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cpicurism. They fatten through sheer ennai, short, the swift-sailer, when its feathers are and for pastime's sako, rather than through any plucked, has a great resemblance to its own ambition of " cutting up fat." The task, more skeleton : an idea, which invincibly repulses all over, assigned to them, is to destroy the innu- thoughts of savory roast-meat. merable seeds of weeds—which they do in a But let us demolish, piece by piece, the frame larger proportion than the protected seeds of hu- of the bird of prey, or the humming-bird. Let us man food—and animal and insect vernin, which put the complete in the place of the incomplete, would soon annihilate the labors of man, did not and substitute the empty for the full. Let us certain species of birds feel an incessant craving take, in one word, the very reverse of all these to devour them. Birds have no nose, for the anatomical arrangements, and we shall have the same good reason that they have no palate. It is exact pattern of the runner. There do not, pernot necessary that creatures, destined to eat every haps, exist in all nature two creatures belonging thing without making wry faces, should have, post- to the same family, which bear such slight marks ed in front of their stomach, as we have, a vigi- of relationship as the humming-bird and the lant sentinel who is troublesomely cautious who ostrich. In vain would the latter deny the fact and what he allows to enter the fortress.

that it partakes more of the camel than of the M. Toussenel classifies birds according to the biped; for, in proof of the fact, it carries on its form of the foot. Every bird, from the penguin back the children and the kings of Egypt. An of the Antartic pole to the gerfalcon of the North ostrich is a vice versa humming-bird. Here Cape, has the foot either fat or curved. The flight, there running, is the only means of locowhole kingdom of birds is thus divisible into Flat- motion. In the ostrich the breast-bone, instead foots and Curve-foots. The first three orders of of projecting, is flattened down to ridiculous the former class, are, the Oar-foots, the Stilters, dimensions. It is a bony plate in the form of a and the Vélocipèdes, or Runners. Further gen- shield, which acts as a prow instead of a keel. eral details are now impossible : wo can only The thighs and legs assume the bulky dimensions give a sample of the Runners.

of the same parts in herbivorous quadrupeds. Praise be to Heaven for creating the Veloci- All of which means, that Nature, who, in the pede, the delight alike of the eye and the palate swift-sailers, has favored the development of un

the glory and ornament of fields, forests, and eatable parts at the expense of those which are feasts—the nourisher of rich and poor! No other articles of food, has completely changed her style race contributes in the same proportion to man's of architecture in the Velocipedes: neglecting two composite pleasures of sporting and eating the parts which are never eaten, in order to deThe world with no other living creatures to in-velop, in luxurious fashion, those parts which habit it than Men, Women, and Velocipedes, supply us with dainty dishes. might still manage to get on tolerably.

Now, wherefore this contrast of comparative The Velocipedes come immediately after the anatomy? Wherefore has Nature, who does Stilters, in the order of creation. They were the nothing without a motive, so liberally garnished first inhabitants of the earliest emerging conti- the Velocipede with meat? Why has she enRents; for, they are herbivorous and graminivor-dowed that tender viand with so remarkable an ous creatures, and grass is the initial manifesta- easiness of digestion, and so exquisite and invittion of the vital forces of the earth. Their char-ing a flavor ? Does Nature, by these signs, inacter of primogeniture is, moreover, indelibly tend to insinuate that the providential destiny of stamped upon all their features, in their rudi the runner is to be snared or shot, and then mental structure, and their small number of toes. roasted and eaten? The order opens with the ostrich (the ostrich is The fact, alas! is only too probable, the lana bird-quadruped, as the penguin is a bird-fish); Iguage too clear, the oracle too certain. Yes! it can not fly, for want of wings, and has only Every thing leads to the belief that Nature has two toes on each foot. As every individual in destined the order of Velocipedes to serve as food the order has its frame modeled, more or less, for flesh-eating creatures, in every kingdom of after that of the ostrich, it is important to refer the animated world. Yes! These unhappy to this original and primitive pattern, and to com races merit, in the same degree as the Rumipare its organization with that of the humming nants, the appellation of the victim order.-(Vichirds, in order clearly to comprehend the char- tim, from the Latin victus, conquered, from acter and the providential destiny of the creatures which the word victuals is also derived, in consewe are considering.

