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Mr. DURAND. This item of $100,000 is exclusively for subsistence, travel, and other expenses of the detailed employees. The salaries of the people used in this work form a part of our regular salary roll. This investigation will cost much more than $100,000 if you take into consideration the salaries paid to the employees who will be engaged upon it.

Mr. JoHNSON. Then, nobody is to be employed out of this. You will use the force already in the bureau, and this is to pay their subsistence and traveling expenses?

Mr. DURAND. Yes, sir; and this is an investigation so large that it would be quite out of the question to pay for it out of our regular lump-sum appropriation for the collection of statistics. It seems to me that it would be much more logical and proper that a committee of Congress should have before it this particular item separately, rather than have it placed in a general lump-sum appropriation which covers other work. This item will appear only once in 10 years. Our general lump-sum appropriation of $354,000 is used almost wholly for investigations which recur annually. Two hundred and sixty-two thousand dollars of it is used for the collection of cotton statistics in the South, and that is the largest part of it. Most of the rest is used for the collection of the annual statistics of births and deaths and statistics of cities.

Mr. BYRNs. Can you state how this amount estimated here compares with the amount expended for the same work 10 years ago?

Mr. DURAND. The early records of the Census Bureau were not kept in sufficient detail to enable me to say whether or not this is a reduction of the cost.

FURNITURE, CARPETS, ETC.

Mr. Johnson. The next item is what you might call a miscelleneous item, covering furniture, carpets, ice, lumber, hardware, etc. Your current appropriation is $15,000, and your estimate is $20,000. Why do you add that increase of $5,000?

Mr. DURAND. That is wholly because we were able to get along this year without purchasing any appreciable amount of equipment and supplies of that character, because we had such a large amount of material left over from the appropriation for the taking of the Thirteenth Census.

Mr. JoHNSON. Beginning in 1904, that appropriation had been $15,000, except in the year when you had a lump-sum appropriation, but in that year you might have made it $30,000 if you had desired to do so.

Mr. DURAND. My impression is that we got more than that in 1909. You will notice that the statement here says the estimate for 1909 was $20,000, and I am quite sure that we got that $20,000. At any rate, I am very sure, in view of the increased cost of coal and the increased cost of a great many other kinds of things required, that we can not get along with $15,000 this year. It has required very close work to figure it out at all this year. You will remember that we asked for $30,000.

TARULATING MACHINES.

Mr. Joh NSON. On page 280 you are asking for an appropriation for experimental work in developing tabulating machines, etc., $20,000. What have you been able to accomplish in the way of developing such machines with the $26,000 given you in the current year? Mr. DURAND. We have done a great deal. It is a little difficult to explain these technical matters; but we devised—when I say “we,” I mean in our own office—about nine months ago a very great improvement in our tabulating machines, an improvement so great we can get along for the next census with about 20 or 30 machines, whereas we had 100 machines on the last census. We have still a large amount of tabulating to do in connection with the present census in reference to occupation statistics, and we decided we would try to put this improvement into the machines immediately and take advantage of it for occupation work. So we are building over some 14 of our tabulating machines with this enormous im- . rovement. The cost of that reconstruction is borne out of this §o and will take practically the whole of it, but we expect to save in one year at least $40,000 by the improvement in those machines. Now, by the beginning of next year we will have finished the work on these machines, but the Government of the United States—our own bureau, and particularly the other bureaus of the Department of Commerce and Labor—need a machine which will add figures. The machines we have now do not add figures. They simply count one, two, three persons, and are suitable chiefly for population statistics. They will not count quantities and values, say $73 to $149. We must devise such card adding machines for the use particularly of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the department and other bureaus, though our own bureau will have some use for them. We have made good progress in inventing such a machine, but have not done anything toward constructing it. I think it quite essential also that this work should be continued, for another reason: If we drop our present expert machine men, it will be quite impossible to do satisfactorily and economically the work required in 1920. Even if we use the same machines we are now reconstructing, we will have to keep them in repair and wire them, and the electrical features are very intricate. We must keep our best men on the roll all the time, and we can find something useful for them to do. It is not a heavy expense compared with the enormous saving those machines will enable us to make. Ten years ago the Census Bureau paid about $400,000 as rental for machines. For this census I do not think we paid any more than that for the construction and purchase of all machines, and we now have them ourselves and own them and can use them for another census.

