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ster's Letter on his Career during the Compromise Era—Letter on Webster-Vir-
ginia Delegation nominate him for President at the Baltimore Convention-With-
draws his Name-The Reason-Refuses the Collectorship of New York-Retirement.

STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS, OF ILLINOIS..............

.Page 215

Public Interest felt in Senator Douglas's Views—His Life an Illustration of American

Influences–His Birth-An Orphan at Two Months old-Education at a Common

School-Apprenticed to a Cabinet-Maker-Bad Health-Study-At the Law-Starts

for the West—Stops in Winchester, Illinois-Clerk to an Auction-School-Teaching

and Law-Rapid Rise at the Bar-Attorney-General of Illinois-In the Legislature

-Register of the Land-Office-Quibbled out of Congress-Advocacy of Van Buren in

1840—Secretary of his State-Judge of the Supreme Court-Election to Congress-

Elevation to the United States Senate-Oregon Controversy—Texas—Mexican War-

Reasons for opposing the Mexican and Clayton-Bulwer Treaties-English Friendship

for America—Cuba-Action on the English Outrages of 1858--How to meet them-

Legislation respecting Territories—Opposes the Wilmot Proviso-Desires to extend

the Line of 36° 30to the Pacific—The Secret History of the Compromise Measures

of 1850—Mr. Clay adopts the Bills reported by Douglas-Change made by the Com-

mittee of Thirteen-Action of Senators Foote, Jefferson Davis, and Chase-The

Powers of Territorial Legislatures on Slavery—To have the same Authority over

Slavery as all other Questions of Internal Policy-Action of the Ultras North and

South City Council and Mobs of Chicago-Speech to them–Introduction of Kansas-

Nebraska Bill-Its Fundamental Principle--Great Speech in the Senate--Replies to

Seward, Sumner, and Wade—More Mobs in Chicago–The Kansas Bill in the Bucha-

nan Canvass—The famous Lecompton Debate—Senator Douglas opposes “Lecomp-

tonism"-Description of the Senate on the Occasion of his Speech against it-The

Illinois Coutest-Slave-Code in the Territories-Letter to Colonel Peyton-African

Slave-Trade-Continuous Narrative of his Course on the Naturalization Question

since 1839--His Arguments—Levin's Proposition-Contested-Election Case of Botts

and Jones, of Virginia–The First Speech against “Know-Nothingism”—The Koszta

Case discussed with European Statesmen-Recent Declarations-Paper in “Harper's

Magazine” on “ The Dividing Line between Federal and Local Authority” —Contro-

versy with Attorney-General Black-His Withdrawal at the Cincinnati Convention

in favor of Mr. Buchanan-Letter to J. B. Dorr on the Contingencies which may be

presented by the Charleston Platform-Resolution for the Protection of States and

Territories against Invasion.

EDWARD EVERETT, OF MASSACHUSETTS...

240

Alis Birth, Parentage, and Education-Latin Tutor at Cambridge-Succeeds Mr. Buck-

minster_Defence of Christianity,” in reply to “The Grounds of Christianity Ex-

amined”-Accepts the Eliot Professorship and starts for Europe- Travels in England,

France, Holland, Prussia, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Austria, &c.— Returns

and edits the “North American Review”-Defends America against the Vilification

of English Writers—Compliment to him by Thomas Campbell in the “New Monthly

Magazine”—Judge Story on his Sermon in the Capitol-Literature and Ancient Art

-The Cause of the Greeks-Speech and Welcome to La Fayette at Cambridge-

Elected to Congress-Service on Important Committees—Opposes Jackson's Indian

Policy-Madison addresses his Paper on Nullification to him--French Controversy

of 1834–Elected Governor-Prosperity of the State under his Care-Defeated by

Judge Morton-Travels in Europe-Appointed to succeed Minister Stevenson at the

Court of St. James-His Fitness for the Post-Difficulties of the Position at the

Period-Changes of Administration here and there-Business transacted by him-

Effects the Release of American Prisoners in Van Diemen's Land-Ionors conferred

by the Universities of Dublin, Cambridge, and Oxford-President of Harvard-Secre-

tary of State in Fillmore's Cabinet-Splendid Reply to France and England on

the Proposition to make a Treaty relating to Cuba-Argues for an American Policy

for America - In the United States Senate-Central American Affairs--Presents

Massachusetts Memorial signed by Three Thousand Clergymen against the Kansas
Bill-Leaves the Senate through Ill Health-Tour in the South-Eulogy of Webstor
-Lecture on Washivgton and Writings in behalf of the Mount Vernon Fund-
Large Amount produced by his Patriotic Exertions.

