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followed mainly the precedent of 1837, amended in A diplomatic correspondence of considerable insome particulars by the electoral laws of 1846. At terest between the various parties to the pending their recommendation the Queen has issued a de- war has been published. Count Nesselrode, on the cree convoking the Cortes, to be composed of the part of Russia, replies, June 29, to the demand for Congress of Deputies alone, to meet at Madrid on the evacuation of the Principalities made by Austhe 9th of November-a deputy to be elected for tria and supported by Prussia. After rehearsing each 35,000 souls ; the voting to last three days; the history of the war, he assents to the three princi. and the suffrage to be limited by a property quali- ples laid down in the protocol of April 9th, embracfication. This step has given satisfaction generally, ing the integrity of Turkey, the evacuation of the but deputations have waited upon Espartero solic- Principalities on proper securities being given, and iting universal suffrage and a withdrawal of the the consolidation of the rights of Christians in Turstatement that the question of dynasty is not to key under a European guarantee. He thinks nebe discussed. Their applications, however, have gotiations for a peace on this basis may be prepared been unsuccessful. There is a general demand that by means of an armistice. The securities desired Queen Christina shall be tried by the Cortes for as a condition of evacuating the Principalities are, her peculations, but it is strongly resisted.
that she shall not be molested on the evacuated ter- GREECE.
ritory, and that the allied troops relieved by that The new Greek Ministry has been constituted, movement shall not be employed against her. and has issued a programme of principles and pro- The Austrian Government, in a reply dated July 9, mises. The first duty of the new Government is expresses its regret that Russia should have atassumed to be to conform to the Constitution, tached to the evacuation conditions which do not which is the germ of the future progress of the depend on the will of Austria. But as her deGreek nation. Every effort will be made to pre mand is not, under the circumstances, without an serve friendly relations with foreign powers. Spe appearance of equity, and as Austria deems it cial attention is promised to the moral and material very important to exhaust every possible means interests of the people, and especially to the sub- of restoring peace, she promises to exert herself to ject of education, the benefits of which will be ex. secure the acquiescence of the maritime powers in iended to all classes of society. Every thing will this arrangement. In case of failure, however, she be done to strengthen religion, to appease dissen- will be compelled to maintain her demand in its full sion and party spirit, to promote agriculture, com- extent. The French Minister, M. Drouyn de merce, and industry, to reduce the expenses of the L’Huys, has also replied under date of July 22, to government, to build up the navy and to increase Count Nesselrode's argument, saying that France the numbers, perfect the discipline and increase and England can not consent to a suspension of the efficiency of the army.
arms on the vague assurances of the Russian court; THE EASTERN WAR.
and laying down as the sole basis of peace the abanWithout any brilliant or decisive actions, the donment by Russia of the protectorate over the Eastern war has made some progress during the Provinces, the free navigation of the Danube, the month. In the Baltic the event of interest has revision of the treaty of 1841, for the purpose of been the capture of Bomarsund by the allied forces. limiting Russian power in the Black Sea, and that The first disembarkation of French troops took Christian rights in Turkey shall be guaranteed by place on the 8th of August, and operations were all the European powers, and not by any one of immediately commenced and prosecuted for sev. them. eral days against the Russian forts, which were It is stated that the Austrian Government has isfinally taken on the 16th. The loss of life on either sued a circular to all its diplomatic agents, intended side was not great. The land forces of the Allies to apprise them of the present position of affairs in numbered 11,000, those of the Russians 3000. The the East. After alluding to the proposition made Aland Islands have thus fallen into the hands of by Russia on the 29th of June, and by France on the Allies.-On the Danube, the only movement the 22d of July, the Austrian Minister observes, of importance is the occupation of the Principalities that although the position of Austria is consideraby the Austrians : they entered between the 18th and bly changed by the evacuation of the Principalities, 25th of August. Count Coronini is Commander of the war continues between Russia on the one side, the Austrian army of occupation. The Russians and England, France, and the Porte on the other. still remain on the lines of the Sereth and Pruth. Secondly, that all treaties between Russia and the
