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completed about the 1st of January. Of this number of places, amounting to about 40, 24 are scientific, 6 are clerical, 6 mechanics, we will call them. and 7 people who are concerned in the operation of the plant—taking care of the buildings—such as engineers, firemen, watchmen. janitors, etc. When the bureau occupies the new building not only will the electrical department, which is to occupy it, need considerably more force. but each of the various divisions of the bureau will have additional rooms in the other buildings and are very badly in need of some additional help. I wish I could explain in a few words the conditions we have labored under this present year, but it would be almost impossible. We have seven principal divisions of the bureau's work. Take one of those divisions—that of Weights and Measures, for example. It is divided into six sections, one section having to do with weights, another having to do with length measures, and another having to do with capacities and densities, and another with a certain class of time measurements, each of these sections involving totally different work and requiring a totally different class of men; and that may be taken as an example of each of the divisions of the bureau. Now, all told, there would be about 25 or 26 of these sections, involving definite lines of experts, and of these new positions there are but 24 which are scientific, and that allows less than one new man to a section in each of the principal lines of work and in many of which at least half a dozen are needed. As to the first of these divisions, that of Weights and Measures, there is a decided tendency on the part of the States and the people throughout the country to establish proper conditions regarding weights and measures. The bureau endeavors to assist in this by cooperating with State officials, to have on exhibit at the bureau such apparatus as is necessary to assist them in the preparation of regulations, and, above all. to compare their standards with those of the Government. During the past year we have received requests for standardization from 12 or 15 different States. I can not emphasize too greatly the importance of the bureau's work in connection with this movement—the movement for honest weights and measures throughout the country. The bureau has done excellent work along this line, but the movement has been confined to a few States. It is now growing and is an exceedingly important matter. The second division is devoted to electrical work. Here again there are five or six sections, each dealing with an entirely different class of standards, and each dealing with very difficult scientific work. The electrical industries depend upon the bureau for their standards of all kinds. The electrical section will soon move into the new building and will need additional men. The division of heat and thermometry, the third division, has to do with temperature measurements. Many of our industries are beginning to install methods of temperature measurement where they guessed at things before, and they are looking to the bureau for values of the heat constants, for the standardization of their instruments, and for information generally along the line of heat measurements. The subject involves very difficult work, and here again five or six entirely different lines of measurement are involved.
. The optical work of the bureau, which is carried on by the fourth division, is also very important. It is not a large division, but the departments of the Government especially are asking for information about standards of color, the facts regarding all sorts of optical instruments that are purchased and used by the Government. Spectrum analysis enters into the analysis of materials to a far greater extent than is generally supposed. The bureau has but few men working in optics, and during the past year we have lost half of them. This branch of work needs strengthening very much. The fifth division, the chemical division, is a very important one. There is hardly a problem of investigation or standardization that we take up in which the chemist is not involved. The purity of the materials must always be ascertained, and in the testing of supplies of all sorts purchased by the Government much of the work is chemistry. The chemistry work should be strengthened much more than will be done by this increase, if allowed. The largest division of the bureau, the seventh division, is devoted to the investigation and testing of structural materials, which is a very important matter. You perhaps know that the bureau tests these materials purchased by the Isthmian Canal Commission, the Supervising Architect, and others, and there is a decided tendency on the part of the Government bureaus to concentrate at the bureau the testing of materials that are purchased to ascertain whether or not they meet the specifications. Leaving out the large number of requests for information which are very important, and which we never count as tests, you will be interested to know that the bureau served 55 educational institutions since the first of July, principally along the line of standardization of instruments and standards. Seventeen States have come to the bureau, 18 cities, and 75 Government bureaus or divisions. There is another phase of our work which to my mind is very important. The States are very active in the regulation of the public utilities. All regulations drawn up concerning public utilities involve measurements and standards. It is extremely important that such regulations in the various States be uniform as far as measurements and standards are concerned. Most States handle this through public-utility commissions. These commissions look to the bureau for their