273

His Birth and Parentage Designed for the Church-Teaching and Surveying—Teacher

of Mathematics in the Navy-Engineer op Railroads-Surveying in the Mountains

of Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee Accompanies Nicollet to the Upper Mis-

sissippi-Appointed a Lieutenant in the Topographical Engineers—Explores the River

Des Moines-Marries Jessie Benton—T. H. Benton and Frémont-First Expedition

to the Rocky Mountains, in 1842—Incidents—Kit Carson's Will causes a Panic-At

La Platte-Saves Kit Carson's Life-Plants the Stars and Stripes on Frémont's Peak

--Second Expedition, in 1843-Hardships and Sufferings-Results of the Expedition

-Brevetted Captain-Third Expedition, in 1845—Crosses the Great Basin and reaches

California-Secretary Marcy's Report of Frémont's Movements consequent upon the

Difficulties with Mexico-Conquest of California-Insurrection--Frémont surprises

San Luis Obispo—Pico, the Insurgent Leader, condemned to Death-Spared by Fré-

mont-Capitulation of Cowenga—Commodore Stockton appoints Frémont Governor

-Difficulties with General Kearney-Kearney Governor-Reception of Frémont in

St. Louis-Charleston presents him with a Sword— Tried at Washington on Charges

preferred by Kearney-Found Guilty-Penalty remitted-Resigns his Commission-

Benton and Frémont on the Slavery Issue—Disastrous Expedition to explore a

Route by the Cochatopee Pass-Purchase of the Mariposas Tract-Chosen First

United States Senator from California-In Congress—The Mariposas Grant in the

Courts–Offered a Million for his Title--Reception in Europe-Survey Expedition in

the Winter of 1853-54–Nominated for President by the Republican National Conven-

tion—The Platform of 1856 Defeated—Horace Greeley's Account of Frémont at

Home.

JAMES GUTHRIE, OF KENTUCKY.

290

Birth and Parentage-Flat-Boating to New Orleans--Studies Law with Judge Rowan

-His Manner of Study-Admitted to the Bar-Removes to Louisville in 1820-Suc-

cess Prosecuting Attorney-Illustration of his Firmness-Causes of his Success at

the Bar-Difficulty with Mr. Hayes Guthrie severely Wounded-Kentucky Politics

at that Period—“ Old Court” and “ New Court”-Guthrie a Jackson Democrat-In

the Legislature and State Senate-President of the Constitutional Convention-Logo

Rolling Feat in his Election-Contest with Frank Johnson-Guthrie and the Bullies—

Acts as a Posse Comitatus-Guthrie's Advocacy of the 'Internal Improvements of

Kentucky-Railroads and Financiering—Circumstances attending his Appointment

to the Treasury-In President Pierce's Cabinet—The Era of the Galphin and Gara-

per Claims-Dismissal of Secret Inspectors—Management of the National Finances

-$40,000,000 Debts paid, and $20,000,000 Balance in the Treasury when his Term

expired-Reforms perfected in the Department-The Secretary and Greene C. Bronson,
Collector of New York-The 'Treasury Bureaus, and their Management-The Sub-
Treasury Act-Reply to Remonstrances against it-Senate Committee on Retrench-
ment—The Secretary's Reply to Senator Adams-Cushing's Anecdote of Guthrie in
Cabinet Meeting—No Politician.