- Alarming accounts are received of the ravages Porte have been abrogated by the present war, and of cholera in the allied camp at Varna. Letters have not regained validity by the evacuation of the from authentic sources state that the losses in the Principalties. The Austrian Government, in prinFrench regiments are frightfully severe, and that ciple, approves the conditions of peace proposed by the prevalence of the disease has exercised a most the Western Powers, and conditionally agrees to dispiriting effect on both armies. The ravages of them. The Austro-Prussian treaty of April 20, is cholera are attributed to the fact that the wells nearly in spirit in accord with the stipulations in question, all contain more or less dead bodies of Turks and though not exactly in word. A hope is expressed Russians. --In Asia, it is said that the Turkish that the Court of Berlin will not be of another army has met with a decided defeat. A Vienna dis opinion; but should such unfortunately be the case, patch states, but without date, that Gen. Bebutoff it will lead to no change in the foreign policy of had attacked and signally routed the main body of the Austria. For the present Austria will maintain Turks under the walls of Kars. The Russians say an armed neutrality. It is announced that a forthey killed 3000 Turks, took 2000 prisoners, includ- midable movement is on foot against Sebastoing 84 staff and other officers, and captured 15 guns, pol, and that an invasion of the Crimea is prowith an immense amount of military stores. The posed as the next movement of the Allies against shattered remains of the Turkish force had dispersed. Russia.
A RE WE ONE OR MANY? The very ques. I the depressing assumption of superior and inferior A tion, we have said, involves a solecism. The races of men.” Again says his noble brother_“If personal pronoun, implying, as it does, unity in we would indicate an idea which throughout the plurality, rebels against being used in any such whole course of history has ever more and more query. There are tomes of morality, as well as widely extended its empire, or which more than psychology in this significant we, thus embracing any other testifies to the much contested and still the whole supposed brotherhood of man, and sepa. more decidedly misunderstood perfectibility of the rating it from every thing else in nature or creation, whole human race, it is that of establishing our com whether of a higher or a lower kind. We can, per | mon humanity-of striving to treat all mankind, haps, only fully learn the value of the idea by its without reference to nation or color, as one frateractual or supposed loss. Complaints are often nity fitted for the attainment of one object, the unmade of the little influence the pulpit and the Bible restrained development of its highest powers. Thus seem to be exercising on mankind. But let the deeply rooted in the innermost nature of man, and world try and do without them for a generation or even enjoined upon him by his highest tendencies, two, and we should then have the most unerring the recognition of the bond of humanity becomes one data, the most positive and deplorable statistics, of the noblest leading principles in the history of by which to estimate the ruinous deficit in all true mankind.” temporal as well as spiritual progress. And so of Following this train of thought we may see how the question before us. We may treat it now as much we are indebted to the Scriptures for a truth only a matter of curious scientific interest. It ex. so purely a matter of revelation, whether traditional cites no great alarm, because old associations yet or written, and which instead of being dependent govern our thinking. Scientific men, so called, are on a few texts, like the question in geology, enters mostly incapable of reasoning about it out of their into the core of all revealed religion, and into the own exceedingly narrow range; and such is the su. very heart of Christianity. Instead of being a matperficialness of the general mind in respect to all ter with which the Bible has nothing to do, as some the deeper questions of ethics and theology, that it say, it forms the very foundation of its most imis liable to be imposed upon by almost any thing portant teachings. Next to the sublime annunciathat assumes this name of the scientific, while stu- tion-"Hear, O Israel, the Lord thy God is one Jeho. pidly ignoring all that can possibly impart to science vah," is the declaration of the old Scriptures so emany real dignity, or any true interest for a moral phatically repeated by Paul on Mars-hill-"God hath and immortal being.
