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Black Sea, and to bind herself to treat on no other | leader of the rebellion, but declined to comply with conditions ! Russia therefore complains that she the demands of the latter in regard to the ceremohas obtained from Austria no compensation for the nies by which it was to be regulated. The whole sacrifice she affects to have made ; but that, at the of China, and especially the seaports, continue to very moment when her troops are leaving the Prin- be greatly disturbed by the movements and appre. cipalities, the Cabinet of Vienna enters into closer hensions of the rebels. Shanghai, the principal and more extensive engagements with the other port for foreign trade, continues in their hands, and belligerent Powers, her enemies. Upon the receipt was besieged by the Imperialists, who make, howof this reply a council of the Austrian Cabinet was ever, but little progress toward its reduction. Letheld, at which it was decided not to consider the ters from the late Commissioner, Mr. Marshall, to rejection of its proposals as a casus belli on the the Government at Washington, have recently been part of Russia.
published, in which he gives at length his views of The correspondence, of which we have thus given the revolution and of its leaders. He thinks there so full a summary, shows that the German Powers is no ground for believing that the new order, if it persevere in their policy of absolute neutrality, but shall be successfully established, will be any more that they are becoming involved in fresh difficulties favorable to a liberal intercourse with other nations thereby with the Western Powers. In her note of than the present. The new chief, he says, proposes the 10th of August, Austria substantially presented no broader basis for the government than that ocher ultimatum to Russia, urging the demands of cupied by the present Emperor. The rumor that the Western Powers, assenting to them as the only he is in any degree friendly to Christianity Mr. conditions on which peace could be restored, and Marshall believes to be utterly without foundation, pledging her co-operation in the endeavor to secure He will maintain the ancient customs and religion them. They are peremptorily rejected by Russia; of the Empire, preserve the etiquette of the Court, and yet Austria declines to quit her position of and seek to consorm as nearly as possible to the neutrality. It is obvious that it can not much lon- prejudices and prepossessions of the people. His ger be maintained.
real troubles will begin when he endeavors to levy THE EASTERN WAR.
taxes, or make any change in the civil government The reports alluded to in our last Record have of the country. Thus far he has met no formidable been confirmed, and steps have actually been taken resistance, and has attempted no exercise of author. for an offensive movement by the invasion of the ity. Mr. Marshall sees no sign of progress or imCrimea for the purpose of effecting the reduction of provement for China in this rebellion: he regards Sebastopol. The enterprise has been officially an. it as merely a war of factions contending for power, nounced in an order of the day issued at Varna, on and as only the harbinger of a storm which is soon the 25th of August, by Marshal de St. Amaud. The to overwhelm the commerce, industrial interests, moment, he says, has come to fight and conquer. and whatever there is of attainment and civilization As the Russian troops have retired from the Danube in China. Long years of civil war must succeed Providence summons them to the Crimea and to the overthrow of the existing dynasty before order Sebastopol, the seat of Russian power, within whose and good government can be restored. Mr. M. walls they are going to seek the guaranty of peace, says he would prefer the chance of securing im. and of their return to their firesides. The enter- portant changes of policy, on the part of China, prise is to be attempted by the most formidable from the fears and hopes of the reigning Emperor, military and naval apparatus the world has ever to the prospect of introducing them simultaneously seen. The allied flects, with their three thousand with the rule of a new dynasty. He is very earn. guns and twenty-five thousand seamen, will bear est in warning the Government of the United States to the Crimea an immense army made up of En. against being led into false notions concerning the glish, French, and Turkish troops. The expedi- progress of the rebellion, in which he declares none tion was to consist of one hundred thousand men. of the substantial business portion of the Chinese Intelligence had been received of the landing of people have taken any part, and with which they fisty-eight thousand at Eupatoria, on the 14th of have no sympathy. Missionaries and political September, without encountering any resistance. dreamers, who see events through the discolored They had started immediately for Sebastopol, which medium of their hopes, may represent the evangelwas distant about fifty miles.- The campaign in ization of China and the establishment of republicthe Baltic is at an end for the present, and the Brit. an equality, of free trade, and other political advant. ish squadron is about to return. The fortresses of ages, as certain to result from this war; but he Bomarsund were blown up by the Allies on the 1st of warns the administration that these are unsafe and September.- On the Danube no events of import-extravagant conclusions. He sees nothing to inance have taken place. The Russians had entirely duce the United States to depart, in any particular, evacuated Wallachia and crossed the Sereth, burn from the policy it has hitherto pursued, except to ing the bridges behind them. The evacuation of urge the residence of their Commissioner at the Moldavia is also complete. The Austrians have en | capital of the Empire. This point once secured, tered Bucharest, and the commander has presented will lead of necessity to free intercourse between Omer Pacha with a formal demand, calling upon the capital and the consular ports, and thus gradhim to withdraw the Turkish army from the Princi- ually to the opening of the whole Empire to travel, palities. To this the latter replied by a note, stat either for business or pleasure.—These views, on ing at some length his refusal.
