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On her part, Ecuador, in the treaty concluded with Colombia on November 5, 1904, under which the question of frontiers pending between both Republics was submitted to the arbitration of His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, stated that “the territory of the eastern region, from the course of the river Napo to that of the Caquetá or Yapurá was not included in the arbitration to be submitted by Ecuador and Peru to His Majesty the King of Spain." As is known the difficulties which arose from this decision depend principally upon the absence of an agreement between the interested parties upon the matter submitted to arbitration, the respective engagements not being defined with precision.
Although Colombia sustains her rights on one and the other bank of the Putumayo as far as the Amazon, always animated by the desire of finding a solution of the frontier difficulties with her neighbors, she signed conventions with Peru in 1905 regarding modus vivendi, according to which a provisional zone of occupation in the region of the Putumayo was established, the territory lying to the north or the left bank of the said river appertaining to Colombia. Although these conventions have not been fully developed, they show that no decision can be taken to define the frontiers in this territory omitting or not considering the rights of Colombia.
The foregoing considerations justify the opinion stated by me at the beginning of this note, and I beg you to be good enough to bring it to the knowledge of your Government in order that it (the Government) may appreciate with all exactness the inefficiency of an arbitration or other agreement which does not embrance in its totality the problem of frontiers which was argued before the King of Spain in an incomplete form, since Colombia would see herself obliged to make a reservation of her rights and to continue in defense of them until an equitable and frank agreement with her neighbors could be reached, assuring to all the benefits of a sincere and stable peace. I am, etc.,
ENRIQUE OLAYA HERRERA.
File No. 722.2315/564a.
The Secretary of State to the Brazilian Embassy."
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, April 8, 1911. The Government of Ecuador having declined the counsel of the mediating powers that the Peru-Ecuador boundary dispute be referred for decision to The Hague, the Governments of Argentina and Brazil doubtless feel, as does the Government of the United States, the necessity of taking some further steps contributory to a final solution of the boundary differences existing, consulting, so far as possible, the respective desires of the Governments of Ecuador and Peru. This necessity has become the more apparent because of the unsettled conditions in the territories in dispute which have 153 giren rise to incidents och as that in the rientref Chiens and Pocitos and fears of pable a ssor as to which beca (orernments Eare reset de repentances to the matating p ers Regarding this sedert the Gore.tment of the United States desires to know the orinion of the natiating powers as to whether it would not be rel. in new of the foregurg, to Deonter to the Curernmects of Ecuador ard Peru that ther espress their mutual regnet at this unfort rate Ourrence, takrg immediate steps to bring to justice the intriduais response for the disturbance and prowl. ing without de ar to adjudicate and par sath material damages as shall be found to hare been indicred can their respective citizens learing the amount of such damages to be determined br arbitration in case diñcuity is found in reaching an agreement as to such amount.
1 Same to the Argentine legation, and by telegram on same date to the American minister to Argentina, with instructions to repeat it to the American ambassador to Brazil,
As to the nature of further steps looking to a solution of the boundary difficulty, the Gorernment of the United States belieres that the mediating powers might properly consider the adrisability of suggesting to the Gorernments inrolred the wisdom of submit. ting their dispute for final settlement to the decision of amiables compositeurs, the mediating powers being readr, in this event, to tender their good offices toward facilitating the drafting of an equitable compromis acceptable to the two powers interested, which mode of decision closely approximates the arbitration at The Hague, which the mediating powers would hare expected to be on a compromis of broad scope admitting erery consideration of equity and justice.
It occurs to the Gorernment of the United States that the mediating powers might properly consider the advisability of inviting the Government of Colombia, in view of its claims to a portion of the region in dispute, to participate to a proper extent in further proceedings. Although it would seem that the claims of the Government of Colombia can not be precisely defined until after a settlement between the Governments of Ecuador and Peru, nevertheless, to obviate the possibility of a subsequent controversy between the Government of Colombia on the one hand and either that of Ecuador or of Peru on the other, it would appear wiser to determine all the rights of these three Governments at once.
The Government of Chile has officially informed the Government of the United States that in furtherance of the former counsel of the mediating powers it has most strongly urged upon the Government of Ecuador the reference of the boundary question to The Hague, thus confirming anew its oft asserted sincere disposition to cooperate effectively with the mediating powers. Accordingly, it may seem well to the Governments of Argentina and Brazil, as it does to the Government of the United States, to invite the Government of Chile to make further use of its influence near the Governments of Ecuador and Colombia in favor of the success of whatever steps it may now be decided to take toward a solution of this difficulty. Should even this course fail, it would seem that the point will then have been reached when the mediating powers might suggest some line to be respected as a status quo by the Governments of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, until a permanent solution of the boundary dispute satisfactory to all parties should be found. In case of such arrangement and the adoption of the necessary modus vivendi, the mediating powers could lend their good offices to facilitate the framing, in the event of ultimate arbitration, of an equitable compromis.
The Government of the United States would be happy to learn the views of the Governments of Argentina and Brazil touching the foregoing considerations.
File No. 722.2315/563.
