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Commander STONE. The Naval Militia has been in existence for about 22 years, during which time the clerical work in the Navy Department in connection therewith was performed by one clerk on the rolls of the Secretary's office. The act of March 4, 1911, made appropriation “Arming and equipping Naval Militia” available for clerical salaries. A separate office for the conduct of Naval Militia matters was established in about May, 1910. Previous to that time the clerk performing the work was located in the office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

NAVAL OBSERVATORY.

STATEMENT OF CAPT. JOSEPH L. JAYNE, UNITED STATES NAVY,

SUPERINTENDENT.

INCREASES IN SALARIES.

Capt. JAYNE. Mr. Chairman, there is a note in connection with the estimates which in a general way explains the increases in salary we ask for. We have a great deal of difficulty in keeping proper men. I have only in the last two or three days been informed by two of the assistants that they expect to leave and go to the Patent Office. They have both passed the Patent Office examination; they have recently been notified, and expect to go just as soon as their appointments are issued.

Mr. BURLESON. That is the route they have adopted to get around the law we passed that departments and bureau divisions shouid not bid against each other for men. Tliey now resign, or, rather, take these examinations and get on the eligible list, and when they get the notice they are ready to be appointed they swing onto the job they have got until they get the notice they are ready for appointment, and then they resign and take a new job?

Capt. JAYNE. Yes, sir.

Capt. JAYNE. It has been going on for some years. We have been losing men all the time, and that is one of the difficulties we have. Now, in the first place, I have asked for an increase to $2,200 and another to $2,000, both from $1,800. These are excellent men, and I very much fear that we can not hold them unless their salaries are increased. Do you wish me to take up each item separately! I would like to emphasize that ---

Mr. BURLESON (interposing). If there is any particular man you would like to speak about, you can do so.

LIBRARIAN.

Capt. JAYNE. I have gone rather fully into each case, except in the case of the librarian. I did not say much about his case, but he has been a long time in the service.

Mr. JOHNSON. How long?

Capt. JAYNE. About 27 years, I think, and his pay is not on the same basis with the other librarians.

Mr. BURLESON. Is he getting as much as his work is worth?
Capt. JAYNE. I do not think he is.

67260—12 -9

Mr. BURLEsoN. Do you know what librarians in private employment are receiving? Capt. JAYNE. I have not investigated the private institutions, but I should say that they were getting as ...; as the Government librarians, who are getting more than our librarian is receiving. He is a very valuable man, and his work has increased very much of late. In that connection I might say that the entire work of the institution out there has very materially increased in the last few years. Mr. Johnson. How long has this man been getting $1,400? Capt. JAYNE. I do not remember when he began to get that, but it has been several years. MosOHNSON. You say that he has not had a promotion for several years Capt. JAYNE. Not, I think, very probably for 10 years. However, I can not say positively about that. In connection with the work out there I had my clerk to prepare a statement of the matter that passed over his desk. This gives a clear idea of the way the work has been increasing, and I would like to read it, if you will allow me. Mr. JoHNSON. You may read the letter. Capt. JAYNE. The letter reads as follows:

| Memorandum for the superintendent.]

Nov EMBER 20, 1912.

Referring to the request in this year's estimates for an additional copyist and typewriter at $900 per annum, I desire to submit the following statement for your consideration :

During the calendar year 1909 there was handled at this institution 2,623 pieces of mail which required recording and indexing. It was found that this, together with other work in connection with the office, was about all that the force of clerks could handle.

In 1910 the increase over the preceding year was 11 per cent; in 1911, increase over 1910 was 2 per cent; and if the present average keeps up for the balance of this year the increase will be 9.7 per cent over that for 1911.

During the years 1910 and 1911 it was found impossible to keep the work up when any one of the force was on leave, and part of the time when the entire force was present it was necessary for overtime work.

It is usual for me to put in overtime at present, and even at that I am unable to keep my desk up to date. In fact, I am unable to give to matters coming to my desk the proper attention, on account of the utter impossibility to find time to do S0.

I believe it will be to the best interests of the Government if the additional clerk asked for is allowed, as it will give a working force with which the work as at present can be kept well up to date.

