« 이전계속 »
and I am sorry to add that my fears have been verified.
I enter the town by a street distant from my own house, and pick my way daintily amidst foul gutters, where fever always sits brooding, and over slippery stones, rendered dirty and dangerous by all sorts of garbage thrown into the street. I am lightly shod, and I do not make much noise, nor am I a very fearful apparition; for I have too much to do to take care of myself to meditate harm to others; but I have no sooner entered the street than a change comes over it. When I first turned the corner, young women were gossiping and laughing every where in the doorways, and from the windows: now I hear the click of many doors closing stealthily; and the lattices are shut every where. A Frank is a rare sight in this obscure quarter, and the women are wild as young fawns. They are watching me from all sorts of places; but if I staid there for hours, not one would come out till I was gone. I know why the Greek girls are as shy as young fawns, and it pains me to think of it. A thousand tales are fresh in my memory of harmless young women who caught the eye of some terrible Turk, by chance, and soon after disappeared mysteriously, or were torn shrieking from their homes by armed men, and were never heard of afterward. I hope such times are gone by now, but I am not quite sure of it; and, therefore, I have no right to wonder that Greek maidens should tremble at the step of a stranger.
Gradually I emerge into a more frequented quarter, and every where the sound of nasal singin», the clapping of hands, and the jingling of glasses, comes from open doors and lattices; while here and there a Turk smokes his nargilleh, sitting cross-legged upon a stone, apart and disdainfully. A long string of mules tied together are lading with oil-skins for a journey. They aro standing in a perfect quagmire of filth, for we have had heavy rains of late; and I can almost see the noxious exhalations steaming out of it in the noonday sun. I hasten my pace, and light a cigar, for such a neighborhood is dangerous; and the best antidote for this kind of poison I know of, is tobacco. Further along the street come a troop of broad-backed hamals (porters); each carries a slain lamb upon his shoulders, to be sent off by tho Austrian boat to Constantinople this evening. Other people are also carrying pretty baskets full of the white sheep's milk cheeses, made in tho Levant. They arc eaten with honey, and form, perhaps, the most exquisite diah in the world.
But here come a band of mummurs, with masks and music. They are begging, and they will stop me, for I am not supposed to know them. There is one cub drunk with unaccustomed eating, whom I should know from his stifled guffaw in a minute, and from a thousand. I know also that he would follow me about all day if I did not buy him off. I take a handful of small coin, therefore, from a pocket where it has been reposing gingerly many days, and as I pass on they are all rolling and squabbling in the mud about it. Vol. IX —No. 54.—3G*
The afternoon has stolen on while I have been wandering about, yet I can not make up my mind to go home: and I halt once more before soma young men at play. I think they are all among the most powerful lads I ever saw; and I watch them with the natural pleasure one has in seeing . health, and strength, and beauty. They are playing at a species of leap-frog, but the "back" is made by three youths, instead of one; they form a triangle as they stoop down, and they do not "tuck in their twopennies" by any means in sporting style. However, the runners charge them gallantly; they bump their heads with great force into the back of the first boy, whose hind-quarters are turned toward them, and they turn a complete somerset over the other two. The first who falls makes a "back," and relieves one of the others. It is rough sport and dangerous; but it is the first time in my life that I have ever seen Greeks in violent exercise; and I notice now, that the players arc the lowest of the low. Whenever there is any dispute, I also notice that they toss a slipper to decide it, and " sole" or " upperleather" wins the day, as the case may be. It is needless to add, that they are all playing barefoot.
By-and-by, they grow tired of leap-frog; and the game by which it is succeeded is as severe a trial of strength as I ever witnessed. One of the young giants takes another in his arms. The man carried has his head downward and his legs gripping the other tightly about the neck. Two young men now go down on all fours, and place themselves close together, while the two other players, twined together as I have said, turn a somerset backward over them, and tho man whose head was downward before is now upward, and the other has of course taken his position. So they go backward and forward, and if they come apart or fall, they have to kneel down and make a "back" for others to tumble over in the same way. I remarked two young men clinging together in this way who turned a somerset twenty-three times in succession. At last they fell from a feint of one of the " backs," who began to grow tired of the sport. They went on playing till evening gradually crept over us, and the sun was quite lost behind the snow-capped mountains. Then, as the dews fell heavily, and the chill air grew keener, they tied up their trowsers, and, shuffling on their slippers, returned to our little town, bawling rude, monotonous choruses, and dancing as they went, if hopping would not be a better term for their uncouth manoeuvres.