standards and for much information which they need in establishing regulations. Saturday the public-service commission of Oregon, called the railway commission, and which handles the public utilities generally of that State, visited the bureau and spent the day looking into matters pertaining to the regulation of public utilities. Briefly, this is the nature of the work, but I wish to call attention to another matter which is troubling us very much. The bureau started with mostly young men. It has to train its own assistants. They are not to be found outside, except in some few cases. We take a man and train him along a certain line of work and he soon becomes very valuable to the industries and to educational institutions; we can offer some inducements to him to remain by providing a good place to work, good apparatus, and giving him credit for his work, but we can not expect him to make too great a sacrifice in regard to salary. I am convinced, and I believe the heads of all the divisions who are concerned in this work are convinced, that our scientific salaries are not even commensurate with the scientific salaries in the Government. We are continually losing our good men to other bureaus, and our salaries are not at all commensurate with those paid by educational institutions, and especially by the industries. We can hardly hope to compete financially with the industries. They can afford to pay in many instances two or three times the salary the bureau can pay. They ho done this in the past and have taken three or four good men from us recently. In many respects these men go out from the bureau and are of great value to the industries. It is a credit to the bureau to turn out men to the industries in this manner, but at the same time we can not afford to lose all of our good men. Our list of salaries is progressive and fairly well arranged up to the $2,700 point. There is nothing between $2,700 and $3,600. Now, many of these leaders of the sections—that is, the experts in definite lines of work—are men who are now getting salaries of $1,800, $2,000, and $2,200, men who ought to have been paid some years ago salaries of $2,500, $2,700, and $3,000. While this additional force generally is for the purpose of augmenting the scientific force of the bureau, some of the higher salaries are for the purpose of providing proper experts for these various sections, some of which are at the bureau, some of which we have lost; but our lists of salaries must be augmented by a few of these places at the top in order that the whole list of salaries can be made commensurate at least with the Government service. Mr. Johnson. Mr. Stratton, your bureau is a very interesting one, as any man who visits it will testify; but your appropriations have been increasing very rapidly. In 1903 you had the insignificant sum under this paragraph of $36,000, and you are asking us for $296,000 for the next fiscal year, and that is an increase of $56,000 over the appropriations for the current year. Suppose the committee should feel unable to give you all the increases you ask for, would you mind designating to the committee the increases in the order in which they should be made, according to their importance, and then if we can not give you all we will give you those at the top of your list? Mr. STRATTON. It is very hard to make comparisons. Out of the many lines of investigation the bureau has been urged to take up, and which are really pressing, estimates were submitted for those which seemed to be the most urgent, and which the bureau is best prepared to take up. The test-car equipment, the investigation of the fire-resisting properties of materials, and the distribution of high potential currents, are all important matters which should be taken up from the standpoint of the public welfare. I would place their importance in the order named. The electrical equipment is one of the first things needed in the occupancy of the new building, while the enactment of the radiocommunication law makes it imperative that the bureau take up at once the standardizing and testing of such apparatus if we are to administer that law properly. The item for standard materials is small but important. It will mostly be returned to the Treasury. As to the increase in the general expense fund, that is necessary for increase of the power ...i heating facilities due to the additional building. Some increase in the laboratory equipment is also urgent. In regard to the increase in the structural-material fund, I would say that there is considerable criticism of the bureau throughout the country as to the narrow and limited way in which the bureau is taking up that work. The Government could well afford to spend the entire amount of the estimate on each of the three lines of work involved; hence it is very important just at present that some increase be made in this fund. That submitted is not large as compared with the importance of the work to the public. I hope it can stand.
Mr. JoHNSON. In the next paragraph of the bill there is an increase of $15,000 for machinery, etc. Are you not getting pretty well equipped in your bureau, Doctor?
Mr. STRATTON. Yes, sir; in so far as permanent equipment is concerned, but every problem taken up requires new equipment, and that equipment is a general term for materials and equipment of all kinds. The equipment of a laboratory is not a thing that gradually accumulates; some of it does and some does not, and this increase of $15,000 will be divided between the seven divisions, and will give a very small increase but an increase that is very much needed. Apparatus of this kind is expensive, and much of it we must construct, and for that we must purchase material. It is a running expense. This equipment is not a thing that is completed.
