페이지 이미지
PDF
ePub

The PRESIDENT. The resolution submitted by the delegate from France will be read.

Captain RICHARD (France). Mr. President, I need hardly tell you that, although the Conference is impatient to set the time for its departure, this measure will not entail any delay in such departure, for this report can be simply signed by the President and the Secretary, and our responsibility would be safely guarded by intrusting it to their care.

Mr. HALL (Great Britain). Mr. President, I think the proposal from the gallant delegate from France is one that ought to meet with our support because it appears to me to be a very simple way of arriving at a proper conclusion. Of course the real evidence of our labors will be the protocols, but they, I take it, would not be signed by the delegates as a body, because I do not suppose that any one of us bas had time or inclination to wade through the whole of these protocols. We have corrected them so far as we are personally concerned, no doubt. What I understand to be the proposition of the gallant delegate from France is that the resolutions which have been carried by the Conference should be drawn up by the Secretary in their order, dealing with each of the divisions numerically, and that such a digest, if I may so call it, when printed should be authorized by you as President. Of course if that be done and this digest be distributed by the United States to the Powers which bave taken part in this Conference it will be an authorized exposition of what has taken place in the Conference. I understand that this is the proposition of the gallant delegate from France, and if I am correct in that supposition I will give it my hearty support.

Mr. GOODRICH (United States). Mr. President, I may say that this is the proposal or the desire which I had in my mind when I presented a certain resolution in regard to authorizing a similar thing to be done by the Collocation Committee; but I think the better course is the one suggested by the gallant delegate from France, and the resolution will have the assent of the delegates for the United States.

The PRESIDENT. The Secretary will please read the resolution of the delegate from France.

The resolution is as follows:

"Qu'un acte final soit imprimé, établissant pour chaque division da programme et dans l'ordre des divisions, les résolutions votées par la Conference.

“Cet acte sera signée au nom de la Conference par le President et le Secretaire."

Mr. GOODRICH (United States). Mr. President, I suppose it is not necessary to submit that to the Conference.

The PRESIDENT. The Chair would suggest that it would be better to submit it to the Conference.

Captain RICHARD (France). Mr. President, I do not see any reason for submitting this report to the Conference. It will consist of resolutions which have been voted upon, the text of which is absolutely settled, and which it is only necessary to put together. This work may be a long one for the Secretary, but it is a labor which contains nothing new and I do not see that the Conference can make any correction in it. I therefore think that any revision would be needless.

Mr. HALL (Great Britain). Mr. President, I quite agree with what has fallen from the gallant delegate from France. It is certainly not necessary for such a report to be submitted to the Conference, and I apprehend that his object in asking you to be so good as to sign it and allow it to be issued, is to prevent the necessity of having it submitted to the Confereuce. It would be absurd for us to wait here for the formal purpose of realing through a document compiled by the Secretary from the protocols. I have no doubt that the work will be accurately done, and from the experience we have had in this Conference with the work of the Secretaries, we can make certain that it will be accurately done. Therefore I support the proposal that this document, when it be drawn up, as it will be drawn up by Mr. Cottman, when submitted to you shall be signed by you and then it shall be distributed to the different Powers who have taken part in this Conference.

The PRESIDENT. The resolution of the delegate from France is now before the Conference.

The question was put to the Conference upon the adoption of the resolution of the delegate from France, and was carried.

The PRESIDENT. The next business in order will be the report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 9. The Secretary will please read the report.

The report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 9 is as follows:

Report of the committee upon General Divisions 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the

programme.

" WASHINGTON, December 28, 1889. "Rear-Admiral S. R. FRANKLIN, U. S. NAVY,

President International Marine Conference, etc. : “SIR: In submitting their report the committee have thought it the most convenient plan to deal separately with each of the general divisions which have been discussed and considered by them.

“ GENERAL DIVISION 9.- Warnings of approaching storms..
(a) The transmission of warnings.
(b) The uniformity of signals employed.
".

“(a) The transmission af warning8.The committee understand that the various meteorological offices in Europe are in frequent aud intimate communication, and interchange telegraphic information for the purpose of weather forecasting on that side of the Atlantic Ocean; while the meteorological offices of the United States and the Dominion of Canada act in concert on the western side; and also that a similar custom prevails in many eastern countries.

“ The preparation of weather forecasts and the transmission of warn. ings regarding expected storms must, by the very nature of the subject, be dealt with locally; and it is the opinion of the committee very questionable whether any useful purpose would be gained by the adoption of uniformity of methods, except so far as the general progress of scientific knowledge indicates the direction of possible improvement: and this, it is hardly necessary to say, is more likely to be secured by work carried on independently rather than under any uniform system.

(6) The uniformity of signals employed.-Storm-warning signals were first introduced in the interests of the shipping or fishing vessels lying at anchor in barbor or proposing to put to sea. Lately the same waming signals have been freely extended to coast stations, with a view to give information regarding the weather to passing vessels. Inasmuch as these may be local or foreign traders, the comunittee are of opinion that such signals should, as far as possible, be in international agreement.

“The established signals originally in use in Europe are evidently founded on the seaman's knowledge of the law of storms,' and, while warning him of an approaching cyclone, indicates whether the northern or sonthern portion is expected to pass over the district. Experience proves that this was practically sufficient information for the masters of vessels in a neighboring harbor, who would know whether the cyclone was approaching or had passed, but it is scarcely sufficient for coasting vessels, especially those proceeding on a course at right angles to the direction in which the cyclone is moving.

“ In the opinion of the committee it is therefore desirable that storm signals displayed at coast stations should give to passing vessels some further information as to whether storms are approaching or have passed the station; and in reference to this, the committee desire to call attention to the fact that this want has been supplied by the system now in use in the United States. The German system indicates four directions from which a storm is expected, and whether its probable course is to the right or the left. (See Appendix C.)