I havo returned home. A wood fire burns cheerfully in the hearth, and a lamp sheds a pretty tempered light on the desk I am to use presently. Tho books and maps, the dumpy pens, and the well-worn penknife, the cigar-case, the broken tea-cups on a side-table, and the milk in a glass, all made ready by kind hands, seem to smile a silent weleome to me, like old friends Five minutes at the window, a few cups of tea, a short game with pen and ink, and then to. THE UNITED STATES.
OUR Record for the month is saddened by a dreadful disaster. The steamer Arctic, of the Collins line, during her return voyage from Liverpool, was struck by the Vesta, an iron propeller, on the 27th of September, about sixty-five miles from Cape Race, a few feet forward of her paddle-boxes, and so seriously injured that in about three hours she filled with water and went down stern foremost— engulfing in her ruin, so far as known, all her passengers bnt about twenty-five, and a number of her crew. She was running through a dense fog at the lime, and when the collision first occurred, the shock was so slight that any serious injury to her hull was not apprehended. It was soon found that two large holes had been made in her, through which the water poured at a rapid rate, and which it was found impossible to close. Captain Luce evinced great coolness and self-possession, and a steady determination to share the fate of his ship; but he seems to have lost all command over his crew, most of whom indeed abandoned their duty, seized the boats, and sought to save themselves, regardless of others. An attempt was made to construct a raft, but before it was completed nearly eighty persons, mostly seamen, firemen, waiters, and others employed upon the ship, leaped upon it and perished. The ship had six boats: in four of them some seventy of the crew, officers and men, with about twenty passengers, made their escape; the other two have not, at the date of our writing, been heard from—the hope is cherished Uiat some of the passengers may have been rescued by them. Captain Luce's young son went down with the wreck. Among the lost were the wife, son, and daughter of E. K. Collins, Esq., the projector and principal proprietor of the line; Mrs. Allen, the daughter of Mr. James Brown, another of the owners of the vessel, who also lost a son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, and two grandehildren; Edward Sandford, Esq., a distinguished member of the New York bar; the Due de Grammont, an attache of the French Embassy at Washington; Abner Benedict, Esq., and wife, of New York; R. S. Williams and wife, of Natchez, Miss.; Professor Henry Reed, of the University of Pennsylvania, F. Catherwood, Esq., the distinguished artist, Mr. and Mrs. Mahlon Day, of New York, and a large number of others who were Tess generally known. Intelligence of the calamity first reached New York on the night of October 10, by the ship Lebanon, which had picked up a boat load of the survivors. The propeller which struck the Arctic reached St. Johns on the 12th with thirtytwo of the Arctic's crew. This dreadful calamity, the first that has befallen the Collins line of ocean stcamcrs, created the mostintehso interest throughout the country.
Political movements during the month have been of considerable interest. Elections were held in several States on the 10th of October, of which the general results alone are known. In Pennsylvania, Hon. James Pollock, Whig, has been elected Governor by a majority probably of over ten thousand; and in that State, as well as in Indiana and Ohio, a decided majority of the Congressmen elected are opponents of the Federal Administration. In none of these cases have full or reliable returns been received. In other States the political movements have been preliminary yto the elections which are yet to take place. In 0 New York the Whig State Convention was held
at Syracuse on the 20th of September, and adopted resolutions denouncing the repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and assuming that this act, on the part of the South, releases the North from any obligation to admit any new Slave States into the Union. No resolution concerning the Fugitive Slave Law was adopted. Myron H. Clark was nominated for Governor, and Henry J. Raymond for Lieutenant-Governor. On the 26th, the AntiNebraska Convention assembled at Auburn, according to adjournment at Saratoga, and adopted the Whig ticket, as did also the State Temperance Convention, which met at the same place on the 27th. On the 29th, Governor Seymour, at an interview with the State Democratic Committee, signified his willingness to accept the nomination for a re-election—feeling bound to do so, since the Whig party had taken ground against the pricciples of his Message vetoing the law of last session prohibiting the sale of intoxicating drinks. Judge Bronson, since his nomination, has written two or three letters, in which he declares himself opposed to the passage of a prohibitory law. In Massachusetts a Democratic State Convention met at Lowell on the 26th of September, at which resolutions were adopted re-affirming their adherence to the Baltimore platform of 1852, recognizing conformity to its principles in the administration of President Pierce, and supporting the Bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, as embodying the great principle of self-government in its application to Territories as well as to States. Henry W. Bishop was nominated for Governor,
and Caleb Stetson for Lieutenant-Governor.
