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In the event of the death of any of the delegates the Chinese Government will, I am informed by the foreign office, certainly indemnify the families. The present rule in the event of deaths of foreign doctors employed in plague work for China is to give their families 10,000 taels each. I have, etc.,
W. J. CAĻHOUN.
The American Minister to the Secretary of State. No. 236.]
Peking, May 8, 1911. Sir: In continuation of my No. 228, of April 26, 1911, reporting the termination of the International Plague Conference at Mukden, I have the honor to inclose herewith copy of a communiqué issued on the 4th instant by the Wai-wu Pu, giving a summary of the results of the conference. It may interest the Department to know that this memorandum was drafted by Dr. Strong, the American delegate, at the request of Mr. Alfred Sze, the Imperial Chinese commissioner to the conference. There is also inclosed copy of a note, dated the 5th instant, addressed to me by Prince Ch'ing, wherein he expresses appreciation of the Chinese Government for American participation in the conference and asks that this message of thanks be conveyed to you. Several prominent Chinese officials in conversation with me recently commented on the splendid representation of the American Government and the Red Cross Society at the conference and expressed the highest appreciation of the services rendered by Dr. Strong. I can safely state that Dr. Strong is generally regarded by Chinese and foreigners alike as having done the most valuable work at the conference. He leaves to-day for Manila, where he will edit the proceedings of the conference, which will be published several months hence by the Government press at Manila.
Upon arriving at Manila Dr. Strong will prepare and forward direct to you for transmission to the Red Cross Society a detailed report on the conference proceedings. Along with this report Dr. Strong will transmit for your information some pertinent observations on the political aspects of the conference. I have, etc.,
W. J. CALHOUN.
The Prince of Ch'ing to the American Minister.
PEKING, May 5, 1911. YOUR EXCELLENCY: On the occasion of the convening of the Plague Conference your excellency's Government selected and sent to Mukden a medical expert, who assisted in the investigations into the nature of the plague and regarding preventive measures in such a way as to throw great light on the matter,
My board is extremely grateful. Now that the conference is ended, I send this note to your excellency to express our thanks, which I beg your excellency to convey to the American Government.
SEAL OF THE Wal-wu Pu.
1 Not printed.
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The fouris cærdé bas been ined by the Wai-wera:
The opecins Cergy of the Intersinai Pare carenene took place in Jukden - Arril 3 and the esse concies were perforeni on Arril The original inters of the Grenect the minin of the fence and in exiecin2 $3 isti to Secess na te dient antrie reine sented to participere in the work of the acierade was to obtain further infor mation regarding equadesio of roecpacie pipe which work be of rame with to this Empire and to the wood at iarse. The work of the ainieren was divided inio two sectiras 1 cecio
91 bacteriencyIn all, 3 sessions were held. The original prom which was I curaprehensive in outline and which covered
severy piat in connection with the innes tigation of the pneumonie pisze wes fully arried out.
During the last week of the senses the time was dereted to the framing of the provisional conciosos abi of recommendations. These and useas and recommendations will be pablished with the final report of which they are a part.
Among the more important conclusions and revolutions of the conference the following are mentionnel: The dizase spread by dint infection from man to man, and whaterer may have been its primary origin there is the evidence that a concurrent epizootic in molents played any part in its funeral disemination, From Russian medical sources it has been reported that an epinetic disease exists among Taraba gans and that it is not unlikely that this disease is plague: but that it is plague has nerer yet been proved bacteriologically, and this question needs further study
The chief factor in the decline of the epidemic has probably been the pre ventive measures which were enforced either in acionlanie with scientific methods or by the efforts of the people to protect themselves. The decline has Dot been due to any loss of virulence of the bacillus.
Infection was introduced into towns and villages by persons actually suffering from plague or by those in the incubation stage of the disease. There has been Do positive epidemiological evidence to show that the disease has been spread by clothing, merchandise, or other inanimate objects.
The epidemic has been almost without exception one of primary pneumonic plague. The incubation period varies as a rule from two to five days. A rise in temperature and an increased pulse rate are usually the earliest symptoras observable, but a diagnosis can not be made until the organisms are recognized and the sputum has become characteristically bloodstained. An accurate diagnosis can be made only by a bacteriological examination of the sputum with the view of excluding pneumonie infection due to other microorganisms. Since the evidence points to the conclusion that in the epidemic all the cases became septicemic, an examination of the blood microscopically or culturally may be a valuable aid in diagnosis. The physical signs of lung involvement are too indefinite and appear too late in the course of the disease to be of diagnostic value, and even in cases in which the condition of the person is grave they may be very slight.