Mr. Marshall's part, are of the more importance CHINA.
from the fact, that they differ very widely from the From China we have intelligence of the visit of opinions expressed by nearly all others who have the United States ship Susquehanna to Nankin, written on the subject. Mr. M., during his stay in with the American Commissioner, Mr. M‘Lane, on China, became involved in controversies with Comboard, for the purpose of procuring information in modore Perry, Commodore Aulick, Dr. Parker, and regard to the progress and character of the revolu- others with whom he came in official contact ; but tion, which still continues to make progress. Mr. the details of these collisions are not of sufficient M‘Lane proposed an interview with the celebrated interest to be embodied in this Record.
THE TRUE SOURCES OF OUR NATION in institutions, in policies, in governmental usages,
I AL STRENGTH.—The thoughtful minds of but in established opinions, in the heartfelt creed our country have not failed to notice that there of the people, in permanent reverence for the Chrisis a growing disposition among us to investigate tian idea of democracy, and the rights, immunities, the causes of our national prosperity. We begin to prerogatives which it represents. Where we are, have an American Philosophy. If not original in what we are, and what we expect to be, can not be spirit, it is distinct in its sphere, seeking to analyze mistaken. If it might be a poetic exaggeration to the different elements that have combined to form speak of Freedom as the Angel of the Apocalypse, our social organization, and to determine the laws standing in the midst of the sun, and clothed with of their relations. A general comprehension of our its gorgeous effulgence, it is still permitted us to political strength no longer satisfies us. The time say that its position is central and commanding. A has come for us to penetrate deeper than the sur-great sentiment is indeed incapable of a perfect face. Once, it was sufficient for us to rest in those manifestation in outward forms. By its grandeur it great ideas which the past bequeathed. They ad- transcends the limits of expression, and leaves the dressed our noblest sentiments; they were con- imagination a large field for the play of conjecture. nected with our most venerated names, and sur. But in our history, the doctrines of republican librounded with the most splendid associations of our erty have been translated into so many interests, history. But the age has called us to a higher task. touched active life at so many points, and spread We feel it incumbent on us to examine into the themselves over so vast a surface, that the most foundation of these principles, to know their rea- practical understanding can not fail to penetrate sons, to measure their claims to Providential agen- their divine meaning. The student of political scicies by applying the standard of experience. Nor ence, if he turns to other countries, is compelled to is this at all surprising. The same circumstances engage his mind chiefly with the debates of parliathat stimulate the imagination--that give birth to ments, the intrigues of diplomacy, the decisions of poetry and eloquence in the opening stages of na-courts, the decrees of sovereigns. But here, the tional life, soon take a serener form, and awaken magnificence of the government is not apparent, the philosophic intellect. If it is necessary for us since the government itself is the least prominent to have the truth in the glowing style of beauty and and ostensible. Our true philosophy our strength sublimity, it is equally necessary to have it in the our pride, come forth most significantly in the substantial shape of abstract science. For in this freedom and force of personal life. The marts of way its circle is completed. Its various phases commerce--the thoroughfares of trade, where every pictured upon the firmament, can thus become ob- man demonstrates the value of his citizenship, and jects of study; and the orator, poet, philosopher, graduates his worth on the open scale of naturestanding side by side, and happy in a common fel. There is the practical congress of the land. One of lowship, can each contribute his share to the stock our thriving cities, full of eager enterprise, buoyant of national wisdom.