I quence of the ancient practice of conquerors The humming-bird, and all tho swift-sallers, making a meal off their conqueree's sirloin. have the thoracic cavity, or chest, outrageously Yes! Of what use is it to mince the matter? developed, with the ridge of the breast-bone pro-Among birds, the Velocipedes are, to man, what jecting, like the keel of a cutter. But, in virtue the Ruminants are among the mammifersman of the natural law of equilibrium, this excessive order, every species of which is charged with the development can only take place at the expense mission of furnishing us with composite pleasure. of some other part of the body. In the humming- The analogy must be very evident; since, before bird, the atrophied and deficient portion is the we came to enlighten the world, it had already region of the insertion of the lower members. struck a number of savants. There are, in fact, All is sacrificed to lightness and utility. The Velocipedes of the sands, and Velocipedes of the chest is fashioned like the blade of a knife. In steppes—of the meadows, the rocks, and the precipices--exactly as there are Ruminants for by a youth of a fair and gentle countenance, who, every one of those special localities. There is on being told of the hermit's object, offered to the ostrich, as there is the camel; the bustard, accompany him on his journey, since his road as the antelope ; the hen, as the cow; the par- lay in the same direction. That night they came tridge and the pheasant, as the gazelle and the to a stately and magnificent castle, where they roe; the bartavelle, the grouse, and the ptarmi- were graciously received and hospitably entergan, as the moufflon, the bouquetin, and the tained. The following morning they took leave chamois.

of their kind host and proceeded on their journey. Further, the Velocipedes are all true Rumi- “Ah!" said the hermit, “in this instance I nants, living, like them, on grass and grain. must confess that justice seems to have been They have several stomachs, with a preparatory wisely dispensed, since the good things of this crop fulfilling exactly the same office as the world could not have been better bestowed than paunch of the quadruped. Now, all meats pro- on one so kind and benevolent as our good host. duced from grass are of delicate taste and easy May God bless and prosper him to the end of his digestion. Analogically and algebraically speak- days." ing, the hen is to the cow as the partridge is to But the youth was silent. the roe. The hen gives us her eggs and her They traveled on till nightfall, when they came chickens, just as the cow does her milk and her to a miserable cottage, where they knocked and calf. We ought, besides, to remark that, in begged for shelter. It was a wretched hovel; either order, the flesh of the female is superior to the roof was partly falling in, and cobwebs hung that of the male. The fact, moreover, is univer- like draperies around the walls. This comfortsal, that nature has endowed the female world less abode was occupied by a feeble, ernaciated with more delicate aromas than the male; with old man, who was seated on a large oaken chest more fleshy tissues and shorter muscles. bound with bands of iron, the key of which he

To this proposition will be made the objection wore around his neck that the flesh of the ox, nevertheless, is prefer-1 “Why do you ask for shelter at a poor place able to that of the cow. There is no denying it. like this?" said the miser, for such he was. “I Only, it may be observed, the ox is not the con- have but a little straw on which to rest my aching trary of the cow, but is simply the uncle of the limbs, and a morsel of black bread and water is calf. Put the cow in the same condition as the all that has ever passed my lips for many a day. ox, and she will bear the palm; exactly as the Come not to me, then, for shelter and entertainpoularde is far preferable to the capon. The ment—this poor hut is unable to afford it." poularde is merely the chicken's aunt. The pro- “But no other human dwelling is near," urged found study of the above analogies has led M. the youth; "the wind howls wild and fierce, and Toussenel to the unexpected discovery of the heavy clouds are gathering over our heads threatfollowing magnificent law of passional move-ening to discharge their fury upon us. For pity's ment: God has delivered up animals to man, by sake permit us to take shelter under your roof. means of the virtues of the females and the vices | This is all we ask." of the males.