PRINTING AND BINDING.

Mr. Johnson. We gave you $272,000 this year for printing and binding in connection with the results of the Thirteenth Decennial Census. Will that amount complete the work?

Mr. DURAND.. I believe that it will complete the work, but I think we shall have to ask Congress to make that appropriation available during next year. As I said, the subject of occupation statistics was held over from 1912 to 1913. We will just about finish that work and have it ready to go to the printer at the end of the fiscal year 1913, and the cost of printing the report on occupations, which I think we

can adequately cover out of this appropriation of $272,000, probably can not be incurred until next year. If some form of ...,' legislation is necessary, I certainly want it enacted, if possible, simply to continue this amount of $272,000. There will be no further item of that sort next year.

Mr. JoHNSON. You simply want us to make available so much of it as you may not use by the 30th of June, in case there should be any additional printing to be done?

Mr. DURAND. Yes, sir.

MAILING PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.

Mr. Joh NSON. Referring again to the first item, you say by reason of the legislation in the legislative, executive, and judicial appropriation bill you dropped one man on account of the mailing of these public documents from the Government Printing Office. How has that legislation affected the Census Bureau? Mr. DURAND. The attempt to carry it out is so recent that it is rather difficult to tell what its final effect will be, either as to the matter of cost or as to the matter of convenience. In the last two months I think there has been some little delay in getting out publications because the Public Printer did not have his force #. Organized, but I think it is getting in better condition every day. The greater part of the work involved in sending out our decennial census publications is in corresponding with the people requesting documents, listing their names upon a permanent file, so as to keep a record of those who have received documents, and addressing the franks or envelopes. The actual cost of putting the documents into the envelope and physically carrying them to the post office and mailing them is considerably less than the other elements of cost, and that will be true of any Government bureau that has a fluctuating mailing list—that is, where there is one mailing list for one document and another for another document. A Government bureau which has an annual publication or quarterly or monthly publication that goes to the same people over and over and can use stencils to mail the matter can doubtless save a good deal by having the work done in the way provided by the new law, but in our bureau the great bulk of the work is of this more complex character, where the saving by turning it over to the Government Printing Office can only be moderate. Mr. JoHNSON. Mr. Durand, if you receive a letter requesting a public document from some citizen in South Carolina or Texas, what becomes of that letter? Mr. DURAND. The letter itself is sent to the Department of Commerce and Labor—if it be a request for a publication of the permanent Census Bureau and not for one of the decennial census—with a notation on it as to what the particular document desired really is, a number or name to designate what document is to be sent, and the J)epartment of Commerce and Labor handles it through the Government Printing Office. So far as our Thirteenth Census publications are concerned, the Department of Commerce and Labor has decided not to burden itself with them. We send the letter back to the party with a label or slip saying the Public Printer has been requested to send him the document requested. We do not keep those letters at all, because they simply lumber up our files.

Mr. JoHNSON. You do not cumber your files with the letter and you do not answer it?

Mr. HATHAway. Yes, sir; we answer it by a form communication. We simply put a slip on it saying the publication herein requested will be sent through the Public Printer, and send the letter back to the correspondent.