with young blood and elastic with fresh nerves, Not every season is fitted to this work. Periods abreast with the age, and pressing forward with of struggle, agitation, and convulsion, demand men those impulses which the century is driving through of quick and fiery temperaments-men of muscle- every channel of plodding care or ambitious hope : men of heroic action. But in the breathing-times one such city, with its happy homes and hallowed of the world, when a gentler spirit is abroad, and a altars, with its manifold ministries of watchful Sabbath atmosphere covers the landscape, the of service, and its multitudinous means of fellowship fices of meditation may be indulged. It is then that and communion, is a richer, better, nobler exponent our best thoughts are born of the revolving hours of our national ideas than all the statute-books of that patriotism and philanthropy enjoy a peaceful the country. It is not what the institutions of our festival, and visions of a restored and perfected | land have made us, but what they have allowed us humanity ascend above the horizon of the future. to make ourselves, that constitutes their highest Brief they may be; but they are long enough to bear glory. Man carries power within him. It is in his witness to the mercy that sent them to our faith and blood, his brain, his spirit. Every sense is its serv. hope. What is more short-lived than the rainbow ? | ant; every angel is its friend. If used as his own And yet, what is a surer token of Infinite truth and gift, sacred by original endowment and anointed in love? Like those hues, painted on the moving air, the priesthood of the universe, it can not miss its the lustre of these tranquil moments may pass away, honors or lose its rewards. And this is what our but, like them, their lesson of promise and pledge political economy has permitted us to do. It has may remain, to allay our fears and animate our ex not conferred prerogatives or privileges, but it has ertions.
given us to ourselves. It has acknowledged the It may not be that we have just such a season at position of man, as man, and left him to fulfill his present. But, comparatively, we live in an era own destiny. The results of his prudence and skill favorable to a correct appreciation of the main ele--the sagacity that foresees, and the tact that exements of our national character. Whatever attri- cutes; the fruits of toil and intrepidity; the housebutes of strength belong to us have been brought hold benefits, gladdening and sanctifying human out in full development. The sources of our weak. existence, are now before us, as the legitimate proness, too, have been shown. All our characteristics ducts of wise government. All nations make this have had an opportunity to demonstrate themselves. revelation of their character sooner or later; ours, The line of movement has been clearly and broadly fortunate in its freedom, has anticipated the lapse drawn. If the extent of our action is hidden in the of years, and portrayed its grandeur by aggregating future, its nature, modes, and purposes have been the most matchless resources within the scope of a fairly unfolded. Americanism is now a well-defined single century. thing. It is embodied before the world—not merely | What then is the secret of American character? One specifies the moral tone of our early mind; an- | Massachusetts spoke first for freedom, need not other cites our inherent love of liberty; a third now be examined. Wherever the inspiring tone dwells on Anglo-Saxon hardihood and persistency ; was earliest rung out on the echoing continent, it a fourth fastens on a wonderful concurrence of cir- was heard, felt, and obeyed by all. Our success cumstances. There are not wanting those who at was the result, not of mere union, but of such an union tribute every thing to the interposition of Providence, as the co-operating and combining elements created. while others regard the race of mankind as having Each brought what the other needed. If the imeducated itself up to the mark of an advanced civ. pulses of one part were fiery, they excited the colder ilization. Such generalizations are partial and in nature of the more stern and calculating. If one complete. Whatever truth may belong to them, it section relied on principles, the other trusted to is certain that they have not the whole truth. Nor those ardent instincts that burn their way to victory. are they in harmony with the methods of nature. A There was commerce to be protected; there were single phase of character--a set of agencies, limited agricultural interests to be guarded. Every sort of by its individuality and confined to its own instinct. independent life-merchants at their business and ive operations, never