The miser then reluctantly unfastened the door Take all our domestic animals one after the and admitted them. The old man spread some other--the list is not a very long one-conscien- straw for his guests in the only corner where the tiously analyze the dispositions of both sexes, rain did not pour through the roof, and again and you will inevitably find the foregoing con- seating himself on his chest, he remained awake clusion lurking at the bottom of your compari- all night that he might keep a watch over his unsons. You will be convinced of the innocence, welcome visitors. gentleness, and docility of the females, and of At dawn of day the hermit and his companion the pride, mischievousness, and insubordination arose to depart, but to the surprise and dismay of of the males.

the hermit, on taking leave of their host the

youth produced from under his cloak a golden THE WAYS OF PROVIDENCE goblet, which he had taken from the castle, and THERE was once a hermit who lived in the presented it to the miser, who received it with

I deep recess of a forest. Some bitter grief brightening eyes and a grim smile of satisfaction had induced him, while he was still young, to “Well,” thought the hermit, “this is a strange seek seclusion from the world in this dreary soli- youth; but I will not part from him just yet tude. He had built himself a small hut of wood, for his wonder and curiosity were aroused by such and with his goats and the wild fruits of the an unaccountable proceeding. forest he barely managed to maintain existence. The next day was very hot, the travelers grew

He had thus passed many years, when one faint and weary; so they entered a poor, though day, as he was thinking over the scenes of his neat and pretty cottage, and asked for a drink of past life, some doubts arose in his mind concern- water. The inmates of the cottage consisted of ing the justice of God. He therefore resolved to a feeble old couple, their widowed daughter, and go forth once more into the world, in order to a little grandson. The daughter seemed worr gain further knowledge which might enlighten by anxiety and fatigue ; since, with all her inhim.

dustry and care, she could scarcely earn enough The hermit arose and set out upon his travels. to support them all, as her old parents were enHe had not proceeded far when he was accosted tirely dependent upon her. However, what with

the extreme cleanliness, neat little garden, and the child whom I poisoned would have grown up gay flowers which adorned each casement, the a murderer and a robber like his father, whom I place looked most comfortable and cheerful. ' threw into the abyss as a just reward for his in

At the approach of the hermit and his com- iquities." panion the young woman smilingly bade them The hermit—who had fallen on his face-now welcome, and invited them to share their frugal looked up, but the archangel had disappeared. evening repast. It merely consisted of bread, Healed of all his doubts, the hermit returned milk, and a few radishes. After this simple meal to his silent retreat in the forest glades, where he they all knelt down, while the old man pro- passed the remainder of his days in humble mednounced a short, simple, but fervent prayer for itation on the wonderful and mysterious ways of the blessing and assistance of the Almighty. The God. old couple and the child then retired to rest, but the daughter took down her spinning-wheel and

THE SCHOLARS OF BRIENNE. began working with great industry. The hermit MHE winter of 1783 was a severe one in the and the youth then arose and took leave of their 1 northern provinces of France. Snow storms poor but hospitable hostess.

of unusual violence and duration visited every disThe youth carried a torch which he had just trict. The vineyards were half buried, the great lighted at the cottage fire. They had hardly pro- road to Paris was impassable for weeks, and in ceeded a few steps, when the youth turned back the lower streets of Brienne the inhabitants were and set fire to the straw thatch of the cottage. obliged to open narrow passages through the The wind being strong and the thatch dry, the snow, which rose above their ground-floor wincottage was soon in flames, nothing being saved dows. but the lives of the inmates. The hermit was so The situation of that ancient town still renders horror-struck and afraid that he durst not venture it liable to such wintry visitations. Surrounded any remark on the conduct of his strange com- by an open level country, and built on a steep panion, but continued his journey in silence, ever hill side, its streets rise one above another like and anon gazing at the youth with a mingled feel successive terraces, up to the grim château which ing of awe and wonder. That same night they has stood many a siege, and seen various occupassed a hut among the mountains, from whence pants since it was erected by the first seigneur sounds of lamentation and a bitter cry were heard. of Brienne. Few travelers visit the city, for it They entered and found a mother weeping over has little traffic and less fashion about it. There her only child, while the father was bending over are traces of wars both early and late-ruined him with a countenance in which was expressed fortifications, tracks of shot, and shell, and fire. the most intense grief. As the travelers entered, There are also an old church or two, and some the parents of the child looked up and cried: houses that might interest the antiquary; but, “Oh, pray for us, Holy Father, that our child excepting these and their traditions, a more commay be spared !” Thereupon the hermit knelt monplace old burgh is not to be found in northern down to pray; but the youth took a cup and pre- France. pared a draught, which he administered to the At the time of our story, Brienne had not such sick child; and the child immediately expired. a modern look. Its narrow, irregular streets, The remainder of that night they staid at the turreted roofs, and projecting gables, told of hut, and next morning the youth engaged the builders who flourished with the line of Valois, father as their guide over the mountains. A noble governor held half-feudal, half-military