JAMES H. HAMMOND, OF SOUTH CAROLINA.................. Page 304

Birth and Parentage-Careful Education-Admitted to the Bar-Editor of the

“Southern Times,” Columbia-Ably supports the Nullification of the Tariff Policy

of 1828—Retires to a Plantation on the Savannah-Elected to Congress--On the

Reception of Abolition Petitions by Congress-Hammond's Effective Opposition-Ill

Health - Travels in Europe-Return-General of Brigade-Elected Governor-Mes-

sages Famous Letters on Domestic Slavery, in reply to Thomas Clarkson, the Eng-

lish Philanthropist–Letters of Dr. England, Bishop of Charleston, to Hon. John

Forsyth, on Catholic Theology and Slavery-Haminond's Positions to Clarkson-

Armies and Free Labor in Europe-Harriet Martineau's Scandalous Stories—Slave-

holders not Irresponsible or Cruel-Their Interest to treat Slaves well—How " Fel-

low-Citizens” are treated in England-Extracts from the Parliamentary Commis-

sioners' Report—State of Men, Women, and Infants in the Mines and Factories of

England-Governor Hammond retires–Address—Oration on Calhoun-Elected to

the United States Sepate in 1857—Speech in the “Lecompton” Debate of 1858-Sup-

ports that Instrument-Reply to Senators Douglas and Seward-King Cotton-

Northern Slaves and Southern Slaves-On the Death of Senator Evans-On the Bri-

tish Aggressions—No Alarmist-Speech at Barnwell Court-House-Full View's on

Kansas Questions—The South should have kicked Lecompton out of Congress-

Change of Views touching Disunion and the Slave-Trade-On South Carolina and

Maesachusetts-Mitchel on Hammond.

-His Political Position under the Administration of Van Buren-Elected Speaker
of the Twenty-Sixth Congress—The Whigs in Congress repeal the Independent Trea-
sury Act—Mr. Hunter's Speech against the Loan Bill—Denounces the National Bank
Project and the Distribution Bill-Defends the Veto of the Temporary Tariff Bill,
and opposes the Tariff Bill of 1842—Is defeated at the Election for Member of the
Twenty-Eighth Congress-Re-elected to Congress in 1845–The Oregon Boundary
Question-Mr. Hunter advocates a Compromise-Renewal of the Slavery Agitation
-The Wilmot Proviso-Mr. Hunter is chosen a Senator of the United States-Is
placed on the Committee of Finance —Opposes the Resolutions offered by Senator
Cass, December 24, 1849, to suspend Diplomatic Relatiops with Austria-His Ideas
on the Territorial Question-Chairman of Finance Committee-Invitation to a Puli
lic Dinner in New York City-Re-elected to the Senate-Opposes the Bill for the
Protection of the Emigrant-Route and Establishment of Telegraph-Line and Mail-
Route between California and Oregon-His Views on the Kansas-Nebraska Bill-
Speech against “Know-Nothingisın”-Advocates the Admission of Kansas under the
Lecompton Constitution-His Argument on the Subject of Tariff-Revision-Elected
to the Senate for the Third Time-His Literary Powers-His Personal Appearance.

ANDREW JOHNSON, OF TENNESSEE...

Page 347

Birth and Parentage-Is left an Orphan at the Age of Five Years-Apprenticed to a

Tailor in Raleigh-His Adventures at Lawrence Court-House-Goes to Greenville,

Tennessee-His Marriage-Receives the Rudiments of Education from his Wife

Becomes the Mouthpiece of the Working-Classes of Greenville-Is elected to the

Office of Alderman-Chosen a Member of the State Legislature-Canvasses East

Tennessee for the Democrats in the Presidential Campaign of 1840—Elected to the

State Senate-Nominated and elected Representative to Congress—Opposes the

Tariff of 1842- Advocates the Annexation of Texas-Defence of General Jackson's

Character-Reply to Mr. Clingman's Assertion that the Foreign Catholics, as a

Body, supported the Democratic Candidates in the Presidential Contest of 1844–

Texas and the Cotton-Culture-His Course in the Twenty-Ninth Congress-On the

Oregon Question, he sustains President Polk's Adjustment-Denounces the Tax on

Tea and Coffee-Introduces a Bill taxing Capital-Re-elected to Congress in 1847–

Argument in favor of the Veto Power-Defends the Mexican-War Policy-Elected

Governor of Tennessee in 1853, and again in 1855-Chosen United States Senator-

Speech at Murfreesborough against “Know-Nothingism”—Denunciation of Proscrip-

tion for Religious Opinions-His Course in the Thirty-Fifth Congress--Introduces a

Resolution of Scrutiny into the Expenses of the Government-Opposes the Pacific

Railroad Measure-His Position on the Slavery Question-Speech on the Harper's

Ferry Resolution of Senator Mason-Mr. Johnson's Character, as succinctly sketched

by an Intimate Friend.

