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CONTENTS,

Manitoba

Porcupine Mountain-Country on Red Deer River-Soil very Rich— Exhaustless Fertility

of the Carrot River Country-Prince Albert Settlement-Its Early History-Wonderful

Progress in a few Years—Description of the Settlement,Many Houses in Course of

Erection-Fall Sowed Wheat a Success—No injury from Frost-Duck Lake Settlement

-Fort Carlton and its Vicinity-Country between the Rivers—Eagle Creek— The Bear

and Eagle Hills-Land South of Them-Description of Battleford and Vicinity-Its

Future Sketched Out—Land in the Neighborhood-Character of Soil—Police Farm at
wan and Athabasca Rivers

Extensive District South of North Saskatchewan-One Solid Block of 13,000,000 Acres

-Large Area of Fertile Land North of River-Star Mission, its Success-Multitudes

of Whitefish-Lac La Biche Mission-Farming at the Lake-Wheat, Barley, &c.-

_Victoria Mission-Small-pox Ravages—Rev. George McDougall his Death, the

Edmonteu Pioneer—Former Lawlessness at Edmonton—Change Caused by the Police

-Edmonton, its Mills, Churches, Stores—Coal and Iron at Edmonton-Review

of the Country-Ninty-six per Cent. Good Soil over a Vast Area—Lands for the

Irish without Rent—St. Albert Mission, its History and Success—Catholic Mis-

sionaries, their Work and Success—Rocky Mountain House, Fine Timber-Gold

Washing-Beaver River, very Rich Land-Green Lake, Abundance of Fish—

Chipweyan Indians-Athabasca River and Country-Size of the River and its Tribu.

taries—Little Slave River-Pembina River, Coal in its Banks—The McLeod-

Baptiste's River-Jasper House and Valley - Climate of the Valley, Snow Fall very

Light, Warm Winds, Dry Climate, Spring Weather-Horses Living out all Winter

-Source of Warm Winds-Fertile Belt-Richness of It-Where Located—Prairie

still Better-Wet Lands-Summer Frosts—Late Sowing-Fall Sowing, its Success.

CHAPTER VIII.

Peace River.

Position of the Lands Described-Area of the Region in Question-Character of Rocks

and Soil-Its Composition and Disposition—Peace River Prairie-Location of

Prairie-Sandy Soils along Athabasca—Origin of Peace River Prairie-Wonderful

Vegetation-Climate of Peace River-Summer of 1879—All Sorts of Grain and Vege-

tables Mature-Ripening of Grain at Dunvegan and other Points—Depth of Snow-

Setting in of Winter-Opening of Spring-Breaking up of the Ice-Difference in

Climate of Valley and Plateau-Occurrence of Frost-Comparison of Temperatures-

Peace River Spring as Early as in Manitoba—Cause of Exceptional Climate-

Chinook Winds—Length of Day and Increased Sunlight give Warm Summers-

Notes from Blodgett's Climatology-Its Great Value-Lake Superior Compared with

North-West-Summer Heat Decisive of Climate-Thermal Lines Curve Northward-

Spring opens Simultaneously on a Northwest line Between St. Paul's and Mackenzie

Rivers-Deserts not Found North of Lat. 47o-Rain Sufficient on the Northern

Plain-Buffalo more Abundant in the North—Peace River Compared with Germany

and Russia—Canadian North-West the Better-A Prophecy Thirty Years Ago-Size

of our North-West-Lord Selkirk's Opinions Seventy Years Ago—500,000 Square

Miles with a Mild Climate.

CHAPTER X.

Practical Remarks on Climate.

Mr. Anderson, of Listowel, Ireland, on Climate-Great Heat Causes no Inconvenience-

Intense Cold Hardly Felt-Manitoba Winter Climate Better than that of Ontario-

Snow Seldom over Twenty Inches in Depth-Seasons in Manitoba-Manitoba in the

Middle of the Continent-Long Days of Summer-Autumn Weather--Snowfall-Heat

and Humidity-Comparison of Summer Temperatures-Warm Summers and Dry Cold

Winters—Table of Mean Temperatures-Summer Temperatures Compared—Peace

River Climate-Manitoba Climate-Hardness of Wheat-Grains in the Cluster-Min.

nesota Nowhere—Peace River Wheat—Isothermal Lines-Corn and Wheat Zones-

Temperature Necessary for Successful Wheat Culture, The Wheat Zones—Probably

Three-fourths of the Wheat Lands of America in the New North-West—200,000,000

Acres-Extent of the Territory-Lord Selkirk's Opinions Seventy Years Ago-Great

American Desert- Its Effect on Climate-Changes Observed Passing North-How the

Isothermal Lines Curve—Where the Heated Air comes From-Two Currents passing

North-Summer Temperature the same over 300,000 Square Miles-Moisture in Sum-

mer, its Absence in Winter—Rainfall of the Year—Progress of the Seasons-Fall

Frosts not Injurious, Climate Unsurpassed for Farmers—Its Possibilities Unlimited-

Depth of Winter Frost-Its Beneficial Effects on Soil-Table of Rainfalls for 1879 and

1880—Rainfall and Cloudlessness—Testimony of Settlers Regarding the Healthiness

of the Climate.

Red River Prairie, Description of its Soil-An Old Countryman's Views–Extent of the

Wheat Lands—150,000,000 Acres of Wheat Lands-Manitoba Excluded from the

Calculation-Good Land Continues for 100 Miles at a Time-Fixed Laws Regarding

the Growth of Wheat-Northern Limits of Wheat Zone-Northern Wheat more Pro-

lific—The Cause Explained-How Wheat Grows in Spring and Summer-Why Mani.

toba Wheat is Hard-Roots Penetrate to a Great Depth-Analysis of Soil, far Supe.

rior to the Best Wheat Land in Europe-Best Soil in the World in the North-West-

Manitoba Formerly an old Lake Bottom-Soil of the Second Prairie Steppe-Soil of

the Third Plateau-Gypsum very Abundant-Cactus no Proof of Aridity-Setter's

Farm Described—Wheat Growing amongst Cactus-Appearance of the Land-Results

of 1880—of 1881–Seed Bought in Minnesota in 1876—Progress since Then-Mani-

toba Wheat Admitted Duty Free into Minnesota-Opinions of Pioneer Press of St.

Paul's, Minnesota, regarding North-West Wheat-Statements of Residents—Average

Crop for Four Years—Average Yield of Canadian North-West Compared with the best

States in the Union-Great Weight of the Grain-Qu'Appelle Region as a Wheat

District-Prince Albert and Edmonton as Wheat Districts Description of Edmon-

ton-Cust's Farm at Edmonton-Country on Peace River-Excellent Wheat Lands

far to the North-Cucumbers Ripen in Lat. 60°—Wheat in Lat. 61° First-class-

Spring Frosts not Hurtful—Fall Wheat not Suited for the North-West-Fall Sowing

Recommended-No Doubt of its Success-Instances of Fall Sowing-Fall Sowing the

True Policy of Settlers on the Prairie-Wheat Production of the Future beyond Cal.

culation, England should Realise that we have the Greater part of the Wheat Lands

of America, England's True Policy–Farmers Testimony Regarding the Soil.

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