Petropolis, April 13, 1911. Mr. Dudley acknowledges Department's April 8, which was repeated from Buenos Aires, and says he has been informed by the Brazilian minister for foreign affairs that the Department's memorandum which was sent to him by the Brazilian chargé is entirely acceptable to his Government with the exception of the suggested participation of Colombia. The Brazilian minister points out that since the recent secret treaty between Colombia and Ecuador there has been no territory in dispute between these countries, that the division line as determined by the treaty is known to him, and that the execution of the treaty has become an open secret. He proposes, therefore, that the mediators formally ascertain from Colombia and Ecuador the line of division agreed upon, and that thereafter Peru deal separately with them touching the territory claimed by each adversely to her. Mr. Dudley adds that the minister expressed the opinion that tripartite discussion by the three republics would prove interminable and recalled that Brazil could not consistently favor such procedure in view of her insistence with Peru and Bolivia upon settling one at a time her disputes with them regarding identical territory.
NOTE.—At this point the first paragraph of the extract from the Message, read on May 3 to the Congress, of the President of Brazil may be consulted (see Brazil); and that of the President of Argentina, read May 12 (see Argentina).
File No. 722.2315/571.
.. The Chilean Minister to the Secretary of State.
Washington, July 12, 1911. Sir: Upon taking charge of this legation, I received special instructions from my Government to express to your excellency the gratification with which my Government learned through Mr. Yoacham, at the time Chilean chargé d'affaires, how your excellency appreciated the efforts of the Chilean Government to induce Ecuador to consent to submitting to the Tribunal of The Hague the settlement of the recent controversy with Peru. I may assure your excel
NGITIS it 2002 . nesrisicava ef the learn frieza
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decembe pair of the Nate Ruraxat be based with regurio the Iaca ani Ara questa bet man die and Perl The decertian rade or nor excelener, sis during the incurvy of the chargé dans to the extent that ran hone this question be xr.ed tribe countries concerned without any foreign interference. Tot car shows the spirit of consideration and friendship with ch your excellener is animated tomand those two nations but also in oires at the same time , just homage to their sorereignty. All of which contributes without doubt, efectively towand strengthening the condial and laudable approchement de tween your esceilener's country and the Latin American nations
Congratulating mrzelf on the fact that I am ble to begin mr official relations with rour excellencs on so agreable a subject, as it were, I have the honor to express to your excellence the assurances etc.,
NOTE.—Between the abure and the following dates reference may be had to the Message of July 20 of the President of Colombia (me Colombia); of Peru, read July 28 (see Peru); and of Ecuador, read August 10 (see abore, Message of the President to the Congress).
File No. 735.00.
The American Chargé d'Affaires to the Secretary of State.
Buenos Aires, August 10, 1911, Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the annual report for 1910–11 ' of the Argentine minister for foreign affairs, Dr. Ernesto Bosch, submitted to Congress a few days ago.
After briefly reviewing the efforts made by the three mediating powers in the Peru-Ecuador dispute, the minister closes his reference to the subject in the following sentence:
In this condition the efforts of the mediating powers have remained somewhat paralyzed, it being regrettable that they have not been able up to date to accomplish their high purpose. But it is to be hoped that this purpose will soon be accomplished, provided that Peru and Ecuador share the contidence which the mediating powers are especially desirous of inspiring by this friendly action, which is a disinterested service to safeguard their real interests. I have, etc.
ROBERT Woods Bliss.
· Not printed.
File No. 722.2315/571
The Acting Secretary of State to the Chilean Minister. No. 4.]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE, Washington, October 12, 1911.
your note of July 12, 1911, and desire to say that the Department has been awaiting the opportunity, which your return to Washington now offers, of communicating its reply directly to you.
You state, in pursuance of special instructions from your Government, that the Government of Chile was gratified to receive an expression of the satisfaction which the Government of the United States felt upon learning through Mr. Yoacham, at the time chargé d'affaires of your legation, of the efforts that were being put forth by
that the boundary difficulties between Ecuador and Peru might reach a speedy termination. You add that the Government of Chile will continue, because of the long-established bonds of friendship existing between Chile and Ecuador, and because of the desire of Chile to serve the interests of continental peace, to labor in order that these difficulties may find a pacific and satisfactory solution.
It is a matter of equally great pleasure to the Department to learn from you of the favorable reception which was given in Chile to the statement of the Secretary of State that he hoped that Chile and Peru might be able to find a basis for the settlement of the question known as that of Tacna and Arica, consistent with their national honor and interests.
While fully reciprocating the sentiments recorded by you in pointing out the cordial sympathy guiding the relations existing between the United States and Chile, and in sharing the sincere hope that the efforts of this Department and of your legation in the cause of cordial understanding between our respective countries will be effective in promoting the development of even more perfect relations of confidence, I have, etc.
ALVEY A. ADEE.
REVOLUTION. OVERTHROW OF PRESIDENT ELOY ALFARO. AS
SUMPTION OF PRESIDENCY BY EMILIO ESTRADA.
[Extract. ) No. 4.]
Quito, August 21, 1911. Sir: I have the honor to make the following report regarding the recent disorders in Quito.
On August 11, without any previous warning, firing suddenly broke out all over the city. * * * Field guns were brought into the principal streets and discharged, at no one in particular, but with the apparent end in view of intimidating the populace. From the cries of “ Viva Estrada !” and “ Abajo Alfaro!" it soon became
On Aus all over the end dischargedimidating the poit soo