made of one blood all nations (Trâv tovos-every But let the opposing opinion become general ethnos or tribe) of men to dwell on all the face of let it be transferred from the head to the heart—let the earth, having before determined their times and it be supposed to enter into the common and prac. | the bounds of their habitations." tical thinking of the age. We might, in that case, And here, by the way, we can not help remarkin have some grounds for calculating the moral value that the language of the inspired Apostle has a very of this now assailed tenet of a common blood and peculiar significance from the region and circumuniversal fraternity. It would be found that it has stances in which he was placed. There had come had a power-a negative or restraining power per down from the primeval times the tradition of the haps-but still a power which has made earth less human unity. In its wanderings from the old home. of a slaughter-house, and held back the human race, stead each immigration had carried with it the myth bad as it is, from that still lower depravity to which of the first pair-either the first pair created, or the it would have descended, had it been universally only pair saved from a flood. It was the common known or thought that the different tribes which idea, with such mythological modifications, perhaps, bore some resemblance to a common form had, in as might cherish in each early isolated tribe its own truth, no more of a common life and common na fond claim of primogeniture. As exceptions, howture, than the various species of animals that roam- ever, to this wide fact, there was here and there a ed around them. It would be found that, amidst all people who asserted for themselves a different oriferocities, the traditional belief, obscure and faint gin from the rest of mankind. Such claim has no as it may have been, has still cherished a respect historical value, for it always stands alone, out of for man, as man and brother-that it had converted the grand stream of human development, and ever evil into good, or made it the means of preventing connected with some absurd feeling of national still greater evils—that it had softened the horrors pride, like that of our modern Anglo-Saxonism. A of war, and when it could not wholly remedy, had striking example of this is furnished by the Atheintroduced servitude and subjugation instead of that nians. They claimed to be aúróxooves, indigene, utter extermination which it is thought right to wage the pure genuine “natives," or Anglo-Saxons of against the hostile and untamable beasts of the their day. They were the Aborigines. No other forest.
blood had ever mingled with their own. Now there This alone would be enough for our argument; can be no doubt that Paul meant to rebuke this but the sentiment and the doctrine have had a posi- spirit, and that God through Paul condemned their tive influence. It might be shown that civilization, doctrine of diversity of origin, as strongly and as: Christianity, philosophy, philanthropy, in a word, sternly as that endlessly diversified polytheism of humanity, have grown with the increasing recogni- which Athens was so noted an example. One God, tion of this principle of the essential oneness and one humanity, one common redemption, one resurbrotherhood of the whole human race. We can not rection, one judgment, through one man Christ Jebetter express the thought than in the language of sus, who had entered into the peculiar physical and two of the most gifted minds of the present age: forensic relations through which alone the mighty “While we maintain the unity of the human spe. work of human salvation could be accomplished cies," says Alexander von Humboldt, “we repel such is the substance of Paul's ever-memorable ser-. mon on Mars-hill. How is it to stand with the if the organic good of society require it; since it modern doctrine of diversity? We would espe- may possibly be the case that in this way, even the cially ask the question of those evangelical theolo- most subordinate parts may be raised to a higher gians who, if they do not subscribe to the dogma, absolute elevation than they could have ever attain. yet see no great harm in it, and who prudently ad- ed in a state of relative equality with its possible vise the Church to have no opinion on this unim consequences of savage anarchy and animal barbar portant matter until it gets further light from sci- ism. Thus, then, would stand our argument; its apence.
