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The Times of Daniel, Chronological and the difficulties which beset his under

Prophetical. By George Duke of taking.
Manchester. 8vo. pp. xxviii. 492. "My doubts (be observes) begin at that

THERE are few things more per point of ancient history which all others plexing than having to give an opinion have considered as established. But that upon a new theory, whether scientific, the common method of reconciling scriparchæological, or historical. To decide tural and profane history should be sup. against it may be most unjust, while, posed satisfactory, can be attributed, I on the other hand, to pronounce deli: think, only to its having been so long sufberately in its favour may be hazardous. fered, in a kind of misty indistinctness, to • In such cases the duty of reviewers is settle upon and corrode the mind." (Preto ascertain whether the work exhibits

face, pp. xv. xvi.) such signs of diligence and accuracy as He considers that violent wrestings to entitle it to a patient consideration, of scripture have been acquiesced in, till time shall have further tested its “because we are familiarised with the merits.

sacred text, or that, despairing of any Another difficulty in the way of de- thing more rational, we sink into inciding is, the different position of the difference. . ... According to the author and his censors. He stands on received view, scripture is made to ground that is known to himself, while contradict Herodotus, Xenophon, Bethey, perhaps, have it all to survey. rossus, Megasthenes, and even the He knows in what degree his researches scripture itself.” (p. xxviii.) Several have led to his conclusions, and whe- examples of this confusion are given ther the result was inevitable or op in the preface, and the principle is aptional. But they have to examine an plied to our own history; showing that array of inferences and citations which if we assume the Coresch of the Heare new to them in part at least, and brew text to be Cyrus, Darius the which they have never viewed in that Mede to be Cyaxares, Ahasuerus connection. So that it is not surpris- Cambyses, and Artaxerxes Sinerdis, ing, if his arguments are lost upon we may be brought to believe that them at first, and only prevail, after James II. and William III. are idenencountering doubt and opposition. tical, that the reign of Anne is mis

We think it fortunate therefore for placed, and that the king George, in ourselves that the nature of this work whose reign sovereigns were coined, is not quite foreign to us. The title was the first of the name. describes “ The Times of Daniel,” as We are well aware with what dis“examined with reference to the point taste this reasoning will be received by of contact between sacred and profane many, and that with others it will chronology." The possibility of recon- gain no higher credit than as a series ciling the Greek and Persian accounts of ancient “ historic doubts." Those, of history has long since engaged our however, who have felt the difficulties attention; and the points of resem- which attach to the subject will be blance are just sufficient to attract a thankful for this attempt to clear them sanguine mind, yet so few as to deter up; and for our part, we are fully a doubtful one. To these must be persuaded that history is a gainer by it. added a third element of union, or of The following passage well exemdisunion, as it may prove, namely, the plifies the unsatisfactory nature of the scriptural notices of Babylonian and received accounts :Persian history. The object of this w

"Herodotus tells us that before the

orn work is to prove, how far they are

overthrow of Amosis * by Cambyses Egypt m tact, to reconcile had enjoyed the greatest prosperity for them. The noble author is fully aware of

* Sic, passim. GENT. Mag. VOL. XXIX.

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in a pies of be East" 141.)

is viimed tre porte de soarent At Klapa titiktina. 221;

3 . T ibe late morate Axm yetari greit in resursi

Jiunii was cai Seza

Z or the at , I, to psy tax 1.2 prane se

kiri: son, darng the lifetime of his Vity, w ho is iod od 1 Our farer Azruire llard Shah Alam. Ime.a, 14$ say thos, saya. af 12 or fire of the world, after his own Lontoo that w hio in Italiaanse axestion: While tbe ucdiscerning We may amfirta surve in what is

au.hor of Rctinson's Modern History Ial, Pabai than errut the confu

antounded the two titles and called kim, The most authese props, on him Shah Allum Zadar, a name quite the untrary, to raard scripture as the destitute of meaning. Such mistakes brazit in whish a wisud systems should

may have been inade even by Greeks,

mach t erous, and no wlapit prolane his. in treating of foreign history. Very u, th r es Pferd. (p. 2.)

Further it is argued, that this mo. Anarration of the subject of narch is Cambuses; for in prophecy chrony, in which he is neces.

the conquest of Egypt is attributed to marily lol, may be qwted here, as ex Nebuchadnezzar, and in history to bubbing the spirit of the whole work.


him. The minor circumstances are

The m # What I w ance is with the greatest confirmatory, rather than contradilbabwe, thnagh I say not be supa distory

be sup- dictory; for instance, the destruction Jual les chow suihicient deference to

of Egyptian deities in Jeremiah xlvi. Perived opinion." (p. 165.) It sustile author considers that the

25, agrees with that in Herodotus iii.