Fight at Atlixco-Battle of Tlascala-Surprise of Matamoras Reports himself to the
Commanding General at Mexico-Expedition against Zenobia—Marches into Orizaba
-Takes Cordova-Defeats Colonel Falcon-Pursuit of Jarauta--Battle of Tehualta-
plan-Returns to Indiana at the Close of the War-Appointed Governor of Oregon-
Parts with his Guide, and pilots his Party to Santa Cruz-Arrival in Oregon City-
Chastises the Indians, and secures a Lasting Peace with them-Is elected Delegate
from Oregon Territory to Congress—His Course as Delegate-Enunciation of his
Principles-Oregon admitted as a State-He is named for the Presidency by the In.
dianapolis Convention for revising the State Constitution-Governor Wright's Review
of Lane's Career-Extract from a Communication by John Dowling, Esq.

JOHN MCLEAN, OF OHIO..........

...Page 373

Parentage-Removal of the Family from New Jersey to the West-Limited Resources

of the Family-Early Education-His Independent Spirit-Obtains Employment in

the Clerk's Office of Hamilton County-Studies Law under Arthur St. Clair-Mar-

riage-Is admitted to the Bar and commences Practice at Lebanon, Warren County,

-Is elected, in 1812, to Congress from Cincinnati-Identification with the Demu-

cratic Party–His Impartiality and Integrity as a Legislator-Measures originated

and supported by him during the Session at which he entered Congress-Re-elected,

in 1814, by a Unanimous Vote-Is placed on the Committees of Foreign Relations

and Public Lands-In 1816, is elected to the Supreme Bench of Ohio, and resigns his

Seat in Congress—Appointed Commissioner of the Land-Office by President Monroe

-In 1823, is made Postmaster-General-His Success in performing the Duties of

the Office-His Salary raised from four to Six Thousand Dollars--Reniarks of Ran-

dolph and C.J. Ingersoll — Appointed by President Jackson to a Seat on the Supreme

Bench of the United States-Account of the Circumstances leading to his Appoint-

ment-Senator Benjamin's Estimate of the Character of Judges of the Supreme

Court-Decision of Judge McLean in regard to aiding Combinations of our Citizens

against Friendly Powers—Death of his Wife in 1810-Marries again in 1843—Opinion

on the Question as to the Abolition of Slavery-His Doctrine regarding the Jurisdic-

tion of Congress over the Territories—The Dred Scott CaseJudge McLean's Dissent

from the Decision of the Court as given by Chief-Justice Taney--Extract from his

Argument in the Case-Degrees conferred on him by various Universities and Colle-

giate Institutions.

JAMES L. ORR, OF SOUTH CAROLINA ..........

383

Birth and Ancestry-Education--Studies Law–His Diligence and Proficiency—Is

admitted to the Bar-Establishes the “ Anderson Gazette"--Elected to the State

Legislature-Advocacy of Popular Rights—In 1848, elected to the National House

of Representatives--Denounces the Agitation of the Slavery Question-Opposes the

Compromise Measures of 1850—Secession Party in South Carolina—Mr. Orr arrays

himself against it-Attends, as Delegate from Anderson, the Convention of tho

Southern-Rights Association--His Speech published by Committee of the Co-Opera-

tion Party-Is elected to Congress over the Secession Candidate-Services on the

House Committee on Public Lands—Supports the Action of the Baltimore Demo-

cratic Convention-Chairman of Committee of the Whole upon the Civil and Diplo-

matic Appropriation Bill-Bill to domesticate the Semi-Civilized Indians-Addresses

the Democracy in Philadelphia in 185+The “Know-Nothings"--Mr. Orr's Views on

the, Kansas-Nebraska Bill-Squatter Sovereignty-Opposes the French Spoliation

Claims—Is a Candidate for the Speakership-Letter to Hon. C. W. Dudley-Appeal

to South Carolina to send Delegates to the Democratic National Convention-Nomi-

nated for Speaker of the Thirty-Fifth Congress, and elected— Responsibility of the

Speaker's Position-Closing Scenes of the First Session of the Thirty-Fifth Congress

-Retires from Public Life-Speech at Craytonville-Opposes the Reopening of the

Slave-Trade-IIis Character as a Lawyer–Orations and Addresses.

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