This time the hermit hesitated to go with his state in its château, where he commanded a small companion any further, but somehow an irresist- and very idle garrison. Its trade was old and ible impulse urged him to follow the mysterious homely; its burghers careful and quiet; and the youth. They had traveled some way over the great glory of the town was its military college. steep rocky paths of the mountains, when they Thecitizens believed that half their country's great came to a slight bridge of planks thrown over an commanders had been educated there. They had abyss. On passing over this, the youth pushed tales of Conde and Turrene, Vilars, and De Luxhis guide and hurled him headlong into the yawn- emburg, which, though scarcely historical, were ing gulf.

| in high credit. The students, too, were more "Wretch !” cried the hermit, who could no popular than students in quiet country towns are longer control his feelings, and was springing to- apt to be, chiefly on account of the rigid disciward him with uplifted arm; but just as he was pline prevailing in military schools of those days, on the point of seizing him, a bright cloud envel- which permitted no visits, except to relations, oped the youth, and a dazzling radiance shone and little going beyond the college even on holiaround him; for, lo! the archangel Michael arose days, Besides Christmas and Easter, the prinon the cloud before him. Then the angel spake, cipal of those was the governor's birthday; and saying :

as the commandant of the château happened to “ Thou didst doubt the justice of God, and now have been born on the 29th of January, his festhou hast seen it. The goblet which I took from tival came immediately after the storm that year. the castle was poisoned, and therein will the mi- It was a cold, clear day, with the snow lying ser find his due reward. The good people whose white over town and country. The students had cottage I burned down will find a treasure which been up early, assisting the porter and other hath long been buried under its foundation ; and humble office-bearers to clear the entrance and


courts of their college, and were now at noon as- youth of sixteen, who had been elected to that sembled, great and small, in a large neglected high office by acclamation, as an acknowledged garden, which served them as ground for play and most popular leader, addressed his troops in and exercise. From the carly age at which they a speech full of classical quotations ; reminded were drafted off to the army, the senior students them of the exploits performed by Alexander the were yet boys, and the juniors mere children; Great, Julius Cæsar, and their own illustrious but the controversy of their times had found en- ancestors; and closed with an exhortation to trance among them. Some were cadets of noble maintain the honor of the noble houses from but reduced families, and stood high on the real which they were descended, by driving that con. or imaginary privileges of their birth, taking a temptible rabble from beneath their walls. boyish pride in the feudal rights and usages of The besieging general, a fiery young Parisian, which France was becoming every day more im- in no less esteem with his party, talked of the patient. They knew that the college had been rights of man, prophesied the triumph of liberty, expressly founded for youths of family; but time, and shouted “death to the tyrants." the innovator, had brought parvenues within its No imitation of the pomp and circumstance of walls. Ambitious burghers sent their sons, cour-war was wanting ; no maneuvre of all they had tiers their dependents, and promising boys from been taught in that methodical college was left the colonies, who could boast no quarterings, unpracticed. There were trumpets and drums, found their way thither with the help of friends war-cries and standards. Cannon were planted and patrons. All these naturally took the demo- on every available height, in the form of boys, to cratic side, and lost no opportunity of making the fling snowballs ; sappers, armed with spades and fact known, but quarreled and shouted for the shovels, advanced under cover of their fire to mine people's rights and liberties with as much zeal the walls. There were storming parties and forand as little knowledge as the fiercest of their lorn hopes, led by most experienced officers, and opponents. In short, like every society then in attempts at surprise and escalade ; but all to no France, the students of Brienne were divided purpose. The besieged had a strong position, into two parties of almost equal strength. The and kept it gallantly, showering missiles of snow professors, though old and prudent men, were hardened by sundry rapid but ingenious proknown to entertain similar differences of opin- cesses, making all sorts of sallies, and occasionion, and demonstrations which did not trans- ally carrying off the youngest of their enemies gress the bounds of discipline were rather en- as prisoners of war.