effects vast ends. Where planters on their estates--gave its glowing and earnthere has been a solitary outworking of one pre- est impulse to the effort. Philosophy pondered and dominating and overmastering element, no high and chivalry aroused. But Providence blended all toconsistent civilization has ever been attained. The gether. Out of the union came a harmonious result. reason is obvious. Human nature is a complex | Had the Puritans determined the contest, we might thing. It has soul, spirit, body. It has numerous have had a liberty disfigured by local tastes and resentiments, passions, affections. A thousand ties ligious exactions. If the Cavalier had triumphed unite it to a thousand objects. Its relations, reach- / alone, his warm fancy and hot blood might have ing from the clod beneath its feet to the Throne be-over-stimulated our intenser feelings. Had the yond its vision, and encircling every form of exist-Huguenot and Scotch-Irish been left out of the strugence earthly and divine; its wants, large enough to gle, we should have felt the absence of the highexhaust universal creation; its intuitive aspirations, minded bearing of the former, and the bold, impas. yearning for undiscovered realms of beauty, and sioned emphasis of the latter. As circumstances panting for the home of Eternal Blessedness; all directed this wonderful blending, a paramount obthese are to be met, answered, gratified. And ject subordinated all sectional peculiarities--all the hence, there must be an eclectic action in all its diversified modes of thought and action--and made grandest movements. There must be a rich ex. every kind of individuality tributary to the sublime chequer to satisfy its demands, or it is a wretched end. A magnificent sanctuary of Freedom has been bankrupt. The world must have a law of union, a built by their joint labors. Not this one can clair law of combination, a law that blends parts into a the merit of its vast rotunda and swelling domewhole; otherwise, the race must perish as a mock- capacious for millions-nor that one its uplifted alery and be forgotten as nothingness. It is this law, tars, where the noblest ministry of earthly citizeninstituted by the Creator and directed by His prov ship swings high the censer, filled with the fragrant idence, that has formed American character. But offerings of a glad a.id grateful people. But as in for its sway, never more sovereign than when least Solomon's Temple, that adorned the brow of Moperceived, we should have had no history, no expe riah, there were gifts from all climes and treasures rience. Our forefathers were actuated by the same from all lands; as the Tyrian gave his purple and motives, and they sought, with singular integrity the Canaanite his toil-as Lebanon yielded its coand sympathy, the same ends. But, in various re dar and Ophir its gold, to honor the abode of the spects, they were unlike one another. The water Majesty of the universe, so here, amidst the grandno sooner falls from the clouds and enters the earth, eur of a reserved continent, the elect minds of the than it is impregnated with new ingredients; and noblest nations have erected a Temple in which just so, the same impulses, stirring the hearts of patriotism may nourish its hopes and philanthropy men and shaping their deeds, may be modified by advance to meet the future, leaning upon the arm the peculiarities of personal character. Looking of Jehovah. back to the days when our independence was The progress of our country has illustrated the achieved, we see the representatives of North and truth, that, in political science, we owe the benefiSouth--the Puritan on the one side-the Cavalier, cent working of our government to the same causes the Huguenot, and the Scotch-Irish on the other, which gave a fortunate issue to the war for inde. standing firmly and closely together in the mightypendence. It must not be forgotten that the Puristruggle. They had strong points of similarity; tan and the Cavalier had each his marked characthey had strong points of antagonism; and yet, teristics. The former had been deeply wronged in changed into oneness by the solid front which they the mother country. His ancestry had been opopposed to British aggression, and leagued for the pressed, his ministers dishonored, his rights sacri. achievement of liberty, they presented a massive ficed, his affections crushed, his conscience decompleteness such as has never been witnessed. rided. There was no sort of power that did not Deficient in numbers, in resources, in all the aux. array itself against him. Literature satirized and iliary instruments of resistance, they were yet a authority insulted him. No wonder, therefore, that tremendous host by the facility with which