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Prof. C. F. Hirshfeld, in mechanical engineering. Prof. Hirshfeld was graduated from the University of California with the degree of bachelor of science in 1902 and received the degree of M. M. E. from Cornell University in 1905. He was instructor in experimental engineering at Cornell from 1903 to 1905; was assistant professor of power engineering at the same institution 1905 to 1909, and professor of power engineering from 1909 to the present date. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the Mechanical Engineering Society and the Electrical Engineering Society.
Prof. Thomas F. Hunt in agronomy. Prof. Hunt was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science from the University of Illinois in 1884, and received the degree of master of science from the same institution in 1894, and the honorary degree of doctor of agriculture from the same institution in 1904, and the honorary degree of doctor of science from Michigan Agricultural College in 1907. He was assistant to the Illinois State entomologist in 1885 and 1886, assistant agronomist, University of Illinois, 1886 to 1888, assistant agriculturist at the Illinois Experiment Station from 1888 to 1891, professor of agri. culture at Pennsylvania State College, 1891 to 1892; professor of agriculture at Ohio State University, 1892 to 1893, and dean of the College of Agriculture and Domestic Science in the same institution from 1896 to 1903; professor of agronomy and manager of the university farms at Cornell University, 1903 to 1907; director of the school of agriculture Pennsylvania State College, from 1907 to the present date. He is a member of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science.
Prof. L. P. Jones in plant pathology. Prof. Jones was graduated from Ripon College in 1886, and received the degree of bachelor of philosophy from Michigan in 1889, and doctor of philosophy from the same institution in 1904, and the honorary degree of doctor of science from the University of Vermont in 1910. He was instructor in natural science at Mount Morris Academy, Illinois, from 1887 to 1888, instructor in natural history at the University of Vermont from 1889 to 1890, assistant in botany at the same institution, 1893 to 1899. He was botanist in the Vermont Experiment Station from 1890 to 1909, and professor of plant pathology at the University of Wisconsin from 1909 to the present date. He was a special agent for the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, 1904. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the Botanical Society, the Phytopathological Society, the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, the Indiana Botanical Club, the Vermont Botanical Club, and the Vermont Forestry Association.
Prof. J. F. Duggar in horticulture. Prof. Duggar was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science from the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College in 1887, and received the master of science degree from the same institution in 1888. He studied at George Washington University from 1903 to 1904, and at Cornell during the summer of 1906. He was assistant agriculturist at the Texas College from 1887 to 1889; assistant director of the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station from 1890 to 1892; agricultural editor, United States Department of Agriculture, 1893 to 1895; and has been professor of agriculture at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute from 1896 to the present date; and director of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station from 1903 to the present date. He was editor of the Southern Live Stock Journal in 1889 and 1890, and is a member of the Society of Agronomists.
Prof. John C. Whitten in horticulture. Prof. Whitten was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science from the South Dakota College in 1892, and received the degree of master of science from the same institution in 1898. He studied at Cornell in 1892, in the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1893 and 1894, and received the degree of doctor of philosophy from Halle University in 1902. He was instructor in charge of horticulture at the South Dakota College, and horticulturist at the experiment station in 1892; assistant in the Missouri Botanical Garden, 1893 and 1894, and has been professor of horticulture at the University of Missouri, and horticulturist of the Missouri Experiment Station from 1895 to the present date. He is a member of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, the Pomological Society, the Missouri Horticultural Society, and the St. Louis Academy.
Prof. C. H. Eckles in dairy farming. Prof. Eckles was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science in agriculture from Iowa State University in 1895, and received the degree of master of science from the same institution in 1897. He studied at the University of Wisconsin in 1896; at Gottingen and Berne, 1904 and 1905. He was assistant dairy bacteriologist at Iowa State University,
1896 to 1901; assistant professor of dairy husbandry, University of Missouri, 1901 to 1906; and professor of dairy husbandry in the same institution from 1906 to the present date. He is a member of the National Association of Dairy Instructors and a fellow of the Iowa Academy. Prof. W. A. Stocking in dairy bacteriology. Prof. Stocking was graduated with a degree of bachelor of agriculture from Connecticut College in 1895 and received the degree of bachelor of science in agriculture from Cornell University in 1898 and the degree of master of science in agriculture from the same institution in 1904. He was instructor in agriculture at the State Normal School, Mansfield, Pa., 1898 and 1899, and at Connecticut College 1899 to 1903; assistant professor of agricultural bacteriology at the same institution 1903 to 1905, and professor from 1905 to 1906; assistant professor dairy bacteriology at Cornell University from 1906 to 1909, and professor of dairy industries at the Same institution from 1909 to the present date. He was an expert dairy bacteriologist in the United States Department of Agriculture in 1905. He is a member of the Society of Bacteriologists. Prof. E. H. Farrington in dary husbandry. Prof. Farrington was