29. The same character of rage and original land of the Chaldaeans was be

cruelty, and sudden madness, is pertween the Black and Caspian Seas ;

ceptible in them both. (p. 140.) . that a colony, probably of the priests'

In conformity with this theory, it is camte, Wiss planted at Babylon by the Amyrian; that Nalxspalassar (Nebu.

supposed that the Cyrus of Herodotus

was Nebuchadnezzar the first. The chwinezzar the first) with his Chaldaan army, suddenly revolted from

noble author considers that Herodotus,

in his account of the death of Cyrus, Annyria, 1931 acized upon Babylon

has mixed together events occurring whurtly before the Jewish captivity.

10z) With leeren and Volney is preferable in this particular. (PP. he identifies Sardanapalus with Esar.

184, 262.)* balion, or the Nubopalassar of the Canon, a dillerent personage from the

* The author of the interesting work one just mentioned.

on " Historical Parallels" (i, 81) con11e is inclined to identify Jemsheed,

siders that “careless or unfaithful an. soceebrated in native Oriental history,

nalists" bave mixed up the histories of with Nebuchadnezzar the second, and

Cyrus and Nebuchadnezzar, and that the the correspondence is striking, for it burning of Cræsus, and that of the three is related of each, that he “ raises Hebrew youths, is the same event.--REV, Darius the Mede (Daniel, v. 31,) is Greeks,) along with that of other identified with Darius Hystaspes, be- writers, is adduced at p. 191, in an cause each took Babylon, and esta- appendix, on the authenticity of Heblished a system of taxation, (Herod. rodotus. Perhaps it would have had iii. 89, Daniel, vi. 2.) a resemblance still greater weight, if it had been which is supported by several subor- cited in the introductory portion of dinate arguments. The Ahasuerus of the work. the Book of Esther is supposed to be What has been said is sufficient, we Xerxes, and if the reasons are not ir- conceive, to stimulate the reader who refragable, they are sufficient as links is interested in these topics; while for in a chain. The Coresch of Scripture others it would be superfluous to (translated Cyrus) is held to be, not make any further analysis. There are “the great king," as the sovereigns of some remaining points of importance Persia styled themselves, but a ruler on which we shall briefly touch. over one of the portions of the great The noble author considers that Iranian empire, under Artaxerxes there are two distinct periods of Longimanus. According to the Persian seventy years in the prophecies, conwriters, he was of royal extraction, nected with the humiliation of Judah, and his mother was a Jewess. (p. 159.) viz. the captivity, commencing with The objections against this scheme are Jeconiah, and the desolation, beginning treated in the appendices to chap. viii., at the end of Zedekiah's reign. This the former of which throws some light opinion is supported by reference to on the feudal system of the East.* The Eusebius and Theodoret, and of later French historian of India, M. de writers, to Pellican and Ecolampadius. Marlés, had a notion of this idea, but (p. 47.) He is inclined to think that he has carried it too far : “ Au reste, Josephus tampered with the true hisni les Grecs ni les Juifs n'ont eu des tory, concerning the taxing by Cyrelations qu'avec les petits princes renius, and that it really took place feudataires qui gouvernaient les pro- under Herod the Great. (p. 326–335.) vinces limitrophes avec la Grèce, et He argues that the celebrated passage leurs connaissances sur l'empire même in Josephus, respecting our Lord, is de la Perse furent toujours très genuine, but that it is placed near the bornées et très-imparfaites." (Hist. account of the deception perpetrated de l'Inde, i. 376.) He seems to have in the temple of Isis at Rome, which forgotten the conquest of the Persian is unconnected with the history itself, empire by Alexander the Great. in order to throw discredit on the In

The uncertainty of Herodotus as an carnation. (p. 341.) The concluding historian of Egyptian and Persian dissertation is on the seventy weeks ; transactions, is apparent from his ac- the view is, that they are a period count of the marriage of Cambyses. taken out of the Jewish bondage and He says, that Amosis provoked that captivity under the Gentiles, during monarch by passing off the daughter which the holy city and commonof Apries, whom he had deposed forty wealth in some measure shall be reyears before, as his own. (p. 185.) At stored, and so continue till seventy such an age, this imposture could not weeks or years be finished.” (p. 404.) have been practised. The testimony The week and the half-week are reof Strabo to the uncertainty of ancient garded, not as portions of the seventy, Persian history, (i. e. as given by the but subsequent; the seventy ending in

