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C. H. Eckels. Dairy farming, 38 sets, 71 days.
$75.00 E. H. Farrington, dairyman (butter making). Subject : Dairy manufacturing and butter making, 4 sets, 1} days, at $8_
10. 60 A. W. Dean, senior highway engineer. Subject: Highway engineering, 45 sets, 6 days.
60.00 Frederick L. Rhodes, superintendent of telephone construction. Subject : Knowledge of telephone construction, 24 days.
22. 85 George F. Bowerman, library science, 25 sets, 10 days.
100.00 T. C. Betts, photo-engraver, 18 sets, 3 days.
30.00 Albert E. James, statistician in forest products. Subject : Knowledge of forest-product statistics, 2 days..
20.00 George W. Cavanaugh, dairy chemist, 4 sets, 2 days_
20.00 Charles E. Munroe, junior chemist in explosives, 8 sets, 3 days...
30.00 Thomas Harastany, conducting oral test, interpreter examination, Chicago
10.00 Layyah A. Barakat, conducting oral test, interpreter examination, Philadelphia
621. 36 NUMBER OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES (CIVIL). Mr. JOHNSON. General, do you know how many people are on the pay roll of the Government—the civil list—from the President of the United States down, exclusive of the Army and Navy?
Gen. BLACK. I can furnish you the exact number and can give you the approximate number now.
Mr. Johnson. Give us the approximate number and put the exact number in the record later.
Gen. BLACK. Approximately 495,000 people.
Gen. BLACK. Nearly 278,000, besides those that come in by list, The total that are under us is about 391,000 that are in the civil service proper of the United States.
NOVEMBER 23, 1912. Hon, JOSEPH T. JOHNSON,
Chairman Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. SIR: Under the license given by your committee in your clerk's letter of November 22, I ask leave to substitute the attached table (which answers fully and in detail certain questions put by you) and this explanatory note, and to ask that the same be inserted in lieu of lines 5 to 14 on page 29 of the transcript of my evidence.
The total number of persons rendering civil services for which they are compensated by the United States Government is estimated at 469,528, as shown more in detail in the attached statement,
There is no single office charged with the duty of maintaining a complete list of Government employees, and it is difficult consequently to obtain an accurate approximation of the number of persons in the Government service at any time, but the attached table is based upon diligent inquiries.
It is due to the lawmakers of the Republic, whose time is filled with grave duties, that there should be one central and responsible office to which they can apply and which can immediately and correctly report every such material fact as your committee has asked for. Such an office will be the Civil Service Come mission, if you shall favorably act upon the sugges‘ion to which your attention is invited. In its twenty-eighth annual report, for the year ended June 30, 1911, page 23, the commission stated that the preparation of the Official Register and the maintenance of service records by this office involved much duplication. Attention was called to a bill introduced in the House of Representatives February 16, 1911, printed as House bill 32810, which provided that the commission should keep a record of all civil, military, and naval employees, and that in lieu of the Official Register the Director of the Census should compile and publish a list of those employees only whose compensation equals or exceeds $2,000 per annum, in connection with other information specified. It concluded with the statement that under the plan proposed in the bill an official register in card form, based upon reports of changes received monthly from the depart.
ments, would be kept complete and up to date, and its information would be immediately available by telephone or mail, and any compilation could be made when needed. In addition to all questions of promptness and convenience is the big fact that the adoption of the suggestion of the commission will save money. The proposed keeping of an up-to-date official register, if enacted into law, will involve the preparation of nearly 1,000,000 cards:
Although the commission in a letter of May 16, 1912, to Hon. William C. Houston, chairman of the Committee on the Census, estimated that the initial expense for installing such a record would be approximately $20,000 for addi. tional employees, filing cases, and printing, and an additional amount of $10,000 annually for the same purposes, if Congress should require the initial work to be done in the preparation of these cards by each department, it is possible that the commission, with the additional force asked for, could establish and maintain the register, making the necessary changes to keep it up to date. Very respectfully,
JOHN C. BLACK, President. Estimated number of officers and employees in the service of the Government
of the United States, excluding officers and enlisted men in the Army, Navy,
and Marine Corps. [Based on Senate Document No. 836, Sixty-first Congress, third session, Feb. 24, 1911, revised according to telephonic statements from the appointment offices of the several departments and independent offices.]
Department or office.
Revised number Nov. 22,
712 27,829 28,102
5,700 272,813 29,000 14,262 12,519 14,883
White House 1
712 28,578 33,400 6 5,700 286,533 29,000 14,307 13,858 19,448 3,925
697 213 464
1 The White House, Office of Superintendent State, War, and Navy Department Building, and the Isthmian Canal Commission and service were omitted from Senate Document 836.
2 Omitted. 3 Dec. 13, 1911, latest figures available. 4 These numbers as given in the second column are regarded in the several appointment divisions as essentially correct to date.
