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American Life Insurance Contracts
PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRE
MENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
BRUCE D. MUDGETT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DISABILITY INSURANCE-HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL CHAPTER I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DISABILITY INSURANCE.
Early experiments with disability insurance; the mutual aid societies of Germany, p. 1; invalidity insurance laws, p. 1; British friendly societies, p. 2; disability insurance in life insurance contracts: in Germany, p. 2; in
Russia, p. 2; in United States, p. 3.
The company's and the agent's reason-competition, p. 5; attitude of officials of the companies, p. 6; the policyholder's motive-protection, p. 7; the risk of total and permanent disability, p. 8.
Objections to the disability clause: (1) the disability risk is not life insurance, p. 10; (2) remoteness of probability of total and permanent disability and brief interval between disability and death, p. 11; (3) misrepresentation of facts by agents, p. 11; (4) difficulty of defining disability, p. 11;
(5) the absence of any statistical basis for determining the risk, p. 11. CHAPTER III. MEASUREMENT OF THE RISK OF DISABILITY.
German invalidity tables, p. 15; American rates based on German experience, p. 16; English experience, p. 18; American experience, p. 19; Sidney H. Pipe's rates, p. 20; Franklin B. Mead's rates, p. 21; rates by Lucius McAdam, p. 28; by Arthur Hunter, p. 28; Hunter's "factors of safety”': (1) ultimate disability rates, p. 28; (2) special aggregate mortality rates, p. 29; comparison of rates computed by different actuaries, p. 32.
THE DISABILITY CLAUSE AMONG AMERICAN LIFE INSURANCE
CHAPTER IV. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF THE DISABILITY CLAUSE AS RE.
GARDS POLICIES OR RISKS. Term insurance, p. 42; endowment policies, p. 44; joint life policies, p. 45. Women, p. 45; sub-standard lives, p. 46; hazardous occupations, p. 46; where
partial impairment exists, p. 46. CHAPTER V. THE DEFINITION OF DISABILITY.
With reference to the occupation of the insured, p. 47; with reference to the cause of disability: (1) disability due to disease or accident, p. 49; due to deafness, dumbness, insanity, p. 49. Restricted definitions: (1) minor restrictions, p. 50; (2) bodily injury excepted, p. 51; (3) assignments or loans not permitted, p. 51; (4) bodily injury only covered, p. 52.
CHAPTER VI. AGE AND TIME LIMITS TO THE APPLICATION OF THE CLAUSE.
Beginning of the risk, p. 53; effect of default in the payment of premiums, p. 54; cancellation by the company permitted, p. 55; automatic cancellation in relation to default in premium payments, p. 56; the limitation of benefits to the period for paying premiums, p. 57; time limits for making proof of disability, p. 57; age limits beyond which regular disability benefits will not
be granted, p. 58; benefits granted after this age reached, p. 59. CHAPTER VII. BENEFITS GRANTED BY THE DISABILITY CLAUSE_KIND AND
AMOUNT OF BENEFITS. Two classes of benefits, p. 61; (1) Waiver of premiums during disability, p. 61; (2) maturity of the policy upon disability and its payment in some form to the insured, p. 63. The amount of this "maturity' benefit in case the policy is paid (a) in twenty installments, p. 63; (b) in ten installments, p. 64; (c) as a continuous installment, p. 65; (d) in a single cash sum, p. 66; (e) as
an annuity, p. 68. CAAPTER VIII. BENEFITS (cont.) EFFECT OF INDEBTEDNESS, DEATH OR RECov
ERY ON THE POLICY. Indebtedness (1) deducted from face value, p. 71; (2) deducted from commuted value of installments, p. 71; (3) reducing the number of installments, p. 72. The New York Life method, maintaining the security back of loans, p. 73. (4) Payment of indebtedness a prerequisite to receipt of any benefits, p. 74. (5) Existence of indebtedness acts as forfeiture of disability benefits, p. 74; (6) failure to provide for indebtedness in many clauses, p. 74.
Effect of death upon disability benefits, p. 74; (1) installments continue, p. 74; (2) commuted value of unpaid installments available, p. 75; (3) insurance in force equals sum insured less any payments made. p. 75.
Effect of recovery from disability, p. 75; (1) resumption of premium payments, p. 75; (2) premiums paid charged as a lien, p. 75. Where installments have been paid: (1) insurance in force always equals sum insured less any payments made, p. 76; premiums payable after recovery, p. 76; (2) reinstatement of policy upon medical examination and payment of all arrears in premiums and all installments paid with compound interest,
CHAPTER IX. PAYMENT OF DIVIDENDS AFTER DISABILITY-CONCLUSION.
Dividends after waiver of premiums, p. 78; payment in cash, p. 79. Dividends after maturity of the policy, p. 80; excess interest earnings should be returned. p. 80.
Conclusion, p. 81.
DISABILITY INSURANCE HISTORICAL AND
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF DISABILITY INSURANCE
The practice of granting insurance against total and permanent disability represents one of the latest innovations of American life insurance companies in the liberalizing of their contracts. On October 16, 1896, the Fidelity Mutual Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia issued the first policy of this kind on the life of its president. The movement toward the incorporation of the disability clause in life insurance contracts has spread with such rapidity that by January 1, 1912, at least 135 companies out of the 239 doing business in the United States granted a disability clause in some form.
Early Experiments with Disability Insurance It is of interest, in view of the importance which this feature has recently assumed, briefly to trace its development. The first experiments with insurance against total and permanent disability were made by mutual aid societies in connection with the insurance of miners in Germany and Austria in the eighteenth century. The need of such benefits was naturally manifested first among hazardous occupations such as mining. As Germany developed industrially during the nineteenth century the movement spread to other classes of workers and many funds were established, particularly among railway corporations. Out of these isolated attempts on the part of private associations to solve the problem grew the German invalidity insurance law of 1889. This law was incorporated in 1911 with the national sickness and accident insurance laws of that country into a complete scheme of insurance against
1 These historical notes have been taken largely from an article by Mr. Franklin B Mead in the Transactions of the Actuarial Society of America, 11:304.