A.D. 67; the half-week at the cessation * Sir William Jones, speaking of of the daily sacrifice, in 70; and the Cyrus the Great, observes, * Whatever week in 73, when the Jewish war was our chronologers say, it is not easy to closed by the recapture of Masada. conceive that the Jews were delivered The terın “ everlasting righteousness" by this Cyrus. . . . Our historians, per

is well explained by " the eternal and haps, deceived by the name Cyrus, which

efficacious blessing of the sacrifice of the Greeks gave both to Khosru and to

Messiah," as contrasted with “ the Coresh, have fixed the return of the Jews much earlier than the truth.” (Works,

shadowy and transient benefit of the iii. 106.) We well remember the start

ceremonial righteousness.” (p. 408.) ling effect produced on our own mind

Such are the principal points of this many years ago by this passage.

comprehensive and interesting volume. It has set to stand the test of isazisi bad some cruelty or other to be tire crc:n, and it in:eriere : perpetrasei sist him." to ran terrei opinios. Si is. P. 69. On the pian proiected for vourite systems to empt thai criti. eamming bing Janne in Ireland we ci nousi airats beiriaciv. Many reaio: its poetr.3, bowever. ! be easer "A rarrant bas been found amongst

itban en. I astiane Herbert Euro Trington's paress, writ. frean erorter (Professor Eritten bruseboat br Qesen Hart's great of Zurich), as we have learne, con- cogidasi, tõe Earl of Nottingham, and sirs it a valuaje priuction, and signed by the hand of Inng kaluan, . eves 1 discovery in chronology, and as thonising the same Ajairal Torrington, such. has undertaken a German trans. boşlated W.33's Dutch ears through 12: ot it. In the dars, wbeu the tbe Dorms to Torbay the rear before, to Esc!sh aristocracy have had so many seize the person of James the Second, and attacks to repel. such a volume is Liq'sis creavie. as coming irom one

or itals, tat to tbe states of Hollaod, to

be disposed of as they should think pro. of their order. We Dotice some minor orersights,

per." "The mercies of the Dutch," says

19 oreros, the author, *to the admiral prince, who which admit of ea v Correction. At had cueled their flag in so many tremen. 05. 40. 465. Sir John Malcolm is doos conflicts, were not likely to be very calient Sr Wuliam and Sir James; attender." p. 277 we have Baily for Bully; at n. 171. Barthélamy; Prasaspes at p.

P. 149. Is a singular statement re179; and Ecolampadius tor (Frolam

· gariing impressment. padius at p. 47.

* Among the Somers Tracts in the

British Museam there is a complaint that Liter of the Queens of England. By

the government, in 1690, not content with ime Strickland. Tol. XI.

instituting a sharp press of men for both THE present volume contains part

arms and nary, actually forced women

into the serrice of the camp, and into the of the life of Queen Mary and that of

naty, at the rate of ten for etery ship of her sister Queen Anne. The narra

war, as nurses, sempstresses, and laun. tive is copious and circumstantial, and

dresies. The

The atrocities to wbich such a the history in enriched by many com systere naturally gave rise need no comII:unications from inanuscript sources, ment, but lead at least to the conclusion, private and public; but the character that if the Dutch prince was a liberator, of the two roval sisters bas not gained it was not over every class of the British by the publication of truth.

people that his blessings were diffused." P. 19. How strangely afflicting is P. 300. The following is a curious the following narratire. When Wile

story. A Quakeress called Pack was liam and Mary were to be crowned,

wet nurse to Queen Anne when the King James wrote from Ireland a leta

et Duke of Gloucester was born. She ter denouncint the curses of an out. was an intriguante and tale-bearer. raxel futher upon her, &c. King William entered into a vindication of

"The queen at last gare Mrs. Pack's bimsoli froin having bs harsh authority

husband a place in the Custom House. enforced the course of conduct which

The Quakeress nurse, finding that ber

practices were suspected, requested to rehad brought on his wife her father's

rs tire, under the plea of ill health. The toalerliction ; and declared, “he had princess complied, and gave her an an. done nothing but by her advice and nuity of 401. per annum. Scarcely bad with her approbation.” “It was," says the nurse retired from the healthy air of Miss Strickland, on this memorable Kensington to Deptford than she caught occasion that, irritated by the ill news the small pox. Whilst she remained ill of her father's formidable position, the the Duke of Gloucester sent every day to queen recriminated, • That if her fa hear how she was. No one among her

fellow-serrants in Campden House bud an thr regained his authority, her bus.