plication we would leave to the reader. Political The absolute equality of each man, as man, comes and social inequalities, political and social reladirectly from the idea of a common origin, and can tions of every kind, rest solely on their expedien. be truly traced to no other source. One man is cies, to be determined, not by abstract reasoning, equal to another, not equally wise, equally good, but by a careful induction of facts. Whatever, on equally strong, but equally a man; and this not on the other hand, denies, or is inconsistent with the the ground of more or less resemblance in bodily or true and proper humanity of any part of the one mental qualities, but because of a generic or gene family of mankind, or, in other words, the great fact alogical fact. Each man is equal to every other of brotherhood, that we bring to the bar of the uniman, because there was a period in time and space versal human sentiment, and to the central truth of where the life which is now individually two or the divine Word. It is inhuman, antibiblical, antimore was generically, and not only generically but christian-condemned of God, and to be abhorred actually one. This absolute equality of man, as by all who believe that man was created in His man, is unaffected by that inequality of condition image. which grows out of the political relations. With- Brother may have dominion over brother, even out discussing here the right or wrong of this, it is lordly or despotic dominion, and rightly exercise it. enough for our argument, that it is essentially dis. Philemon and Onesimus were master and servant, tinct from the other inequality which is supposed yet true brethren, both in nature and in the Lord." to have its ground in the very blood or nature. The stringent social and domestic relation is as disThere may be monarch and subjects, rulers and tinctly recognized by the Apostle as the natural and ruled. These may be determined by institutes of spiritual kinsmanship. But the assertion of title longer or shorter, of more permanent or flexible du- on the other ground is an indignity to the common ration. The distinctions they create may be hered-honor of the race. We feel it as we would degra. itary or elective-for generations, for lives, or for dation of kin or family dishonor. Is the Negro a years, according as the organic good may seem to man? the dignity of the lord as well as of the vas. require. They are the result of our dual existence sal demands the clear recognition of such humanity.
of the fact that we all live two lives, and are in- / We have no scruple about his political bondage. tended by God to live two lives, the individual and Its expediency, its righteousness, its humanity, are the social, and that the true and healthful organi- all to be determined by circumstances apart from zation of the latter necessitates diversities of con- the question of race. But the other claim we dition. These may be master and servant, even would resent as a personal insult. Even the AfriDEOTórns and doù kos—we use the terms in their old can, far-off cousin though he be, is a relative for political senses—and yet generic equality. One whom we have some regard. He is of our blood, man may have power over another man more or less our kin, our kind; for the words are of the same stringent, conferred by laws more or less just, and stock. We trace them up into the oldest roots of the yet the two stand in the relation of brethren, and Saxon. We find them again in the Greek yev, the consistently and feelingly call each other brethren. Sanscrit jan. We only lose sight of them where all This is the real Scripture test. Whatever relation history disappears-in the primitive state, and in that allows the fraternal word and sentiment to stand primitive language which was the vernacular when unimpaired in their true generic force, that the the whole human family obeyed one living ancestor, Bible assails not, notwithstanding any outward di- dwelt in the same palm grove, and perhaps slept beversities of condition or claim of magisterial au- neath the covert of the same tent. The genealogy thority; whatever theory, whether physical or polit- is yet preserved in the old Family Bible; and that ical, would weaken and destroy them, that is un- science and that political philosophy are the greatest holy, inhuman, unchristian. The simple idea is enemies of the highest human good that would seek worth more, and will do more to elevate mankind, to obliterate or in any way impair the credit of the than all the Magna Chartas, and Bills of Right, and record. Missouri Compromises that have ever been con- Paul's declaration to the Athenians was only an trived as barriers to human oppression. Each mem- inspired interpretation of elder Scripture. It was ber of the human body is equally flesh, and equal holding up before the Greek that authentic geneaflesh, and all make one flesh, although the hands, logical roll which had so long been familiar to the the eyes, the feet, perform different offices, appar- Jew, while he cites, by way of illustration, the anently and outwardly of different degrees of rank, cient poets of the nation in opposition to their eryet all equally honorable, because all equally inter- travagant claim of generic distinction and superior. dependent, when viewed in their catholic or organic ity. Nothing can be more idle than the attempt to relations. It is in fact this absolute equality which make the term “blood," as thus employed, mean renders the organic relation possible. The latter simply a resemblance in certain qualities. The incould not exist between parts generically distinct. terpretation is only worthy of such a philologist and Animals of the highest class, or any species that biblical scholar as Mr. Nott. It is just what we are not truly men, could no more belong to the con- would expect from a critic who denies that the au. stitution of the body politic than the rod in the hand, thors of King James's translation of the Bible had or the shoes beneath the feet, could be true mem- any knowledge of Hebrew, and who furnishes such bers of the fleshly human organization.
