the head of mountains, which they formally annexed to their the great delta of the Ganges and the Burramown dominions. The process of annexation was pooter. He descended the Himalayas, floated performed in a very summary manner. Four po- down the Ganges to Calcutta, where he was licemen marched in solid phalanx up to the treas- greeted by a box of living American plants, which ury, of which they took formal possession in the had been brought in a frozen state in a vessel laname of the British government, announcing to den with ice from Wenhamn Lake. This ice is the inhabitants of the district that the territory much used by physicians in cases of inflammation, was confiscated: an arrangement in which they and sells in the Calcutta market for a penny steracquiesced with the most perfect equanimity. It ling a pound. From Calcutta he proceeded to his is but fair to add that the amount of treasure which new field of research, whither we will not now fell into their hands was hardly sufficient to figo follow him.
Vol. IX.-No. 53.-R R