graduated with the degree of bachelor of science from the University of Montana in 1881 and received the degree of master of Science from the same institution in 1883. He also attended Yale University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, taking postgraduate work in chemistry. He was chemist at the Connecticut Agricultural College Experiment Station from 18S3 to 18S9; assistant in the Office of Experiment Stations, United States Department of Agriculture, in 1889; chemist at the University of Illinois, 1890 to 1894; and since 1894 has been professor of dairy husbandry at the University of Wisconsin. He is author of a book entitled “Testing Milk and its Products.” Prof. George F. Bowerman in library science. Prof. Bowerman was graduated with the degree of A. B. from the University of Rochester in 1892 and received the degree of bachelor of library science from the New York State Library School, 1895. He was reference librarian at the Reynolds Library at Rochester, 1895 and 1896; in the reference department of the New York State Library, 1897 and 1898; on the editorial staff of the New York Tribune from 1898 to 1900; the editorial staff of the New International Encyclopedia, 1900 to 1901; librarian Wilmington Institute Free Library, 1901 to 1904; and has been librarian of the public library of the District of Columbia from 1904 to the present date. He is a member of the Alpha Delta Phi, and the Library Society of Washington, the National Geographic Society, the American Economic Association, the Archiological Institute of America, the Washington Society of Fine Arts, and a member of the American Library Association. He was second vice president of the International Congress of Librarians at Brussels in 1910; president of the District of Columbia Library Association, 1906 and 1907; president of the library department of the Religious Education Association, 1905. He was a member of the Delaware State Library Commission from 1901 to 1904. He compiled a selected bibliography of the religious dominations of the United States and has been a contributor to professional library periodicals. Mr. A. W. Dean in highway engineering. Mr. Dean attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for three years, 18SS to 1891, taking a course in civil and scientific engineering. He was city engineer in Nashua, N. H., from 1895 to 1902; State engineer of New Hampshire, 1904 to 1909; and from 1910 to the present date has been clief engineer of the Massachusetts IIighway Commission. Prof. Stephen M. Babcock in the chemistry of forest products. Prof. Babcock was graduated with the degree of A. B. from Tuft's College in 1866 and received the degree of Ph. D. from Göttingen in 1879 and an honorary degree of LL. D. from Tuft's in 1901. He was instructor in chemistry at Cornell University from 1875 to 1877 and from 1881 to 1882; chemist at the agricultural experiment station, Geneva, N. Y., from 1882 to 18SS: professor of agricultural chemistry, University of Wisconsin, and chief chemist of the agricultural experiment sta: tion from 188S to the present date; and assistant director of the Agricultiral Experiment Station from 1899 to the present date. He was a member of the jury of awards for the Pan American Exposition, 1901; he received a bronze medal from the Wisconsin Legislature in 1899; grand prize at the Paris Exposition. 1900; St. Louis Exposition, 1904; and silver medal at Stockholm, 1908. He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Prof. R. McA. Keown in forest-products engineering. I’rof. Keown was graduated from the mechanical engineering course of New Hampshire College in 1901; from 1901 to 1903 he acted as draftsman and designer for a manufacturing company producing special printing machinery; from 1903 to 1905 he was an instructor in mechanical designing and machine designing at the University of Pennsylvania; from 1905 to 1908 he was an instructor in machine designing at the University of Wisconsin, and has been assistant professor in machine designing at the same institution from 1908 to the present date. From March, 1911, to the present date, in addition to his university duties, he has acted as assistant mechanical inspector on the joint engineering staff of the Wisconsin 1'ailroad and tax commissioners. Mr. Albert E. James in statistics. Mr. James received an A. B. degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1906, and the degrees of II. B. and A. M. from the same institution in 1908. Since 1907 he has been employed continuously as statistician for the Wisconsin State Tax Commission, and has supervised the general statistical work done by the commission and conducted various special Studies in connection with the commission's work. Dr. Walter E. Weyl in mine technology and economics. Dr. Weyl received the Ph. B. degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1892, and the degree of doctor of philosophy from the same institution in 1897; he was senior fellow of the University of Pennsylvania from 1897 to 1899, and has taken postgraduate work in economics at the University of Pennsylvania, Halle, Berlin, and Paris. He was appointed to conduct investigations for the United States Department of Labor in Europe in 1898, and in Mexico in 1901. He was Statistical expert on internal commerce for the Bureau of Statistics, United States Treasury; he assisted in the preparation of the miners' case in the coalStrike arbitration in 1903. He is a member of the American Economic Association and of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. He is the author of “Passenger Traffic of Railways,” 1901; “The New Democracy,” 1911; and of a number of bulletins issued by the United States Bureau of Labor.
MAILING OF DOCUMENTS.
Mr. JoHNSON. General, we had in the legislative bill last year a provision that public documents should be mailed from the Printing Office instead of from the various departments. Does that affect the Civil Service Commission ?
Gen. ISLACK. It is a sort of little thing. Our mailing is a trifle compared with the others.
Mr. JoHNSON. The documents you have to mail are small documents?
Gen. BLACK. Just a small amount, relatively.
Mr. JoHNSON. And you transferred it?
Gen. BLACK. Yes, sir; we sent word over to the superintendent to send out our stuff.
COMPENSATION OF EXPERTS.