evidence of his own hermeneutical skill in his proMan, then, we say, may have dominion over man; found remarks about Samson's foxes. The use he may even have a political lordship over him. I of “blood” for “kin" is common to all tongues. “There is nothing degrading or dehumanizing in this, whether the belief on which it seems to be grounded be true or not, there can be no mistake in respect and political generalizations, that we do not think to the idea. The blood, if not the life, is represent enough and make enough of blood or kinsmanship. ative of the life. It denotes the ever-flowing river | It is not too much to say that some of the strongest of human vitality, the stream of generation, how. supports of human virtue are failing in consequence ever widely parted its numerous branches—the es- of it. And yet, if we may judge from the abundant sential unity of being, however multifold its individ- genealogies of the Scriptures, no human feeling was ual manifestations. It expresses the fact, and car- held in greater honor. Next to the Sacra Dei, were ries up the mind to a real point of unity, where all ever the sancti patres, and the brethren according to this diverging diversity was once one, actually one, the flesh. But that is the Old Testament, it may numerically as well as ideally. Thus brothers are be said; Christian love is grounded solely on the of one blood because they have the same father. class or moral relation. We would not rashly medCousins are consanguinei, or of one blood, because dle here with themes so sacred; it may be permit. they have the same grandfather. Recognized kin ted, however, to say that the question, Is it not dred are of the same blood, because their linès meet something more than this? is the great problem for in a common proavus, or ancestor. Any two human our modern theology, the great question of a standbeings-even the Anglo-Saxon and the Negro-are | ing or falling Church. But to come down to our of kin, or possessed of a common life, on the ground more natural and human sphere, we repeat it, we that there was a time, an exact time of measurable do not think enough of blood either as respects the though unknown degrees, when their individual whole human family, or even the narrower circles streams parted from one parent fountain, and it within which its currents can be more distinctly could be said of them, in the clear language of the traced. Indeed we may say that the strength and Latin poet
purity of the former feeling will depend much on “Sic genus amborum scindit se sanguine ab uno." the degree in which we cherish the latter. Our
And this is the only true idea of a nature or spe- philanthropy, our zeal for political and social rights, cies. It is not resemblance in appearance or in work can never get above our love for kin without proving ing, in cause or in effect. It is not likeness of process its own spuriousness. We suspect that cosmopolmerely, be it ever so constant and ever so uniform. itanism which ignores the family, the neighborhood, It is causative of resemblance and classification, not the circle of known consanguinities, in its enthusiconstituted by them. Nature is birth, a series of asm for the good of being in general. We have here births. It is a being born, as its name (natura) im again the sure testimony of the Scriptures, and that plies, and an ever being about to be born of one thing too as given by the “loving Apostle'-“He that from another. It is the unfolding of a life, of a loveth not his brother whom he hath seen, how can germ, whose beginning must be out of itself, or su. he love God whom he hath not seen?" By parity pernatural, and this beginning, from the very idea, of reasoning-he that loveth not his brother who is and the law of the idea, must be one. Here is the near him in the flesh, how can be truly love his point at which our scientific naturalists so greatly brother who is far removed from the common fountstumble, It is their error here which makes them ain of life? so incapable, many of them, of rightly appreciating Ours is an age, and especially ours is a country, the moral and theological positions that are connect- in which the mind should be especially recalled to ed with this higher idea. We might suppose Deity these laws of nature and of nature's God. It is an to have created beings in the form of men, and with age of rambling, of emigration, of the continual such a