The fatality of the disea se during the past epidemic has been extremely high, scarcely any cases of recovery having been reported. The general experience has been that no method of treatment has been of any avail in saving life, but the serum treatment seems in a few instances to have prolonged the duration of the illness.
The strain of bacillus isolated during the past epidemic has differed in no essential respect from strains of the Bacillus pestis previously isolated from other sources. So far as can be ascertained the only infective agent in the epidemic has been the sputum from the plague patient. In the majority of the cases the disease has been contracted by the inhalation of plague bacilli in droplets of sputum (so small as to be visible only by the microscope), causing infection of the lower portion of the trachea and bronchi. In the case or inhalation the risk to the person exposed bears a direct relation to his proximity to the patient and the duration of exposure.
44773-FR 1911— 10
In view of the special danger of infection by inhalation that has been mani. fest during the past epidemic, masks and goggles should be worn by all those who come in contact with cases of the disease or suspected cases. The best form of mask is a simple three-tailed gauze and cotton wool pad, which should be destroyed or disinfected after each exposure to infection.
The statistics which have been collected during the past epidemic did not allow of any definite conclusion about the value of active prophylactic inoculation against plague pneumonia, although it was argued that some degree of protection is conferred against bubonic plague by the use of vaccines. It was recommended that further experiments be made on animals in reference to securing immunity against pneumonic-plague infection.
A number of resolutions relating to the question of sanitation and disinfection were also presented. * * *
The evidence before the conference was to the effect that it is unnecessary and undesirable in respect to pneumonic plague to restrict the transit of goods (other than personal luggage) and of mails. Should there be evidence at any subsequent time of an epizootic in rats it would become necessary to take measures to destroy the animals.
The services of the Imperial Commissioner Sao-Ke Alfred Sze have been greatly appreciated. He has outlined the principles to be followed at the conference in his opening address to that body and in other ways directed its care. The Government also appreciates the fact that the period of the epidemic was short, and acknowledges the assistance of both foreign and Chinese doctors who volunteered their services for the purposes of combating the epidemic.
NATURALIZATION OF CHINESE BY OTHER GOVERNMENTS.
File No. 893,012/6.
The American Consul at Foochow to the Secretary of State.
Foochow, April 3, 1911. SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith for your information, copy of translation of a despatch recently received from bureau of foreign affairs at this port, concerning the Chinese regulations regarding naturalization of Chinese by other Governments, and also a copy of my reply to the commissioner of foreign affairs.
I have this day sent a copy of the same to the United States Legation at Peking, but regard it important that you should have the same without delay. I have, etc.,
SAMUEL S. GRACEY.
The Comissioner for Foreign Affairs to the American Consul. No. 12690.)
Foochow, CHINA, March 27, 1911. SIR: I have the honor to state that the certain relations which nationals bear to their country, and the obligations they owe their Government, have warranted the making of a code of nationality. Owing to the increased facilities in communication and traveling in the modern world, people may change their domicile and allegiance at will. Nobody is, however, allowed to change his allegiance in an eccentric manner, as he pleases, without observing the law of expatriation of his old nation, and that of naturalization of the country of which he intends to become a citizen. The Chinese code of nationality was promulgated on the 7th day of the intercalary 2d moon, Heuan Tung 1st year
(March 28. 1909). It is stipulated in the eleventh article that any Chinese subject desiriaz to herpe a foreign national shall brake application for approval of his expatriation, and in the eighteenth article that the applicant for expatriation shall tender his application to the local authorities of his native district that the latter may request their chief otñcer to forward the applica. tion to the ministry of the interior for its approral, which will be pestel on the bulletin board, and that no ratter what conditions the applicant may be in he will be rezare as still owing allegiance to the Chinese Gorernment until he obtains sanction to his application. It is also proridei in the first articie of the executive regulations that any Chinese who renounced allegiance to China, and became a foreiz national, before enactment of this ende, with. out official approral, and who has hitherto been residing in a foreign nation, on coming back to China shall report the fact to the consul concerned at the first Chinese port he enters that the latter may send a communication to the Chinese local authorities, giring Decessary particulars as well as the day, month, and year of his naturalization, which will be reganied as an eridence of his expatriation. In the second article of the above quoted regulations, it is provided that ans Chinese who became a foreign national, without obtaining an authentie approral of his expatriation, and who has been residing in the foreign settlement of a Chinese treaty port, -hall within one year report the fact to the Chinese authorities, that the latter may communicate with the consul concerned, to find out the date of his naturalization so as to establish an eridence of his expatriation. In the third article it is provided that any Chinese omitting to produce the evidence of his expatriation as is described in the two foregoing articles, shall be regarded as still owing allegiance to the Chinese Government, as other Chinese subjects do. Strict is the law for governing the people in the Empire, in order that in time of emergency bad characters may not falsely claim to be foreign nationals. China is not the only country that has adopted this strict law.