Agricultural Fairs have been held in New YorkT Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and other States, during the past month, which have attracted general attention, and been attended with a good deal of interest. Premiums were distributed, addresses delivered, and a stimulus given to the agricultural interest which will undoubtedly be felt in the increased production of the several States.
The Rev. Dr. Wainwright, Provisional Bishop of the Episcopal Church in the Diocese of New York, died at his residence in that city on the 21st of September. The Diocesan Convention, which met on the 28th, elected Rev. Horatio Potter, D.D., of Albany, to be his successor. This result was reached after eight ballots, Dr. Potter on the last ballot receiving 97 out of 173 clerical, and 75 out of 147 lay, votes cast. Dr. Wainwright was widely known and universally esteemed as a learned scholar, an able divine, a laborious and faithful bishop, and a gentleman of most excellent personal and social qualities. His successor is admirably qualified to fulfill his duties, and his election has given
general satisfaction throughout the diocese. The
Right Rev. Dr. Gartland, Roman Catholic Bishop of Georgia, died at Savannah on the 21st September. He was a native of Dublin, and widely esteemed for his learning and piety.
From California our intelligence is to the 16th of September. The State election, which had just taken place, had probably resulted in the triumph of that section of the Democratic party which was opposed to the election of a United States Senator at the last Session of the Legislature. Full returns had not been received, but enough was known to indicate this result. The anniversary of the admission of California into the Union was celebrated on the 9th. The mining operations are generally successful, though difficulty is experienced in some localities from a lack of water. During the first six months of the present year, no less than 10,000 Chinese left the port of Hong Kong for California. They are becoming an important portion of the population, and one which in some respects is undesirable. The grain crops and fruit in California promise to yield abundantly.
From Mexico we have intelligence of the entire suppression of the revolutionary movement on the Rio Grande, to which allusion was made in our last, and also further details of the defeat of the hostile force at Guyamas. The Mexican troops were commanded by General Yancz, who had contrived to make himself popular even among the French commanded by Count Raoussct de Boulbon. In the engagement, which took place early in September, Yancz was completely successful, and immediately liberated 187 whom he had taken prisoners, and whom he sent with $15 each to San Bias. The Mexican Government refused to sanction this lenity, and not only threw the Frenchmen into prison, but disgraced General Yanez. On the 9th of September Count Raoussct de Boulbon was tried by court-martial, and on the 12th was shot in accordance with its sentence.—Santa Anna, on the 11th, issued an address to the soldiers, exhorting them to renewed devotion to the independence of their country, and to the union by which alone it can be preserved. It is said that financial difficulties again begin to embarass the Government. General Cruz, in an official dispatch, gives an account of an action which he fought at Mogotes on the 12th of August, in which he claims to have defeated a rebel force of 300. The British Minister has issued a circular, warning British subjects in Mexico from contributing to the Russian loan.
Public attention has been in a great degree absorbed by the grand military display at Boulogne, prepared by the Emperor for the purpose of entertaining Prince Albert, the King of Belgium, Pedro, the young King of Portugal, and other distinguished visitors. About one hundred thousand troops were collected at Boulogne. The Emperor on the 3d of September addressed a proclamation to his Army of the North—of which he takes command in person —explaining to them the necessity, in all military operations, of so disposing the troops that they might procure subsistence without exhausting the resources of the country, and at the same time be able to reunite itself promptly on the field of battle. The reviews which took place on the 7th were characterized by great magnificence. The troops now in camp arc to be rfVafted for service in the Eastern war as they may be required.