5 Employees in Engineer Department and Quartermaster's Department at Large were found to number 11,787 and 4,511, respectively, instead of 9,000 and 2,000, as estimated in Senate Document 836, and the War Department so reported in a letter of Mar. 13, 1911,
6 Of this number about 3,000 are in the judicial service.
11 Nov. 22, 1912.
14 Includes employees appropriated for in lump and employees under Superintendent of Library Building and Grounds.
15 Figures taken from pay roll.
16 Maximum number employed at any one time, according to records in the office of the superintendent.
TRAVELING EXPENSEs For ATTENDANCE ON MEETINGs, ETC.
Mr. JoHNSON. Now, General, on page 60 you ask us to put in “and attendance at meetings of public officials.” . I presume that is to avoid the provision in the District of Columbia appropriation bill of last year. Gen. BLACK. The postmasters of the United States, under their associations and regulations, and various other of the employees of the Government, are in the habit of having great meetings for a publice discussion of the duties of their offices. The postmasters hold them in every State, and the customs officers hold them at such times and places as they please, and then they hold national meetings. And at those meetings they bring together the experiences and the thought of these men. They come there en masse and ask us to send a man to them that can tell them about the law as to some of the points about which they are in doubt, and to give them information as to their duties, and we send such men upon official business which is equivalent, although we do not put it in that way, to the holding of examinations. We are instructing these appointing officers in their o to the Government, and the work has been done upon a great SCa1e. Mr. JoHNson. How are you doing that this year, in view of the section in the District appropriation bill? Gen. BLACK. We have just simply let it alone. We have not sent a man this year on a mission of that kind. Mr. JoHNSON. Is not this logo intended to nullify the provision in the District bill of last year? Gen. BLACK. Yes, sir; it is intended to give us liberty to send these men down to these meetings, which are as much in the interest of the Government as any other advisory or supervisory work. Mr. JoHNSON. How much money do you need for the purposes you have indicated ? Gen. BLACK. I think, Mr. Chairman, we could pay all the expenses of all of our examiners and inspectors in attendance at all of the meetings we could choose to send them to for $1,000. Mr. JoHNsoN. Then if we should decide to put in what you want, why not say “not exceeding $1,000 * * Gen. BLACK. That would be satisfactory, I think. Mr. JoHNSON. You do not have in your force anybody who belongs to a society who contemplates paying his annual dues or initiation fees, or anything of that kind? Gen. BLACK. No; nothing of that kind. Mr. McILHENNY. Mr. Chairman, that seems a peculiar duty to us, because a great majority of the people in the civil service are just now learning the restraints and privileges of the civil service, and there is a duty upon us to lecture them at every opportunity so they may understand not only the restrictions under which they are serving, but the other duties which they have to perform. They may not do certain things, and they are obliged to do other things, and the more we lecture them as to what their rights and duties are the less friction we have in the service and the less cause for investigation. So we have always felt it a duty to go to these meetings of postmasters and customs officials and wherever there was a chance to speak in reference to civil service.
Gen. BLACK. Mr. Chairman, you limited my answer to you to the italicized part of that paragraph. That does not include the request for necessary traveling expenses.
Mr. JoHNSON. I understand that.
Gen. BLACK. If that is granted, as we ask—$17,000—then the $1,000 might be made a part of that sum.
DETAILS AND THra NSFERS.
Mr. Chairman, if you will turn to page 58 again and read the bracketed paragraph, I am informed by Mr. Courts that the occasion for bracketing that was an error of omission on the part of the commission when it sent in its estimates, that it did not estimate for those people, and therefore they are all bracketed to be left out. That would be a very crippling thing. The only change we want in there is the use of the word “fourteen * instead of the word “thirteen.” If you will be kind enough to make a certain note of that I will thank you.
Mr. JoHNSON. It is not necessary to add anything, I presume, to what you said last year in regard to the field examiners mentioned on page 59. I have your testimony here which you gave last year. Gen. BLACK. Yes. Mr. McILHENNY. Only the need is more urgent, Mr. Chairman. We had 15,000 fourth-class postmasters under our control last year, and now we have 50,000. Gen. BLACK. I ask leave, Mr. Chairman, to insert as an exhibit with my remarks a statement which has been prepared, and which I will hand to the stenographer, showing the way in which we appoint and choose these expert examiners under the lump-sum appropriation and what manner of men they are.