Mr. WASHBURN. I would like to make a statement in connection with the increased appropriation, referring immediately to the experts. We pay a nominal amount to these experts, assuming that they are willing, in the interest of science and good government, to give their services, in a measure, free. We have a uniform rate of compensation of $10 a day. One or more of them, when we first started out, felt that more compensation should be allowed for this expert service and more commensurate with their compensation for such service outside the Government; but when we explained to them that it was pro bono publico, that we had a uniform rate of compensation, and that the commission did not feel like undertaking to discriminate as to the value of any man's expert services as compared with another's, they all assented to it, and we are getting the work done by the highest grade of men in the country at a nominal rate of compensation.
Now, the examining work of the commission is at present somewhat in arrears. The commission has endeavored to keep the current examination work up to date, and it is very important that this be done. If an examination is held now and the papers are not rated until four, six, or eight months hence, and the eligible register is not established until some time later, it means a tremendous loss of time and energy and a waste of money. The best men will have obtained employment elsewhere. They will have accepted positions in private life or will have moved away; so that the best results of the examination are attained by prompt rating of the papers and having them offered to the appointing officers at the earliest possible moment. In order to do that we should have an adequate force of examiners to keep the work of rating examination papers up to date all the time. My view of it is that when a good man takes the examination it is because at that time he is ready to accept a Government position. Four weeks or six weeks or certainly six months afterwards conditions may have entirely changed and he may no longer desire a position. So we want to get that good man while he is available. Do I make myself clear? Mr. JoHNSON. Yes, sir. You mean, of course, that when a good man stands the examination he is ready to take an appointment at that time, but if there is any great delay in the rating of his papers something may happen, so that when the papers are rated he may not o ready to accept a position or may have gone to work somewhere eISe. Mr. WASHBURN. Exactly; and some of them are dead. We have done work for nothing. I have made myself somewhat unpopular with the office force of the commission, possibly. I have heckled the chief examiner to get him to get these papers out. Last spring before vacation time came on I repeatedly asked him whether the rating of papers could be brought reasonably up to date by vacation time. Arrangements were made, as we thought, to have the work done before the shortage in the force occurred, which is during the summer season. But the fact was that we had 7,000 or 8,000 sets of papers hanging over all summer long from examinations held in May. There are some that are six months old now. By giving every attention to it we could, we have not been able to keep up to date. Mr. GILLETT. And these examiners do not do anything else at all? Mr. WASHBURN. That is all. Mr. GILLETT. Then, they are not diverted to some other work? Mr. WASHBURN. Some of them have to be taken out of the examining division and sent off on inspection work occasionally because we have not enough inspectors to do the work in that division.
FOURTH-CLASS POSTMASTERS. [See also p. 19.] Now, there is one thing more with reference to fourth-class post
masters. It is probable that the number of examinations required for these positions of fourth-class postmaster will increase more or less rapidly. I was told the other day by the post-office people that the parcel-post delivery law, when it goes into effect, will change the compensation of a great many fourth-class postmasters, increasing it from below $500 to more than $500. Then, we feel that, with the higher rate of compensation for postmasters, a better and more adeuate test of fitness should be given. That will involve more work . the commission, will it not, Mr. Chief Examiner? Mr. WALES. It will. Mr. WASHBURN. So that in doing the work more thoroughly and in examining more applicants for each office due to the increased pay, there will be a considerable increase in our work for each office. This, I think, ought to be taken into consideration in connection with the estimates as to the number of offices.
Mr. McILHENNY. I want you to speak relative to the increased pay we have asked for the district secretaries.
Mr. WASHBURN. That is a matter that is deserving of very careful consideration by the Appropriations Committee. Only the other day one of our high-grade district secretaries asked to be permitted to resign in order that he might accept a position with the New York State civil-service commission at a higher salary. When that man, who is fitted for the work, who has been trained in it as he has been, and who is doing good work, leaves the service, it means a distinct loss to the commission. Every year we have something like that happen. And then, further, the salaries that we now pay are really not appropriate salaries for the average man. We are paying some of them as low as $1,800 a year and some of them as low as $1,600 a Wear.
'. GILLETT. What is the highest salary?
Mr. WASHBURN. $2,400 a year. The salary in New York is $2,400 a year, in Boston it is $2,400 a year, and the next lower one is $2,200 per year. The next lower are three or four at $2,000, and then we have salaries of $1,800 and $1,600. Now, no district secretary who is fit for the place ought to receive less than $2,000 a year. If he is the right kind of a man for the place he ought to receive that much, and we ought to have salaries that would command the very best men that are available in the country for that work, because it is very important work. Fortunately, we have not had any serious embarrassment because of the lack of integrity or efficiency, but we would have more effective work and better results if every man were up to the highest standard.
Mr. McILHENNY. The development of the district system of the commission in the last three or four or five years has been one of the most valuable phases of this work to the Government at large. It has relieved the Government of a vast amount of inertia in the making of appointments, and it has saved many hundreds of thousands of dollars in cutting out the element of time and making appointments immediately instead of after long delay. It has brought the Civil Service Commission in touch with every local office throughout the United States instead of making it a question of pure theory in dealing with the central office here in Washington, and as this development has gone on we have thrust upon these district secretaries