they he organized a stern protest against England. Loyal could interact on each other. It was their moral he was, but nevertheless he legislated the past into power no less than physical bravery that bore them his system, and always acted in full view of all he triumphantly through that unequal conflict. And had endured and suffered. His object was to guard how could that power have been generated, how himself against any recurrence of those evils which. could it have suffered so long and so patiently, how he had borne ; and hence, while his doctrines emcould it, at last, have entered meekly and honorably bodied ancient grievances, they looked to provisions on the possession of its hard-won heritage, but for for the future. To some extent, they anticipated the fact that each contributed its ideas, sentiments, circumstances. On the other hand, the Cavalier and passions—its whole and hearty self-to the was sincerely attached to Royalty in the State and emergency of the occasion? Whether Virginia or Prelacy in the Church. He had no à priori theory
-10 system to forestall the operation of events as the creature of circumstances-it recognizes him no preoccupancy of mind with a favorite ideal of as a being of permanent relations. Its faith is the government. His whole nature was open to the faith of equal citizenship. Its inspiration is the sway of circumstances. The plastic agency of time, dictate of perfect patriotism. Its sanctity covers never so valuable as in shaping political institu- the country as a country; and wherever there is a tions, was perfectly free to control him. Owing to right to be protected or a wrong to be avengedthese causes, it must be obvious, on philosophical wherever there is a legitimate interest to be upgrounds, that the Puritan and the Cavalier, types held or a common obstacle to be removed-wherof Northern and Southern character, could not oc-ever there is an American thought to be honored or cupy in all things precisely the same level in polit- an American hope to be encouraged, there it ex. ical matters. The leading sentiment of Republic.erts its influence, gives law to opinion, subdues anism was the same in both; but in its minute ap- prejudice, and establishes the reign of common plications, in organic arrangements, to execute its brotherhood. general principle, they could not but differ. Puri- If we turn to the social forms of American civil. tanism leaned toward a strong government. It ization, we see the same law of diversified action wished the central authority to be as energetic as it and mutual support. The respective elements of could be in consistency with popular rights. It felt life, North and South, are indeed the same, so far that universal sovereignty was an experiment; and | as in
as innate constitution is concerned. But these elehence, it endeavored to set up rigid safeguards ments are variously organized. Human nature is around the free institutions of the country. But casily modified. It is not absolutely necessary to the Cavalier advocated the simplest and most re introduce new ingredients to effect great distinctions stricted form of government. The trustworthiness in character. The same principles and passionsof the people was one of his prominent ideas. He if left to themselves, or put beneath the sway of was jealous of consolidated power. Once free, he external circumstances-may be arranged so as to was free indeed. If he had any aristocratic ten- give the ascendency to opposite faculties. All dencies in his nature, they never showed themselves thinking men know that it is not the sentiments we in regard to popular liberty ; but turning their full cherish, but those to which we allow prominence, force toward Federal sovereignty, he exerted all his and which fall in with our individual biases, that ability to establish such an economy as should be decide the force or weakness of character. It has most in harmony with local and personal rights. been so in the social developments of our country. The interaction of these sentiments-their final af- | The original differences of the colonists, drawing finity, their perfect adjustment in the shape of Fed around them local institutions, and moulded into eral and State sovereignties-is one of the most re-individual and sectional shapes of striking contrast. markable triumphs of wisdom in the annals of po. have continued to operate. The intellect of the litical science. A broad foundation, on which both South has never been theoretic or imaginative. It sections of the country could stand, was secured; has not been perplexed by traditionary ideas or enneither surrendered any thing vital. The peculslaved to precedents. Whenever it has had to grapiarities of their views grew out