The appropriation bill of March 4, 1911, provided a small fund for the employment of expert examiners outside the Federal service, for the purpose of preparing and rating papers in examinations for high-grade technical and Scientific positions. In utilizing this fund it has been the aim of the commission to secure the services of the man generally recognized as the highest authority in any particular line in the United States. The commission has been fortunate in enlisting the services of a number of such men, although the compensation it is able to pay is, in many instances, much below what these men are able to command for similar services to outside concerns. Among these expert examiners may be mentioned the following:
Prof. William A. Noyes, in chemistry. Prof. Noyes was graduated with the degrees of bachelor of arts and bachelor of Sciences from Grinnell College in 1879 and received the degree of master of arts from the same institution in 1882. He took his doctor of philosophy degree from Johns Hopkins in 1882 and from Munich in 1889, and received the degree of doctor of laws from Clark University in 1909. He was assistant chemist at Grinnell from 1879 until 1880; instructor at the University of Minnesota, 1882 to 1883; professor, University of Tennessee, 1883 to 1886, and at Rose College from 1886 to 1903. He was chemist at the Bureau of Standards, Department of Commerce and Labor, from 1903 to 1907, since which date he has occupied the chair of professor of chemistry and director of the chemical laboratory of the University of Illinois. He received the Nichols medal in 1908. He is a member of the National Academy, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the Chemical Society, the Society of Chemical Industry, the Indiana Academy, and the Illinois Academy.
Prof. F. J. Pond in chemistry. Prof. Pond was graduated with the degree of B. S. from Pennsylvania State College in 1892, and received the degree of Ph. D. from Göttingen in 1896. He was instructor in assaying in Pennsylvania State College from 1896 to 1901, metallurgist from 1899 to 1901, assistant professor of assaying and chemistry at the same institution from 1901 to 1903, engineer in chemistry at Stevens Institute 1903 to 1909, and professor and director of the Morton laboratory of chemistry at the same institution from the latter date to the present time. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of the Chemical Society. Prof. Charles E. Munroe in chemistry. Prof. Monroe was graduated with a degree of bachelor of science from Harvard University in 1871, and received the degree of doctor of philosophy from George Washington University in 1894. He was assistant chemist at Harvard from 1871 to 1874, professor at the United States Naval Academy from 1874 to 1886, chemist United States Navy Torpedo Station and War College 1886 to 1892, and since the latter date has been professor of chemistry and dean of the faculty of graduate studies at George Washington University. He was a member of the United States Assay ComPoission, 1885, 1890, and 1893; a visitor of the United States Naval Academy, 1898; special agent in charge of chemical industries for the Twelfth Census in 1900; consulting chemist for the United States Geological Survey, 1901; collaborating chemist, United States Department of Agriculture, 1908 and 1909. He is a commandant of the Order of Medjidje from the Sultan of Turkey in 1901. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Chemical Society, of the Society of Chemical Industries, of the Philosophical Society, of the Naval Institute, an associate fellow of the American Academy, a member of the Washington Academy, the Washington Chemical Society, and the London Chemical Society. I)r. Arthur L. Day in physical chemistry. I)r. Day was graduated with the degree of A. D. from Yale University in 1892 and received the degree of Ph. D. from the same institution in 1894. He was instructor in physics at Yale from 1S94 to 1 S97, a momber of the scientific staff Phys. Tech., IReichsanstalt, Charlottenburg, 1897 to 1901, physical geologist, United States Geological Survey, 1901 to 1907, since which date he was been director of the geo-physical laboratory of the Carnegie Institution. He is a member of the Physical Society, the Chemical Society, the Washington Geological Society, the Washington Philosophical Society, the Washington Academy, Physik-Gesell, and the Soc. de Physique. Prof. George W. Cavanaugh in dairy chemistry. Prof. Cavanaugh was graduated with a B. S. degree in chemistry from Cornell University in 1896. Before graduation he was appointed assistant chemist in the Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, where he served until 1903. From 1903 until 1909 he was assistant professor of agricultural chemistry in Cornell University, and from 1909 until the present date he has been professor of agricultural chemistry in the same institution. Prof. C. F. Burgess in chemical engineering. Prof. Burgess was graduated with a degree of B. S. from the University of Wisconsin in 1905 and received the degree of electrical engineer from the same institution in 1898. He was instructor in electrical engineering in the University of Wisconsin 1895 to 1900, assistant professor from 1900 to 1904, associate professor 1904 to 1905, professor of applied electrochemistry 1905 to 1909, and professor of chemical engineering at the same institution from 1909 to the present date. He is a member of the Electrochemical Society, the Chemical Society, and the Society of Chemical Industries. Prof. Henry S. Munroe, in mining engineering. Prof. Munroe was graduated with a degree of bachelor of science from the Brooklyn Polytechnic in 1867, and received the degree of mining engineer from Columbia in 1869, the Ph. D. degree from the same institution in 1876, and the honorary degree of doctor of science from the same institution in 1904. He was assistant geologist, Ohio State Geological Society, 1870 to 1871; assistant chemist, United States Department of . Agriculture, 1871 to 1872; assistant geologist and mining engineer, Geological Survey, Yesso, Japan, 1872 to 1875; professor of geology and mining at the University of Tokyo, 1875 and 1876; adjunct professor of surveying and practical mining at Columbia University from 1877 to 1891, since which date he has been professor of mining at the same institution. He was dean of the faculty of applied science at Columbia University from 1897 to 1899. He is a member of the Mining Engineering Society and of the Mining and Metallurgical Society.