Prince Czartoryski, the recognized representative of the banished aristocracy of Poland, has issued from Paris an address to his countrymen on their relation to the events which have again involved Europe in war. He says that some of the powers which aided the partition of Poland are now forced to acknowledge the fatal results of that step to Europe, and to conteraplato the advantages of her reestablishment. All Poles, whatever may be their differences concerning internal affairs, agree in the desire for national independence, and in the conviction that if called upon to carry on a contest to secure it, they must have a military government until it shall be decided. This fact, he says, will exclude from admission any party which would disturb their unanimity by a premature discussion of forms of government. When independence shall have been
conquered, the nation alone will have the right of deciding on the form of government she will adopt, and will spontaneously feel the propriety of taking into account the advice of friendly powers. He advises the Poles to remain tranquil until some onr of the contending powers shall declare in favor of Polish independence, and form a Polish army under Polish chiefs. Such a course will preserve them from intestine divisions, and do more than can be done in any other way to secure the accomplishment of their highest hopes.
No important changes have occurred in the aspect of Spanish affairs. Queen Christina, whose trial on charges of peculation was universally demanded, left Madrid on the 28th of August, accompanied by her husband and children, for Portugal. There was a riotous popular demonstration against her departure when it first became known, but it subsided without any serious results. A squadron of cavalry was provided as an escort for the Queen, and the garrisons on the route were notified in advance to see her safely from one post to another. The Ministry, soon after she had left the city, published a decree suspending the payment of the pension allotted to her in 1845, detaining all her private property to answer for any charges that may be established against her, and ordering her to quit the kingdom, and await the decision of the Cortes in
regard to her future residence. Serious charges
have been brought by public rumor against Mr. Soule, the American Minister at Madrid. It is alleged that he was directly concerned in instigating the outbreaks which attended the departure of the Queen Mother on the 28th, and that he has distributed among disaffected persons sums of money, which have been raised among the European libererals, for the purpose of exciting an insurrection in Spain. The Spanish Ministry took measures to investigate these charges, but it is not known that they succeeded in obtaining any evidence that could implicate him directly. Mr. Soule left Madrid, after taking formal leave of the Court, on tho 30th of August. He had given great offense by a letter, written on the 13th, in reply to an invitation to attend a banquet of the Liberal Press, in which he highly praised the invincible constancy of the friends of Spanish liberty, and assured them that they had only to unite their party in order to achieve a complete and final triumph over the shameful despotism which has so long crushed freedom of thought, and stifled its most legitimate aspirations. He said he hailed with delight the revolution which had succeeded thus far, and only hoped that those who had originated it would carry it forward to still more complete success. Spain may, if she chooses. peacefully consolidate in a few months the liberties which England had only secured by two revolutions. The heart of Young America, he said, would weleome the news of the complete enfranchisement of the Spanish people.
A letter from Ledru Rollin, written at London on the 1st of August, has been published, in which he expresses the opinion that the revolutionary movement in Spain will eventually lead to the proclamationof the republic. Whether this should take place within a few days, or weeks, would depend on circumstances ; but he could not doubt that the main desire of the country pointed to that resultMonarchy has been thoroughly tried in Spain, and there can be no desire to perpetuate it. M. Rollin also urges upon the American government the duty of taking an active part in the contests of Europe. and especially of encouraging all liberal republican movements every where. This, he thinks, is the policy dictated alike by principle and by interest.
Apprehensions continue to be expressed in
Spanish journals of designs against Cuba on the part of the United States, and renewed efforts are made by the Spanish government to fortify the isl-1 and against such attempts. The number of Span- j ish troops now in Cuba is stated at twenty thousand infantry, one thousand cavalry, and five or six batteries of artillery.
AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. Some further diplomatic correspondence caleulated to throw light on the present relations of Austria and Prussia to the pending war, has been published. Count Ncsselrode, on behalf of the Russian government, in a note dated 30th June, apprised Prussia of the fact, that without sharing the opinions with reference to the occupation of the Principalities as put forward by Austria and participated in by Prussia, the Emperor, nevertheless, out of consideration for the special interests of Austria and Germany on the Danube, and the peculiar nature of the obligations which the Courts of Vienna and Berlin have entered into with the Western Powers in the Protocol of April 9, had agreed to withdraw from the Principalities, and to enter into negotiations for peace on the basis of the three main principles laid down in that protocol, or at least to pave the way for such negotiations by agreeing to a truce; securities, however, would be required as a preliminary step. On the 24th of July, Manteuffel, the Prussian Secretary, issued a circular note to the allied courts, in which this offer of the Czar was recommended to their earnest and favorable consideration. He expressed the hope that the English government would "consider with calmness and impartiality the late overture of Russia—that it will remember there are sufficient grounds to conclude on its side upon the points before it—and that it may in this manner assist the real intentions of the several go vernments, which are to make their views clear, and to cast out uncertainty as to the points which are the objects of the war." And he felt the greater confidence in this expectation from the fact that the Russian explanation, so far as it refers to the protocol of the 9th of April, sets up three definite principles—namely, the integrity of Turkey, the evacuation of the Principalities, and the security of the municipal and religious rights of all the Christian subjects of the Porte. Now, these three principles constitute the substance of the guarantees which the protocol, by the care of the Powers, recommends in order to bind the Ottoman Empire with the greater firmness to the European system. On the 21st of July, Count Buol, on behalf of Austria, also issued the circular instructions of that government to its agents at Paris and London, in regard to this offer of Russia. The common aim of all the Powers, he said, had been the re-establishment of a solid and durable peace— one which, by re-establishing the rights of the Porte, should give to Europe guarantees against the recurrence of perturbations, such as those which disturb it so profoundly at the present moment. The importance of the interests which are associated with the object is so great, that he was convinced no Power would willingly expose itself to the reproach of having neglected any means whatever likely to bring about a good understanding. The lielltgerant Powers would, therefore, feel it their duty to cxamiiu; ihese questions carefully and conscientiously, in order to see if the reply of the Cab
inet of St. Petersburg docs not contain some germ of conciliation that might lead to the preparation of a definitive pacification.
On the 10th of August the Austrian Secretary addressed a note to the Austrian Minister in St. Petersburg, rehearsing his efforts to impress upon the Western Powers the fact that the proposition of Russia might, if properly received, lead to negotiations for the re-establishment of peace. He was compelled to admit, however, that the impression produced in both England and France had not come up to his expectations. Both in Paris and London, he says, the continued stay of the Russian troops on the Turkish territory seemed to deprive of its chief worth the Russian accession to the principles laid down in the protocol of April 9. The Cabinets of France and England persist m looking on the evacuation of the Principalities as the preliminary condition of every arrangement, and express their astonishment at the assertion of Count Ncsselrode that the integrity of the Ottoman Empire would not be threatened by Russia as long as it was respected by the Powers that at this moment occupy the waters and the territory of the Sultan. These Cabinets repudiate energetically the analogy which the dispatch of the Russian Chancellor of the Empire seems to be desirous of drawing between the presence of the allied troops, which were invited by the Sublime Porte, and in virtue of a diplomatic document, the effects of which were to be determined by common consent, and the fact of the march of the Russian army into the Ottoman territory. They furthermore complain that the Russian Government should have avoided all reference to the guarantees which they feel bound to require against a return on the part of Russia to new acts of violence that threaten the equilibrium of Europe. The sacrifices they have already made are too considerable to warrant them in withdrawing their forces before they have attained a certainty that they will not soon be compelled to renew the war. On these grounds the maritime powers feel compelled to reject any proposition, the object of which should be to promote a speedy cessation of hostilities on their part. They had, however, communicated the guarantees which seemed indispensable to peace negotiations; and they were substantially the revision of the existing treaties between Russia and Turkey, the discontinuance of the Russian protectorate, and the freedom of the Danube and the Black Sea. These, Count Buol said, were the consequences of the principles laid down and acceded to by Russia in the protocol of ^pril 9, and Austria, therefore, could not do otherwise than recommend them most warmly for serious and mature deliberation.
In a note dated the 26th of August, Count Ncsselrode distinctly and emphatically rejects these proposals, and charges Austria with bad faith for having consented to make them. He declares that in retiring from the Principalities, out of consideration for the wishes of Austria and of Germany, Russia had confidently hoped that Austria would cease to make common cause with the Western Powers for the avowed object of reducing the strength and influence of the Russian empire. But how was she disappointed when she found that the next stop of Austria was to give her assent to the ulterior condition of the Western Powers—conditions involving the abrogation of all former treaties, the destruction of all the Russian naval establishments, and the restriction of the power of Russia in the