of the peculiarities ple with momentous questions, to strike out new of character, position, and interests; and while they paths, to adapt the fortunes of empire to the emerwere not distinct enough to render them irrecon gencies of stirring occasions, to direct thought or cilable parties on the great issue before them, they communicate impulse, it has never failed to win were just sufficiently marked to create a safe and the highest credit for sagacity and intelligence. Its healthy antagonism. There was not such antipa- common sense is bold, because it is spontaneous; thy as to generate malignant discord: there was and its passions, earnest, single-aimed, and impet. only that degree of diversity which is necessary for uous, always sustain its decisions. Literature has unity. If, therefore, we contemplate their work in never been suffered to destroy its native freshness, the constitution of these States, do we see the Pu- nor the enjoyment of books to supplant its inherent ritan or the Cavalier? Is it a portraiture of either? | tendencies. Its consciousness is acute and vivid. The manhood of both—the essential manhood that Once possessed of an idea, or consecrated to a purRepublicanism has liberalized and Christianity ex-pose, it will stand fearlessly forward against the alted-the wise and generous manhood that accepts world, and defy reproach and assault. Its predomlife as a compromise, and society as a continuous inant sentiment is the love of personal independinterchange of individual and general feelings-the ence. Find it as you may, it seems to be instinctmanhood of noble sentiments and losty impulses, is ively assured of its natural birthright. Without the first and last impression it produces. It has any argument, it takes itself and its position for Northern and Southern principles, but they are granted, and asserts its inborn dignity with an ensubordinated to universal ends. As one studies its tire indifference to whatever prejudices it may of doctrines, he observes the beautiful indications of fend. Its social affections are tender, strong, and rural politics learned amidst the open scenes of permanent. Hospitality is a religious virtue, and nature. The spirit of the fields, where freemen kindness a paramount law. His ancestors are dear walked in the conscious strength of independence, to the Southerner, but he holds no public festival and felt the high destiny awaiting them, is in its to celebrate their virtues. Seated around his fireprovisory restraints. But it is not alone. The ne- side, you will hear him expatiate on their worth until cessities of trade and commerce, the wants of com- every tone is eloquent with truthful love. Beyond pact cities, the active industry of the North, are all this he cares not to go. The praise of the world is here in fair, full acknowledgment. It is a latent a matter of cool indifference, and he is perfectly prophecy of whatever the South shall need for the content to rest in what his forefathers are to his security of her homes, the prosperity of her agricul- own heart. Public opinion is never a terror to him. ture, the enjoyment of her tropical blessings. It is If he respects and obeys its laws, it is because it equally a token of all that is requisite for the North echoes his own convictions. He lives in no conin the exercise of her hardy enterprise, in the stretch ventional atmosphere ; he can not tolerate interof her vigorous muscles, in her conquests over stub- ference ; nor can he bear excess of fellowship. Inborn soils and ice-bound seas. It recognizes mantercourse must leave him as it found him-a free, fearless, decided man. If he can gratify his taste, I the free will and free hearts of the people are rehe will have his house in a large lot or secluded in signed to themselves. The political sentiments of the country. With all his sociability he loves Jefferson, Madison, Mason, Calhoun, Jackson, and space. A wide horizon is as necessary to his hap-Clay, are too well known to be mentioned here. But piness as it is to the beauty of a landscape. There of them, it may be most truthfully stated, that they is very much of the Anglo-Saxon in him, but there have exerted a most potent and diffusive influence are other peculiarities besides. The neighborhood over the national faith. Nor is this all. Southern of the tropics ; the bold and unfettered life he leads; civilization has given us distinguished generals in the exposure to frontier-danger which he so long war, as well as celebrated councilors in peace. experienced; the habits of authority and control Its peculiar circumstances have favored the growth belonging to his position, have all acted on his and culture of military genius. By the habits of temperament and history.