idea of her danger, One morning the bind might thank himselt for letting

Duke of Gloucester was asked, . Whether him go, as he did."" These words

he should send as usual to know how his were repeated to James the Second, nurse was.' No,' he said, "for she 15 Who from that hour believed, to use dead.' Ilow do you know, Sir: asked his own words, “That his daughter his attendant. That is no matter,' re. plied the young duke, but I am sure she nologically) as relates to the floral is dead.' Mrs. Wanley, one of his wo. kingdom, or, in the editor's words, it men, observed, “That the young duke had is intended, to be “A History of the told her yesterday that he knew Pack Poetry of Flowers." The list of poets would die next day. The child was right;

ti from whose writings quotations are

from his nurse actually died about the time that the discussion took place. This coinci. given extends from Chaucer to Burns, dence occasioned no little consternation in

ned no little consternation in including every name of eminence, and the household, for they said it was physi.

many that are known only to those who cally impossible that the child, or any one have made our native poetry their else, could have been assured of the fact study and delight. We could, perby natural means. The young duke was haps, enlarge the list by a few additaken to visit his aunt, Queen Mary, the tional names, though we do not know next day. Perhaps ber Majesty had heard whether with any advantage to the this marvellous tale, for she led the way work; but the first division, from 1380 to i

he was sorry

to 1570, is far too brief in our opinion. hear that his nurse was dead?' The child

We should have made extracts from replied, “No, Madam ;' and this most un. satisfactory reply was all that the queen

Lydgate, of whom we think there are could elicit from her little nephew on the

none, and from Gascoigne, and from subject," &c.

Gower, gathering as much of old metal

into our treasury as we possibly could; P. 433. We must finish our extracts

and Sylvester, Daniel, and Lodge by an amusing one.

should have been drawn upon in the “Bishop Burnet fancied that the ladies second division. In the third division of the Princess Anne's establishment did we should have carefully had Chambernot look at him while preaching his 'thun

layne, Sherburne, and Cotton, and redering long sermons,' as Queen Mary called

duced the proportion allowed to the

di them. Nay, Bishop Burnet suspected that

modern poets from the time of Pope, the ladies preferred looking at any other

as more familiar to the public. Howperson. He therefore, after much remon. strance on this impropriety, prevailed on ever, we must say that in general the the Princess Anne to order all the pews in

editor has shewn both diligence and St. James's Chapel to be raised so high taste in his selections, some of which that the fair delinquents could see nothing are new to us, and some we were de. but himself, when he was in the pulpit. lighted to have recalled to our memory, The princess could not help laughing at like long-forgotten airs. On the Harethe complaint; but she complied when bell we find the following useful reBurnet represented that the interests of marks :- A doubt hangs over the the Church were in danger. All traces of poetical history of the modern as well tbese high barracaded pews have long dis.

- as of the ancient flower, owing to appeared from the royal chapel ; but the whim of Bishop Burnet was imitated in

the appellation Harebell' being inmany churches, which had not been pewed discriminately applied both to Scilla until tbat era, and are at this hour to be (Wild Hyacinth) and also to Campa. seen in remote country parishes. As for nula Rotundifolia (Blue Bell). Though the damsels for whose edification they southern bards have occasionally miswere first devised, they were transported applied the word Harebell' it will with the utmost indignation, which was facilitate our understanding which only surpassed by the cavaliers of the flower is meant if we bear in mind as court and household of the princess."

a general rule that that name is apA satirical ballad on this subject is plied differently in various parts of given by Miss Strickland from the the island. Thus the Harebell of Lansdowne Papers, 825. (Oxford, MS. Scotland is the Campanula, and the collection of Tory and Jacobite verses.) Blue Bell, so celebrated in Scottish

song, is the Scilla or Wild Hyacinth, The Poet's Pleasaunce. By Eden while in England the same names are Warwick. 4to.

used conversely, the Campanula being A VERY pleasing publication, both the Blue Bell, and the Wild Hyacinth in its form and matter, and doing credit the Harebell.” at once to the poetical editor and pic. As regards what the editor says, torial illustrator. The purpose of the under the article Woodbine, of Shakwork is to give such extracts from the spere's use of the word, we are, after whole series of the British poets (chro- much consideration of the subject, in

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