Mr. DURAND. Then we prepare a frank with the address of the person concerned, and with a little slip attached to it, with perforation so it can be torn off, on which slip we designate by title the pamphlet or report which the Public Printer is to send; and as the Public Printer becomes more familiar with our system we expect to use a set of numbers and simply say, “Send this person document No. 179,” or whatever the number may be... We do the addressing and then we send the frank to the Government Printer, and he puts it upon the document and mails it out. Of course, if it be a series of documents, such as some of ours are, that can be handled by means of an addressograph; we put the names on stencils, and it is done more rapidly in that way. We have not reduced our mailing force very greatly as a result of this change, but that is chiefly because a large part of the mailing force has to do with what we call our service work—sending out circulars requesting information, and sending out all sorts of formal notices. We have 750 cotton agents in the South and there are 26,000 cotton gins from which we collect statistics, and we send notices frequently to both agents and ginners. That work is not by law transferred to the Government Printing Office, nor would it be at all possible for that office to handle it.

ADMIN i STRATIVE AUDIT.

Mr. JoHNsoN. In the last legislative bill we reaffirmed the Dockery law as to the administrative audit; are you living up to that law in the Census Office? Mr. HATHAway. Yes, sir. The disbursing of funds is no longer done in the Census Bureau. Our disbursing officer was abolished and the work went to the Department of Commerce and Labor. Mr. Johnson. Dut there is an administrative audit in the Census Bureau, is there not? Mr. HATHAway. Yes, sir; we make an administrative audit there before the claims go to the Department of Commerce and Labor. Mr. JoHNSON. You make such an audit of the claim as you ought to make to satisfy the disbursing officer the claim ought to be paid : Mr. HATHAway. Yes, sir. Mr. JoHNsoN. Have you anything else to submit, Mr. Durando

TEMPORARY CLERRS.

Mr. DURAND. There will be laid before you by the Department of Commerce and Labor shortly a request for a clause in the urgent deficiency bill which will permit the Census Bureau to employ a larger number of clerks, without any more appropriation, out of the $120,000 for temporary clerks which Congress voted this last session. You voted to permit us to employ not to exceed 175 temporary clerks during the fiscal year 1913 and provided therefor $120,000. That legislation did not pass until the latter part of August, and we could not put any of those clerks on our roll until the 1st of September, and on account of the mere physical difficulties of taking on a large force many of them did not get on the roll until nearly the 1st of October, and at the moderate rate of pay allowed we can not use up that money. Mr. JoHNSON. In other words, the number of people we gave you and the amount of money we gave you you can not use both in 9 or 10 months? Mr. DURAND. They do not harmonize and we can not use it unless we promoted them, and if we promoted them, in a way we would be spending the Government's money unnecessarily. We need the work. We needed the 175 clerks practically during the entire fiscal year, and we need more clerks for the shorter period as a result of the delay in the passage of the appropriation act. That is such a simple matter that I do not see why there should be any objection to it; it involves no additional expenditure.

MoRDAY, November 25, 1912. BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE. STATEMENT OF MR. ALBERTUS H. BALDWIN, CHIEF.

Mr. JoHNSON. The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce is a new bureau. Mr. BALDw1N. That is a combination of the Bureau of Manufactures and the Bureau of Statistics. Mr. JoHNsoN. Of which one were you the chief? Mr. BALDw1N. I was the chief of the bureau of manufactures. Mr. Johnson. And in the merging of the two bureaus into the new bureau, you were made chief of this bureau. Mr. BALDw1N. Yes, sir. Mr. Johnson. Now, we are anxious to hear from you as to the work you are doing and how the consolidation or merger of these two bureaus has operated. Mr. BALDw1N. Well, the merger, I think, is effective. It had been urged by the department, as you know, for several years in succession. Mr. JoHNSON. It would have been done long ago if it could have been done by Executive order. Mr. BALDw1N. I think so. I think the Secretary would have been glad to recommend to the President such action. The work has changed very little, of course, because I was in charge of the Bureau of Manufactures, and I am continuing the same policy in regard to this bureau. Mr. Austin, who was the chief of the Bureau of Statistics, was retained as the assistant chief of the new bureau, so that the work has proceeded in very much the same way as before. We have made certain combinations of administrative work that I think are successful. Our appropriations were reduced. The total approriations for the combined bureau were considerably less than the individual appropriations for the separate bureaus.

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