personal independence which their modes of life The genuine type of Northern mind is quite dif- have encouraged-by their familiarity with danger ferent. Its operations are slower; its steps are and trial from early boyhood-by their exposures to more cautious. Logic or its substitutes must be the savage on the borders of the southwest, and the consulted on all occasions. Its respect for educa- hazards of frontier-forests, they have acquired an tion is so sincere and profound, that it deprecates extraordinary facility in the arts of warfare. Just. every thing outside of certain rules. A main article | ice demands a yet fuller acknowledgment. To in its creed is, that man is to be formed and fitted their enterprise we are largely indebted for the for human life; and hence, wherever it can com- opening of the Valley of the Mississippi. The mand means to contribute to this end, it is sure to early pioneers of that vast colonization were chiefseize them with earnest solicitude. Its capacity to ly Southern men. Boone, Kenton, Ridley, and a receive and reproduce ideas is singularly great. host of others, were trained amidst the wilder scenes Never forsaking its own ground, never yielding its of Southern life. None have known better how to own distinctive tastes, it can yet learn of French use the ax and the rifle-those mighty instruments and German, and, moreover, beat them on their own of American strength and valor. None have plunged field, if it happen to be intent on rivalry. Its per- more freely into the depths of the wilderness, and ceptions are quick; its reflections are deliberate marked out the great avenues of trade. But has the and well-timed. When it gets through the hurry North been idle meanwhile ? Has it been a care. of sensation, it is disposed to ponder thoroughly less spectator of this moving panorama ? Its wonand decide correctly. All its faculties are exceed- ders rise on every hand. If in many instances the ingly active; and yet they generate little heat in Southerner has pursued the trail of the savage, the their movements. Muscle predominates over nerve. Northerner has followed on with the manufactured It has a sharp eye for all sorts of expedients, and a fabric, the necessaries of food and clothing--the prompt step for all just advantages. Not strikingly products of his untiring skill and honest industry. original in the higher realms of thought, it never. His Lowells, Lawrences, and Lynns have supplied theless delights to pursue metaphysics with Jona- a constant and growing demand. His ships have than Edwards, to reward the labors of Bowditch, trafficked every where. The remote islands of the and to honor the gigantic understanding of Webster. sea have contributed to his wealth, and aided to Full of sharp points and angularities, it has a hos. | build up the civilization of the country. Enterpitable brain for all manner of speculative inquiry. prising in the highest degree, a sovereign of the Its best scholars have a chivalric love of truth, that soil, surpassing Ceres on the land and Neptune on impels them in every direction where it is possible the ocean, he has drawn the revenues of his greatto find the least degree of success. The exactnessness and rule from every quarter of the globe. We of physical science and the boundless mysteries of might almost venture to declare that the North has transcendentalism are both welcomed. It has the made a revelation of the grandeur of human labor sense of property in every thing. Beauty and util- somewhat analagous to the moral disclosures of ity are loved and cherished. If an iceberg could be Christianity. At least, it is an astonishing exhibi. used, it would certainly be arrested in its southwardtion of what man can accomplish in subjecting the floating; and the next moment were a troop of an- material universe to his tastes and enjoyments. gels to alight on New England soil, it would be The records of our race present no such example received with most reverential honors. Steady in of the competency of man to master the most rebelall its plans, persistent in its purposes, tenacious lious circumstances, to triumph over the most forof its own methods, resolute and brave in meeting midable evils, and to secure himself a place and a difficulties, sure of its aims finally, and never yield- power on the globe. It is an inspiring witness to ing to counteractions or discouragements, it pre- the inherent majesty of mind, that no eloquence can sents one of the most unique and remarkable forms fitly represent. Nor is this its only praise. Men of character that the world has ever witnessed. of the North have left their abiding impress on the
Nothing in our history is more interesting and statesmanship of the country. The genius of its impressive than the practical bearings of these two ablest men-of its Adamses, Hancocks, Otises, distinct casts of character on the progress of our Hamiltons, Woodburys, and Websters--has been country. For certain spheres of activity, Southern dedicated to the service of national interests. It mind has been pre-eminently fitted. It has been calls its heroes by our name. It points to Plymouth the parent intellect of many of our noblest political Rock and Bunker Hill, to Monmouth and Saratoga, truths. Strong in the numerical ratio of its states. as its tokens of devotion to the honor and glory of men, it has been even stronger in the men them- the land. Reposing its brightest hopes on the truths selves. We owe to them the earliest movements of American Republicanism, and cherishing its in behalf of the severance of Church and State. blessings as the most precious earthly trust, it has We owe to them the earnest defense of general given a practical demonstration of its faith and love suffrage and popular sovereignty. We owe to them, by laboring to embody its sacred import in every in no small degree, the ideas of a limited Federal thing within its reach. It has translated its divine Government-its balances and checks--as well as significancy into industry, commerce, science, and that breadth of margin outside of organic law, where I art. It has exemplified its sentiments in schools,