“In dealing with this matter the committee have had the advantage of hearing the views of General A. W. Greely, the Chief Signal Officer, in charge of the United States Weather Bureau ; and he has summarized them in a memorandum contained undercover of a letter dated December 23, 1889, both of which are appended to this report and to which the committee desire to draw special attention. (See Appendix A.)

66 It will be seen that, in this memorandum, General Greely has indi. cated the practical reasons for adopting, in lieu of cone-shaped signals, the use of colored flags for notifying storm warnings on the coasts of the United States, which it is claimed can be seen (except in very calm weather) at a greater distance, and by means of which additional information can be given.

“ Tbe committee consider that this subject is of such a technical nature that they are not prepared to express a decided opinion upon it. They recommend, however, the Conference to invite the various mari. time countries to consider the best practical mode of signaling by day, whether by shapes, colored or black, by flags, or by the two combined, and by night, by means of lights, colored or white, arranged to represent distinctive forms.

“ Together with the memorandum alluded 'to, General Greely inclosed a copy of General Order No. 29,' dated from the Signal Office, War Department, November 11, 1889, from which a paragraph is quoted, and also a paper of diagrams showing the storm, cautionary,

[ocr errors]

and wind-direction signals in use in the United States. These signals are reproduced in Appendix B to this report.

• In recapitulation the committee recommend the Conference to invite the maritime countries interested to take into consideration the establishment of a uniform system of indicating storm warnings by day and by night, and that such a system should, as far as possible, include signals indicating whether the storm is approaching or has passed the station."

The PRESIDENT. The report of the Committee upon General Division 9 is before the Conference.

Captain MENSING (Germany). Mr. President, as chairman of Committee No. 3, I would like to remark that in the report of General Greely, the list of storm signal stations is not complete. You will find the list on pages 9 and 10. Different changes have come into use since 1877, and the committee have thought it worth while to have a list printed giving all the different storm signals in use in the various countries at the present time. This list has been completed, but it was necessarily rather late because the information was received only during the last hours. It is ready to be printed, and if the Conference should think it of any value it can be printed and distributed to-morrow, and be attached to the report. I would like to know the opinion of the Con. ference about it.

The PRESIDENT. The delegate from Germany suggests the printing of information received upon this subject at a late hour, and submits the question.

Mr. GOODRICH (United States.) Mr. President, I should like to in. quire of the gallant delegate from Germany whether or not he himself considers it of sufficient value to be printed ?

Captain MENSING (Germany). Mr. President, I am quite sure about it, because there is not a single publication at the present moment wbich gives the actual list of storm signals in use in the different countries. All of the lists which I have been able to look through and compare are incomplete. Some contain great errors and some small ones.

Mr. HALL (Great Britain). Mr. President, I apprehend that we could perfectly well authorize the printing of the list and have it attached as an appendix to the report. I do not suppose that it would alter the report at all.

Captain MENSING (Germany). Mr. President, there will be no change in the report at all. It is only for the information of the governments, which I believe will be very glad to get such information.

The PRESIDENT. The question is upon the motion of the delegate from Germany to print the information relative to storm signals.

The question was put to the Conference upon the motion of the delegate from Germany, and the motion was carried.

The PRESIDENT. The matter will be printed and appended to the report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 9. The report of the Committee upon General Division 9 is now before the Conference.

Mr. GOODRICH (United States). Mr. President, I move that the report of the committee upon the subject of General Division 9 be adopted by the Conference.

The PRESIDENT. It is moved that the report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 9 be adopted by the Conference. Is the Conference ready for the question ?

The question was put to the Conference upon the adoption of the report upon General Division 9, and it was adopted.

The PRESIDENT. The next order of business is the report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 12. The Secretary will please read the report.

The report of Committee No. 3 upon General Division 12 is as follows:

“GENERAL Division 12.-4 uniform system of buoys and beacons. “(a) Uniformity in color of buoys. b) Uniformity in numbering of broys.

“Owing to the absence of a uniformity in buoyage, mariners, up to very recent times, seldom attempted to navigate a district by means of the buoyage unless they were specially well acquainted with the local system. But now that a certain degree of uniformity on a fundamental basis prevails, mariners in general are more induced to navigate their vessel, trusting to it and the chart of the district; it therefore becomes of greater importance that such uniformity should be extended as far as possible.

Two principal characters are used for distinguishing buoys and beacons, color and shape.

“ The first object to be attained, from an international point of view, is uniformity. For that purpose color is the best means, as applying to all systems of whatever kind, while the shape admits numerous exceptions. The color is also applicable in all countries and with little expense, whereas the immediate adoption of shape would involve changes of several existing systems. Moreover, experience has proved that very many, if not the majority of channels, are now buoyed with sufficient distinctness without resorting to difference of form.

“For these reasons, and while the opinion prevails that at night and in' thick weather difference in form is a better means of distinction than difference of color, your committee advise that uniformity in color should be adopted as a general rule, and that the use of shape should remain optional.

" While, in the opinion of some members, the single colors of black and red are not so distinctive in contrast as a single color used in connection with a parti-color, experience gained in many buoyage districts, and particularly where used in conjunction with form, has proved that these dark colors are sufficiently distinctive for the safe navigation of districts where a more complicated system is not necessary. Singlecolored buoys are also more readily and cheaply repainted than parti. colored buoys. We therefore recommend that the largely used red and black colors should be adopted generally for marking respectively the starboard and port sides of single channels.

“Many districts, however, require a more complicated system of buoy. age to identify the several neighboring channels one from the other, such as the entrances of rivers with numerous channels like the Thames, the outlying shoals off the coast of the North Sea, the numerous shoals

« 이전계속 »