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10. That a uniform classification of lights based on luminous in. tensity and on the character as seen by the mariner should be adopted.
11. That the central offices that issue “ Notices to Mariners” or “Light Lists” should be permitted to correspond direct on such subjects,
12. That from countries where “Notices to Mariners” are published only in newspapers, copies of such papers should be sent to the various hydrographic offices.
GENERAL DIVISION 12.
A uniform system of buoys and beacons.
(a) Uniformity in color of buoys.
On the principle of using four colors to mark the four sides of a shoal, the Conference put forward the following scheme, based on the least change that would be necessary in altering the present systems to a uniform plan; and they bring it to the notice of the countries interested, as an example showing that uniforroity is attainable if they will agree to consider the subject :
All shoals marked on the compass system to be marked-
South side by red.
West side by half white and half black combined. On rocks in fair-way, with channels on either hand, to be marked black or red, with horizontal bands.
If such colors were adopted, then the following changes of color would be necessary :
The marks on the north side of a shoal would remain colored black or white as they now are in all countries using the compass system.
The marks on the south side of a shoal would, in Norway, have to be changed from white to red.
The marks on the east side of a shoal would, in Norway, have to be changed from black to half red and half white; Sweden, have to be changed from black and white to balf red and half white; Denmark, have to be changed from red to half red and half wbite.
The marks on the west side of a shoal would, in Norway and Denmark, have to be changed from white to half white and half black; Sweden, have to be changed from red to half white and half black; Finland, have to be changed from white and red to half white and half black.
The marks on a rock in fair-way, with channel on either side, if a white horizontal band is generally adopted, would in Russia have to be changed from black to black or red, with white horizontal bands, in agreement with the other countries.
The Conference invite the various powers interested to consider the following general principles, which they put forward as a basis on which
to build up a uniform international buoyage system for districts other than those where the compass system is in use.
The term starboard-hand shall denote that side of a navigable channel which is on the right hand of the mariner entering from seaward ; the term port-hand shall denote that side which is on the left hand under the same circumstances.
Color.-Buoys defining the starboard-hand shall be painted a single red color. Buoys defining the port-hand shall be painted a single black color, or a parti-color. Buoys defining middle grounds shall be painted with horizontal bands.
Form.—Wherever form is used as a distinctive character. Buoys defining the starboard-hand shall be conical, and those defining the port-hand shall be can or spar.
Top-marks.—Countries where form is not used as a distinctive char. acter for buoys may adopt as another distinctive feature for the buoys on either side of a channel, top-marks resembling a cone to be used on the starboard side, or a cylinder on the port side of a channel.
Numbers and letters.-Numbers, letters, and names may be painted on the buoys, but they must never be so large as to interfere with their distinctive coloring.
Wherever numbers and letters are used they shall be in consecutive order, commencing from seaward.
Buoying and marking of urecks.-- (a) All buoys and the top-sides of vessels used for the marking of wrecks shall be painted green with a suitable white inscription.
(6) Where it is practicable, by day one ball shall be exhibited on the side of the vessel nearest the wreck and two placed vertically on the other side; three fixed white lights similarly arranged, but not the ordi. nary riding light, shall be shown from sunset to sunrise.
GENERAL DIVISION 13.
The establishment of a permanent international maritime commission. (a) The composition of the commission. (6) Its powers and authority.
Resolved, That for the present the establishment of a permanent international maritime commission is not considered expedient.
On December 31, the programme having been completed, the following resolutions were adopted :
On motion of Mr. HALL (Great Britain).
“ Resolved, That a cordial vote of thanks be tendered by the Conference to its President, Rear-Admiral Samuel R. Franklin, for his courteous, impartial, and able conduct in the Chair.”
On motion of Dr. SIEVEKING (Germany).
“ Resolved, That the thanks of the Conference be expressed to the Secretaries of the Conference, and to the officers detailed by the United
States Government, for their assiduous services and the valuable assistance given by them to the works of the Conference."
On motion of Captain RICHARD (France). That the names of the various Secretaries, given herewith, be added to the resolution of Dr. Sieveking: Lieut. Vincendon L. Cottinan, Mr. Cecil A. Spring Rice, Mr. Walter Blaess, Mr. Charles Ribière, permanent Secretaries; Lieut. Frank E. Beatty, Lieut. Edward D. Bostick, Lieut. Ridgely Hunt, Lieut. John F. Newton, Ensign William L. Howard, Secretaries to Committees.
The Conference recommend that a copy of this final act be transmitted to the various powers represented.
The following Governments sent delegates to the Couference:
Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Chili, China, Costa Rica, Den. mark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay, Venezuela, and United States. In the name of the International Marine Conference, 1 am, sir, very respectfully, your most obedient servant,
S. R. FRANKLIN, Rear-Admiral, U. 8. Navy, President. V. L. OOTTMAN Lieutenant, U. 8. Navy, Secretary.
AN ACT Providing for an international marine conference to secure greater safety
for life and property at sea. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the President of the United States be, and he hereby is, authorized and requested to invite the Government of each maritime nation to send delegates to a marine conference that shall assemble at such time and place as he may designate, and to appoint seven delegates, two of whom shall be officers of the United States Navy and one an official of the Life-Saving Service, two masters from the merchant marine (one from the sailing marine and one from the steam marine), and two citizens familiar with shipping and admiralty practice to represent the United States at said marine confer. ence, and to fill vacancies in their number.
SEC. 2. That it shall be the object of said marine conference to revise and amend the rules, regulations, and practice concerning vessels at sea, and navigation generally and the “International Code of Flag and Night Signals;" to adopt a uniform system of marine signals, or other means of plainly indicating the direction in which vessels are moving in fog, mist, falling snow, and thick weather, and at night; to compare and discuss the various systems employed for the saving of life and property from shipwreck, for reporting, marking, and removing dangerous wrecks or obstructions to navigation, for designating vessels, for conveying to mariners and persons interested in shipping, warnings of approaching storms, of dangers to navigation, of changes in lights, buoys, and other day and night marks, and other important information; and to formulate and submit for ratification to the Governments of all maritime nations proper international regulations for the prevention of collisions and other avoidable marine disasters.
SEC. 3. That the sum of twenty thousand dollars, or so much thereof as shall be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, for the necessary expenses of said marine conference, including the pay and allow. ances of the representatives of the United States therein, which shall be at the rate of five thousand dollars per annum, and actual necessary expenses, for such delegates as are not salaried officers of the United States, and the latter shall be allowed their actual necessary expenses. The Secretary of the Navy is hereby authorized to provide the conference with such facilities as may be deemed necessary. The powers and authority conferred by this act upon the persons appointed by the President by force thereof, shall terminate on the first day of January, apno Domini eighteen hundred and ninety, or sooner at the discretion of the President.
SEC. 4. That it shall be the duty of the Secretary of State to transmit to Congress a detailed statement of the expenditures which may have been incurred under the provisions of this act.
Approved, July 9, 1888.
(PUBLIC RESOLUTION No. 3.)
JOINT RESOLUTION to extend the time of service of delegates of the United States
to the International Marine Conference.
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the powers and authority conferred by "An act providing for an international marine conference to secure greater safety for life and property at sea, approved July ninth, eighteen hundred and eighty-eight," upon the persons appointed by the President by force thereof, shall terminate on the first day of March, anno Domini eighteen hundred and ninety, or sooner at the discretion of the President.
Approved December 19, 1889.