Attention may be invited to the following quotations from the “ Digest of the International Laws of Europe and America ":
Any person desiring to cbange allegiance must expatriate himself from his old country, and without a certificate of the Government of his old country to say that he is free from all lawful obligations the Government of the country of which he desires to become a national can not naturalize him.
In case of double allegiance of any person, or noncompletion of the procedure in his expatriation, the country of his origin may claim from him obligations as hitherto and the other country can not at once succeed the former in claiming him as & citizen.
Applicant for naturalization should have done nothing against or injurious to the Government of the country of his origin.
In every country there may be many items of law concerning naturalization and expatriation, but the certification of good character is generally considered as the most important feature.
Taking all the preceding points into consideration, it may be concluded that the Chinese code of nationality does not allow her people to falsely claim themselves to be citizens or subjects of foreign nations, and that, according to the stipulations of the international laws, or the laws of the various nations, no naturalization can be so easily effected as this. Among the natives of Foochow and Amoy in Fukien, two of the earliest ports opened to foreign commerce, there are many who have taken new domicile in foreign countries, and the pationality thereof as warranted by the development of commerce. But some bad characters living in the interior (or within the limits of Chinese dominion) and wishing to implicate themselves in lawsuits, oppose taxation, or enjoy immunity of likin and other taxes, or trying to do something to suit their own convenience and for their own benefit against the law, apply at such juncture for admittance to a foreign citizenship, and as soon as they obtain their certificate of naturalization by deceit they rely upon it as their shield and behave in a reckless manner, outraging all propriety. It is a fact that they seek foreign protection by becoming foreign nationals for purposes injurious to their old country (China). This is not only inconsistent with the common law and justice but is also apparently against the Chinese law in force. It is believed that none of the civilized countries will accommodate such bad characters in such a way as to bring disgrace to their nationals. The Chinese code of nationality has been promulgated, and if any diplomatic question connected with nationality should arise in future it can of course be taken as anthority to settle the question. The one year's time allowed in the code has expired long ago and none of the Chinese who expatriated themselves and took foreign nationality before the issuance of this code and without official approval has yet presented
any evidence, as is stipulated in the first and second articles of the abovequoted Executive regulations. Fearing that the said Chinese might not have a thorough knowledge of the said stipulations, I deem it incumbent upon me to address to your honor this dispatch, and your honor will please instruct the said naturalized citizens all to note the contents. Those naturalized citizens at present residing within the limits of the treaty ports of Foochow and Amoy should be instructed to report at once to the Chinese authorities in the manner described in the regulations, that the latter may take action according to the stipulations. The said naturalized citizens shall make no longer delay.
I also request that your honor kindly first send me a list of the said naturalized citizens, giving their total number, and the day, month, and year of naturalization of each individual.
As regards the expatriation of Chinese, the commissioner of police and myself will issue a joint proclamation instructing the concerned to act according to regulations. If any bad character disobeys the law, implicates himself in lawsuits as described above, or refuses to pay taxes and duties, and falsely claims to be a foreign national in an emergency, he will be severely dealt with according to the Chinese law as soon as his crime is detected. I make this point plain to your honor, and trust that your honor will kindly let me have a reply, to which I will attach much importance.
The American Consul to the Commissioner for Foreign Affairs. No. 2330.]
Foochow, April 3, 1911. SIB: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch dated March 27, 1911, re the Chinese code of nationality, and in reply would say that the law of the American Government prohibits the naturalization of Chinese in the territory of the United States; and that I am forwarding a copy of your dispatch to the American Legation at Peking. I will communicate with your honor again on the subject, when I receive a reply from the legation. I have, etc.,
SAMUEL L. GRACEY.
The Secretary of State to the American Consul at Foochow.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, Muy 16, 1911. SIR: The Department has received your dispatch of the 3d ultimo, transmitting a copy of a letter to you of March 27, 1911, from the bureau of foreign affairs at Foochow in regard to the naturalization of Chinese as citizens of other countries and a copy of your reply of April 3.
There have already been a number of cases in south China in which Chinese who had been naturalized as citizens of Hawaii prior to its annexation to this country, and who had become citizens of the United States through the annexation, have had to establish their citizenship. The Chinese law of naturalization should be brought to the attention of all such citizens in China and the Chinese authorities duly notified that they are American citizens, unless they have expatriated themselves under the provision of the second paragraph of section 2 of the act of March 2, 1907. In this connection you are referred to the Department's circular instruction of May 13, 1908, entitled “ Expatriation and Protection of Americans in China.” 1
1 See Foreign Relations, 1908, p. 1.