1 In the mean time, tempers waxed warm on both On the present occasion, the least skillful ob- sides. No contest, however small its object, can server of school affairs would have guessed that be long carried on without unsealing some bitter something extraordinary was to come off in the waters. The blows grew harder, the sneers more garden. Its principal walk had been cleared, to-spiteful. There was earnestness and almost ferocgether with a graveled space generally used for ity in the fighting now, which did not escape a tennis ground. The snow had been shoveled the notice of the only spectators within sight into great heaps on either side, and the whole two men of gray hair and military appearance, body of students separated with military precis- who stood each wrapped in a rough gray cloak, ion, the aristocrats forming one juvenile army, and smoking a long pipe at the garden gate. and the democrats another, in order to celebrate The tallest and most martial-looking of the the holiday by a grand display of tactics in honor pair was old Jules, the chief porter and general of what the boys called their principles.

overseer of domestic matters in the college. He For this purpose, all fell to work with the en- had never worn uniform, nor served out of Brithusiasm and activity of youth. Never had play enne; but in discourse, deportment, and inclinabeen more earnest. The aristocrats labored on tions, there was not a more soldier-like man withone side, the democrats on the other; and with in his country. The other was Jean Martin, his in an hour, thanks to their united exertions and cousin-german, who had been a peasant's son in the plastic nature of the material, a miniature the neighborhood till he went with a volunteer fortress, with bastion, battlement, and outworks, corps of the marquis Lafayette, to serve in the on one of Vauban's most approved plans, was American war of independence. The peace signconstructed out of the snow. The young students ed at Paris in the previous year had closed their sent up a cheer of triumph through the cold, clear campaigns; and, though the newly-established air, as the perishable fortifications were com- | republic rewarded her French auxiliaries with pleted; and after settling the articles of war liberal grants from the inexhaustible treasury of and appointing officers with extreme formality, I prairie and forest lands, such was the applause the aristocrats were left in possession of the for- known to await them at home, that the greater tress, which it was their duty to defend, while part of Lafayette's soldiers chose to return with the democrats besieged it with all their force and their commander. Fighting for liberty was then skill. Neither party had ever seen war. As yet an untried but most popular business in France. they knew it only by romance and theory; and Jean Martin came home covered with glory in the the mingling of these in their mimic siege would eyes of his kindred and old neighbors. All that have amused any veteran who had ever mounted winter his father's cottage was a place of evening a breach or kept a bastion. The governor of the gatherings, to hear him relate his battles and snow-built fortress, a fair-faced, noble-looking marches. The old peasant felt his house raised half way to nobility by such a son, and the porter The general of the besieging army was indeed of the military college considered Jean the only making most inviting signals to the recusant of one of his relations worthy to visit him in Bri- the apple tree ; but he answered, loud enough enne. He had accordingly sojourned for some for Jules and Jean to hear: “ No, you'll never time with old Jules, and seen the wonders of the take the place; you don't know the way. As I college. There was a museum of arms and mili- said before, give me the command, and P'll plant tary engines on which the porter delighted to ex- | the colors on it in half an hour." patiate. Jean Martin was a praiseworthy listen- Cauliancourt looked angry, but his soldiers beer, when not engaged on his American cam- gan to talk. There was an evident inclination to paigns; and the cousins now stood in a high try the new general. So he descended to the state of mutual satisfaction, smoking their pipes, ranks in quiet indignation, and the young Italian and gazing on the siege of that snow-built for- literally jumped from the apple tree to the post of tress with an interest scarcely inferior to that of power. the contending students.