Respectfully submitted.

J. E. DICKEY, Clerk.

Mr. BURLEsoN. How many letters did you say were received during the year?

Capt. JAYNE. The letters that passed over his desk requiring indexing were 2,623 in number. That was in 1909.

Mr. BURLESON. That is a little over six letters a day. Why, great conscience alive, any efficient man could do it in 30 minutes, could he not?

Capt. JAYNE. No, sir; he has to write a great many of the letters, but, as I say, there has been an increase right along.

Mr. BURLEsoN. An increase of 10 per cent does not amount to anything on that.

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Capt. JAYNE. But you see many of these letters are handled over and over again. They get indorsements, and the indorsements are given the same numbers. Some of these letters may be handled a half dozen times coming and going. He is one of the most efficient men I have ever seen in the Government service.

Mr. BURLESON. Is that all he does?

Capt. JAYNE. No, sir; he does a great deal more than that. He writes a great many letters.

Mr. BURLESON. If he does not receive but six letters a day he would not have more than that number to write, unless he is carrying on a correspondence with mythical people. He does not write to more people than write to him, does he !

Capt. JAYNE. But I tell you that some of these letters which are indexed are handled many times. They go and come. I have had a great deal to do with Government offices in Washington, and I do not think I have ever seen a more efficient man than this clerk I am telling you about.

Mr. Johnson. Is that the $1,400 man!

Capt. JAYNE. No, sir; it is the clerk to the superintendent who is writing this memorandum to me. Many times he arrives there in the morning a half hour or an hour before 9 o'clock, and very frequently he stays there until after 5 o'clock. That man earns every cent of his pay, and he keeps the other clerks working very efficiently. As I say, there is overtime work required to be done over there. Of course, these letters which require indexing, as I say, are handled many times. Many of them may have the same number. They may pass and repass several times, and letters bearing on the same subject will have the same number. There is a great deal of writing done out there that does not appear as letters, such as reports and minutes of council meetings. I could enumerate a great many things of that sort, but that is just one item. He makes that memorandum to show the ratio in which the work has been increased. I admit that the figures are unfortunate in not making the thing appear clearly, but the ratio is shown clearly by that statement. I know this from personal experience. I go out there at night. I have gone out there at night and seen lights in the room, and when I went in to see what was going on I found that a clerk was back there at work in order to catch up. The institution, as I say, is advancing all the time, and the amount of work that is turned out there is increasing all the time. Since I have been superintendent we have taken up a line of work which causes a great deal of writing to be done; that is, in the improvement of navigation methods, both theoretically and in the line of instruments.

NOVEMBER, 23, 1912. DEAR SIR: Referring to the memorandum which I read to the committee yesterday, during my hearing, in which it was stated 2,623 pieces of mail were handled during the calendar year 1909 which required recording and indexing.

In further explanation I desire to invite the committee's attention to the following:

The number mentioned refers to new subject heads only, under any one of which there may be from 1 to 50 or more outgoing letters. And many of them come back here two or three times. For instance, in this morning's mail there were received back five pieces that had been here one or more times before. The key of letters in regard to this year's trial of chronometers and watches bas about 75 outgoing letters under it, and several replies received were taken

up under the same number. Another example is the one where letters were sent to various astronomers for information as to work to be undertaken by the Nautical Almanac Office. There have been sent out 28 letters under this number, and several more bearing the same number will be sent out. In fact, the number as given in the first memorandum is representative of only about onefourth to one-fifth of the matter handled. I have no way of telling definitely, but my clerk informs me that, on an average, there are about 20 to 25 pieces incoming and 30 to 40 outgoing daily. I might state further that this does not represent alk the papers received and sent out, but only such as are recorded and indexed. Very respectfully, J. L. JAYNE, Captain, United States Vary, Superintendent. Hon. Joseph T. Johnson, House of Representatives, Washington, D. C.

ASSISTANTS.