degree of resemblance, material and spiritual, breaking up of family and kindred ties. The feel. that no examination could detect the least appre-ing and idea of home is getting to be almost lost. ciable difference in the length of a hair, the strength We need to be reminded of the mine of virtue there of a feeling, or the significance of a thought. Still, is in these genealogical remembrances, in the cherif they had never had with each other any connec-ished thought of “the dear kindred blood," as tion of life, they could not be said to be of one na Daniel Webster has so feelingly expressed it. It ture, of one race, of one blood. For nature is a fact, it would do our national character no harm if we had is community of vitality; and there must, therefore, more of this best and purest kind of “nativism”be as many natures as there are distinct beginnings. if the feeling extended habitually to third, fourth,
Neither would any contiguities of habitation at all even fifth cousins, or those still remoter ties of alter the case in respect to beings thus originating. traceable blood which we ridicule some of the older They would be as alien as the dwellers on sep- and more stable nations for so assiduously cherish. arate planets. No remoteness in space or time ing. We want no acquaintance with the man whose could make them less of kin, less of the same na soul does not warm to one in whose veins he knows ture, than the simple fact that there was not, and there runs the same stream of kindred life which not never had been, between them any community of long since parted from his own, or who fails to reclife. There might indeed be said to be a connecognize him as a kinsman whether in low or high station, but only through God, the universal, uncreated tion, in poverty, in rags, and even in ignominy. centre of unity, and by whom they would be alike. At first view, one would very naturally think that connected with all things else in the spiritual and by no class would the Nott and Agassiz doctrine material universe.
have been more unequivocally condemned than by Whatever may be thought of it theoretically, we those who have declaimed the loudest about human are satisfied that, practically and morally-and this rights, and whose motto has been, or ought to have is at present the aspect of the question on which we been-"Am I not a man and a brother ?” Some of are mainly insisting-we can not overestimate the this school have heartily denounced the book, and value of this idea of blood or kinsmanship. We we give them all honor for consistency and sincerhave reference now, not only to the universal con- ity. Others have obviously hesitated. The quessanguinity of the race, but more especially to those tion has puzzled them by presenting two aspects. nearer affinities to which we chiefly give the name There is the dehumanizing side, which certainly of kindred, because we can trace chronologically seems at war with their professed philanthropy. and genealogically the originating unity from which But there is, again, the antibiblical side, and the it flows. It is the chief fault of this age of moral antibiblical interest, that is in unison with their
railing at the Church and the distrust with which us all. There is no telling who is perfectly legitithey have come to regard the Scriptures as not mate, who is the true homo, who has least of the teaching philanthropy on their grounds, and after beast in his origin and descent. The most modern their manner. And hence their cautious treatment. authors of the diversity doctrine venture to speak, They would not burn their fingers with too close though very cautiously, of different creations. But handling. They would not commit themselves, yet this multiplication of the supernatural beyond the evidently show a disposition to commend the infidel supernatural of the Bible is, to say the least, liable speculation if they dared. They would not endorse to suspicion when we consider the source from it, not they ; yet still it is a great work, a very re- / whence it comes. It is a sudden affectation of markable work; its positions should be carefully I piety which there is some reason to distrust. Take considered by all candid and truth-loving minds. away our sure hold on express revelation-take Its direct opposition to the Scriptures, however, is away this “ light shining in a dark place," and the hardly thought worthy of a remark.