The besieged set up a shout of derision, but “ That is a brave boy who leads the attack,” their scorn did not last. The new leader whissaid Jean; “ so is he who holds the fortress." pered his commands, altered the position of his

“ Yes," replied the porter, who prided himself army, and drew them into a sally, in which one on knowing every student's genealogy, and had division cut off the retreat, another attacked the extremely aristocratic prejudices. “Would you fortress at a point hitherto untried, and in less believe that the young rogue who leads the dem- than a quarter of an hour the Italian planted his ocrats actually belongs to one of the best houses colors, consisting of three old silk handkerchiefs in Paris? Their name is Caulaincourt. They tacked together, on the highest of its snowy batcan count back five hundred years without one tlements. low alliance; but the house is terribly reduced. "He is a young general !” cried Jean Martin, There is a wine-shop kept in their hotel in the clapping his hands in a glow of enthusiasm. Rue du Temple, and that boy has taken to the “Cousin, I have seen nothing like that since the new notions. These are queer times! The boy day when we, with some help from the Ameriwho holds the fort so well, and looks so like a cans, surrounded Burgoyne's army at the springs nobleman's son, is poorly enough descended, of Saratoga." though his father was an officer in Montcalm's “He a general !" cried Jules, in great wrath; army, and fell at Quebec ; his great-grandfather, “I wonder to hear you, who have served under a as I know, was that cousin of Madame de Main-marquis. The fellow has done nothing in due tenon whom she could neither bribe nor frighten form; I could have shown him better myself; out of Protestantism. He fled to Switzerland at but there's the dinner-bell, and our soup will be the revocation, but came back when Louis le cold." Grande was gone, and they say"-here the por- The bell which smote old Jules with that wellter's voice fel—" he lived and died a mere pas founded fear summoned the students also from tor at Maziers."

their mimic warfare. The fortress was, however, " His great-grandson knows something of de- dismantled, by the special command of the victofense,” said Jean ; “I have not seen either since rious general. He left his flag floating over its we kept Fort Philip on the Mississippi ; but tell ruins, and laughed heartily at the defeated gov. me, cousin, who is yonder boy, who stands alone ernor, who was sorely discomfited, not so much leaning against the old apple tree, and smiles so for having lost his fort, as because in the fray he scornfully every time young Caulaincourt and his had hurt a sickly boy, though the brave child company are repulsed.”

wiped up his eyes and promised to say nothing Old Jules followed, with a glance of any thing about it. So the garden was left to snow and but approbation, the direction of the soldier's eye, silence, and the wintry twilight came down upon which rested on a dark spare youth of Italian Brienne. features, grave, keen, and very discontented look- Many evenings and mornings come and go in ing, who had been one of the most earnest and the space of thirty years, and many things beactive in the siege, till in a fit of sudden disgust | sides had come and gone in France, when on he retired to the old apple tree, and stood there the 29th of January, 1814, old Jules and his surveying the proceedings of his comrades with cousin again stood together at the fall of the winsilent but manifest contempt.

ter day. Both were now old indeed ; Jules was “ He,” said the porter, “is of no family at all approaching ninety. Jean Martin had numbered -une of the patronized, you understand. He fourscore and five. The world of their youth was was born in Corsica, and don't know who sent long dead and buried under successive ruins. him here ; but the best descended at the college They had outlived seven forms of government, is not as ambitious as that boy. When he is not and seen changes of power, and glory, and faith ; in command, he is always in a quarrel with some- but except that the gray hair had grown snowbody, or standing alone as you see him now. white, and even the military erectness of Jules The professors don't seem to think him clever, had bowed to time, there was little change in the and the young noblemen try to keep him in his cousins. They had led hardy and temperate place, but it is wonderful how often he gets the up-lives, and in consequence enjoyed that singular per hand. Just look at Caulaincourt coaxing him preservation of faculties which keeps the oldest back. That boy condescends so to his inferiors !" age green. Both remembered the time of Louis

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