Mr. Joh NSON. What other items in the bill are you interested in Ž Capt. JAYNE. I call your attention to notes 6 and 7 on “assistants,” two, at $1,000. I have asked to increase that to seven, at $1,200. Notes 6 and 7 explain that, but I would like to emphasize the point. We have five people employed as computers who are paid by the hour or on a piece or per diem basis, but it would put us on a very much better footing if we could make these computers assistants, so that we could train them in observation work. This question comes up sometimes, whether we can put them on instrumental work. As they are appropriated for as computers, I was afraid it would not be legal. In addition to that, they should have that kind of work in order to fit them for the higher places in the astronomical work. The increase of salary is, I think, essential, too, for the reason that these people are quitting all the time to go into other branches of the Government service. Mr. JohnsoN. What would be the difference if you allowed them the new designation? How much more money would we have to pay them ż Capt. JAYNE. I propose to increase the two assistants we have at $1,000 to $1,200 and put these computers on the same basis with them. In other words, the lowest grade is the assistant at $1,200, and then we will be on the same basis with the Coast Survey. We will not be as well off as the Patent Office, but we would be on the same basis with the Coast Survey. Their lowest men go in at $1,200; that is, men of this class. Now, I propose to do the same thing. There are two assistants in the Nautical Almanac Office at $1,000, and I propose to increase their pay to $1,200, so that the observatory and the Nautical Almanac Office shall be on the same basis, and on the same basis with the Coast Survey.

ELEVATOR CONDUCTOR.

I would like to say something about the change from elevator conductor at $720 to skilled laborer at $840. The designation of “elevator conductor” is not descriptive of the man's principal duties. He does run the elevator when it is necessary, but his principal duties now are in connection with astronomical instruments—that is, in the cleaning and taking care of them. His duties are of a much higher grade as a skilled laborer, and he is a man whose value is fully that amount asked, $840.

STOREMAN AND PACKER.

Now, in regard to the storeman and packer, we asked last year for a man at $780 to fill that place in place of a laborer, and we had a very efficient man out there who was doing it for $660 a year. When he found that your committee was not going to allow the advance requested, he resigned and went over to the Bureau of Standards at $840 a year, and we have not been able to get a suitable man to fill that place. I am simply asking that you put our man, who is doing practically the same kind of work to-day as the man at the Bureau of Standards is doing, on the same pay. He has to handle for us probably anywhere from $100,000 to $150,000 worth of very valuable instruments coming from and going to ships, some of them several times over, and we certainly ought to have a man competent to handle these instruments, and such a man is fully worth the money asked.

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In regard to the library attendant, we can not get a suitable man at the price that we are paying at present.

Mr. Johnson. Who is performing that service now?

Capt. JAYNE. A man, Ì think, at $660. He is a colored man and not a suitable man for that job. Of course, his color has nothing to do with it, but he has not all the education that a man ought to have in there. We ought to have a man there who, in the absence of the librarian, can attend to certain matters efficiently. At present we have a man who does the work, but he is not up to the proper standard. We have the finest astronomical library in this country and one of the finest in the world.

PROFESSIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC BOOKS.

Mr. Johnson. On page 183 you ask an appropriation for the purchase of additional scientific books, books of reference, etc. Why do you ask for any change in the language of that paragraph ?

Capt. JAYNE. That is explained in the note.
Mr. Johnson. Is that all you desire to say in regard to it?

Capt. JAYNE. We have had a great deal of difficulty in buying books. Most of the books, or many of them at any rate, are bought in Europe, and of course that adds to the difficulty of purchasing books when we can not pay for them in advance. We are simply asking you to put the Naval Observatory Library on the basis that many of the Government libraries are now on. We are not asking for anything superior to what you grant to the eight or nine other libraries here in Washington. "We do not have enough money to buy all the books we would like to have. At one time we were allowed $1.000 a year.

Mr. BURLESON. You have justed stated that it is a pretty wellequipped library. You have just stated that it is one of the finest in the world.

Capt. JAYNE. Yes, sir; but the world is not standing still in the matter of literature of that kind. We have to keep buying all the time, and what we have been allowed in the last few years has not been quite sufficient. We do not believe it is sufficient, and we would

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