next most reliable and most rational theory is that And yet the bearing of this upon the slavery ques- of development. If we can not retain the simple, tion, and other questions of social and political re- sublime, and most credible account of the Scripform, is too obvious to be ignored or denied. It tures, we see no stopping place short of that für. will not do to trust too implicitly to what we call nished in the “ Vestiges of Creation,” much as it "natural right" until we know something more may serve the purposes of some naturalists at presabout nature than we can learn from nature herself. ent to contemn that book. And who knows what We may have to come back to the old Bible after nature may next develop ? What science can give all. If pressed for our title to property even in the us any assurance about it? Of course, we think animal races, it would be difficult to make it out ourselves at the top of the scale, but lay aside revunless we threw ourselves upon the old grant of elation, reject what it teaches us of the origin and sovereignty so clearly set forth in the Scriptures. destiny of man, and what security is there that the Admitting, however, for the sake of the argument, descendants of Mr. Nott, and Mr. Agassiz, and of the existence of such natural title, it would be still those who are for re-opening the slave trade, may more difficult to show why it would not include not be among the Yahoos of a coming generation ? races once thought human, but at length discovered If such be now the use and tendency of the doo. to be only steps in the scale between us (whoever trine, while the old associations are yet strong, who we may be) and the long list of descending animal-can reckon its moral mischief when it shall have ities. It would be impossible to show why a man, obtained full possession of the world-when there a real man, might not have property, and the same shall have been wholly lost the humanizing effect kind of property, in a Negro, or a Papuan, or one of of the belief in a common fall and a common rethe miserable Esquimaux, as well as in a sheep or demption-when, too, the feeling which the dogma a reindeer. The former might be possessed of some would naturally generate is aided and driven on by what higher faculties, it is true, but then they could that depraved love of domination and oppression be put to higher uses. The political authority might which would then have no check either in nature show them some kindness, as in the law against or a trusted Bible? It is now, perhaps, the play. cruelty to animals, but it could not know them as thing of the sciolist; but it will be a far more sesubjects, or even as servants. They could not be rious matter, when the distinctions which now dowhou, or oikétai, or úvópároda, all of which names, clothe themselves in scientific names shall have even the most servile, have some recognition of come down and mingled in the common speech humanity, and the first two an implied political re when instead of anthropoids we shall have half-men, lation. They would not even be bondsmen. They | when in place of the scientific semi-simi, caudati, would not be men at all.
the vulgar shall have their man-ape, or their manWe do not wish to meddle here with the direct outang, or their man-kangaroo, or the Laponian man. or indirect bearings of these views upon the politnikin, or the man-faced Esquimaux, or the blubber. ical question of servitude; but it may be men. eating resemblances of humanity that burrow in tioned, by the way, as a striking fact, that the the earth and snows of the Arctic circle. And chief opponent of this dehumanizing doctrine of then, too, who that knows any thing of man (we diversity has been found in a Southern clergyman* mean the highest race of man) can doubt that the -one who is a defender of the political relation of widening distinction would go on, until one despotic slavery as a matter of necessity under present cir-tribe would come to regard itself as the only real cumstances, while he earnestly contends for the homo, and in the maintenance of such a claim treat true human dignity, and human equality of the col. all the rest as the legitimate instruments of its ored brother. To that noble band who have so long pleasure or its profit? The Negro, the Papuan, the suffered between the cross-fires of unreasoning ul. Hottentot, the Laplander-these surely are not traists—to the clergymen and Christians of the men; but how long before the Anglo-Saxon pride South-would we appeal to sustain him in this de- would assume a similar attitude toward the Celt, fense of the universal brotherhood of men. It will and the idealizing Teuton dream himself into a gebe found in the end to be the true conservatism. / neric superiority to the Sclave ? The Christian defenders of slavery as an existing We have as yet had chiefly in view the moral institution would certainly not wish to place it on a bearings of the question. But what, it may be said, ground that can only be held with the loss of a truth has all this to do with the argument? We are told so precious—that can only be sustained at a sacrifice again, it is a pure question of science, and we an. so dear as the denial of manhood to any part of the swer as before-define the bounds of your science. human race—and at the same time throwing an Tell us where the natural, the scientific, in your infidel suspicion, a painful doubt, over the whole sense of the word, separates itself from the moral question of humanity.
and the spiritual. Tell us on what grounds you The confusion arising does not affect merely one claim the right to make the higher in all these great or two varieties. It casts a cloud over the birth of questions give way to the lower, and demand that
moral certainties, and the consideration of undeni* The Rev. Dr. Smyth, of Charleston, S.c. | able moral consequences, shall yield to the proba