REPAIRS TO BUILDINGS.
Mr. JoHNsoN. The next item is for repairs and necessary alterations to buildings, and carries an increase of $1,000.
Mr. STRATTON. This is an increase of $1,000 due to the increased plant and the increased necessity for repairs and alterations as the buildings grow. There is not much of that sort of work, but, for instance, all of the woodwork of the buildings had to be painted this season, and the roof of one of the buildings had to be repaired; it is work of that kind in connection with the care of the buildings.
Mr. Johnson. Have you had any unexpended balances in any of these appropriations which would amount to anything?
Mr. STRATTON. No, sir; our great difficulty is to keep within the appropriation.
FUEL FOR HEAT, LIGHT, AND POWER.
Mr. Johsson. The next item is for fuel for heat, light, and power, etc., an increase of $5,000.
Mr. STRATTON. That increase of $5,000 is due principally to the coal that will be needed and the increased power and increased heating of the new building.
TRAVELING EXPENSES FOR ATTENDANCE ON MEETINGS.
Mr. Johnson. You have this language in italics: “Including expenses of attendance upon meetings of electrical and professional societies when required in connection with standardization, testing, or other official work of the bureau.”.
I presume that is to avoid the strict terms of the District appropriation bill of last year?
Mr. STRATTON. Yes, sir; and I would like to explain why it is necessary to avoid it. Our work is very closely connected with the industries. Many of these societies maintain standardization committees and they work in close connection with the bureau. The bureau can not arbitrarily adopt standards without the closest conference and consultation with technical interests and with the industries generally. We never attend conferences or meetings as such, but only where they have committees on standards or where we wish to submit to them certain propositions as to standardization or wish their advice. Mr. JoHNsoN. I think if we put in such a provision for you the language should be a little more specific and a little more circumscribed, “including expenses of attendance upon meetings of technical and professional societies when specifically authorized by the head of the bureau, in writing,” etc. Mr. STRATTON. That would suit us very well. Mr. Johnson. We would also perhaps want to say you could spend a sum not exceeding so much. Mr. STRATTON. I would like to say that no traveling is done except in the manner you suggest, and I would say, further, that we require every one making a trip to make at the end of it a report of what he went for, what he did while he was there, and these reports are filed. Mr. JoHNSON. What is the largest amount you have ever found it necessary to spend in one year in matters of that kind? Mr. STRATTON. Last ..". travel out of the regular appropriations was $6,375, and the total travel was $13,000 from all sources whatever and from all funds. I want to call attention to the fact that perhaps not more than half of that was included in the kind of travel you speak of. The bureau has two or three inspection services. For instance, all the incandescent lights purchased by the Government are inspected by the bureau at the factories, and the cement used by the Isthmian Canal Commission is tested at the works. A large part of our travel is in connection with inspection work. Mr. Johnson. You have never permitted any part of your appropriation to be expended for paying initiation fees or anything of that kind of your experts in these societies? Mr. STRATTON. No, sir; we do not approve of that.
GRAI) i N (; AND CONSTRUCTION OF SIDEWALKS.
Mr. JoHNSON. In the next item there is an increase of 50 per cent for grading, construction of roads, and walks. I suppose most of that work will be done before the next fiscal year.
Mr. STRATTON. No, sir; the site has been increased, and we want to inclose the grounds and at least develop the roads. The roads we have are merely temporary cinder roads, and we ought to be doing something to put the grounds on a permanent basis. The increase is due to the increased area. We have done nothing more so far than to try and take proper care of the grounds and keep our roads in condition, and keep things cleaned up generally.
UNITS AND STANDARDS OF REFRIGERATION.
Mr. Johnson. I notice on page 293 an item which was carried this year for the first time in the sundry civil act, and which it is desired