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ly in my face, preffing one of my hands between his-and holding up his wooden ftump,-young man faid he you feem to be affected at feeing this!

I was just thinking-returned I, that in your fituation-fo far from home-you are much to be pitied! And did you drop a tear on that


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account? rejoined he-Remember, the limb was loft when fighting for my country!

The queftion-joined to the admonitory obfervation which followed, it—had such an effect upon me-that. a conscious blush ftole into my cheeks, : -and-but my pen fails!-this man was an old foldier!


N Turkey, where the art of print- walking to and fro, fpeaking in an ing has not yet been known, where audible voice, fometimes flowly, fomethe circulation of literary productions times with rapidity, varying his tones is chained down within the narrow occafionally with all the inflexions of compafs of manufcript, and where a correfponding fenfe. I could not therefore the efforts of genius are understand him, but he feemed to me. repreffed by difcouragement, the bu- to speak with good emphafis and finefs of ftory-telling makes in itself a good difcretion; his action was eafy profeffion, which, as it is acquired by to him, though expreffive and em study and profecuted with art, is fol- phatical; and his countenance exhi lowed with confiderable profit. bited ftrong. marks of eloquent expreffion., I could not help ftaring with aftonishment at a fcene fo new, to me, and felt great approbation of. the tones and manner of this extraordinary orator, though I could not, underftand a fingle word he faid. He was liftened to by all with great attention, and the Turks (albeit not used to the laughing mood) frequently betrayed ftrong symptoms of rifibility: but in the height and torrent of his. fpeech he broke fuddenly off, fcampered out of the door and disappear, ed, I fet it down that he was a maniac or lunatic of an ingenious kind, and was for going away. Stay, fays my friend, reft where you are for a few minutes, let us hear further.'

One day a friend (a French gentleman) who escorted me through the town, called to draw me out with, him for a walk; he faid he wished to fhew me fome of the caravanferas, obferving that he thought I fhould be entertained with a view of them. I agreed to go; and he brought me to two, which, after he had fhewn to me, and explained their principle, police, and etiquette, I could not help admiring and approving. To both thefe, were attached eating-houfes and coffee houses, and every appendage that could render them convenient and comfortable, As we were about leaving the laft, I obferved my friend flop and liften attentively. Come hither,' faid he, after a minute's paufe come into this coffee-house, here, is fomething going forward that may amufe you.'

We accordingly entered the coffeehoufe, where we faw a number of people, fome feated in the Turkish fashion, fome on low ftools, and fome standing; and in the middle a man

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The orator had fcarcely been gone three minutes, when the room was filled with the buzz of conversation, a word of which I could not understand,. but which my guide liftened to very. attentively. At length the buzz began to grow loud, and foon increased into clamour; when a fcene enfued of fo very ludicrous,a kind as forced me

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to cram my handkerchief into my mouth to fupprefs a laugh, or at least fo to stifle it as to avoid obfervation. In short, they were difputing violently, and the beards were, as I once before mentioned ro you, all wagging. I became more convulfed with mirth; and my friend seeing that I was like ly to give offence, took me under the arm and hurried me out of the coffeehoufe; we retired into a porch in the

and marked with fuch grotefque lines of humour-he related it moreover with fo much wit, in fuch admirable language, and embellished and enforced it with fuch appropriate action, utterance, and emphasis-that it riveted, as you faw, the attention of all his auditors, and extorted laughter even from Turkish gravity."

But how came he to break off fo fuddenly?' said Ì.

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caravanfera, where I gave vent to my That,' returned my friend, is a fuppreffed laughter till my fides were part of the art of his profeflion, with fore and my eyes ran tears. out which he could not live: just as

In the name of God, my friend? he gets to a most interesting part of faid I, ' tell me what is the meaning the ftory, when he has wound the of all that extravagant fcene to which imagination of his auditors up to the we have just now been witness? who highest climax of expectation, he puris that madman that spoke fo much? pofely breaks off to make them eager and why did they all quarrel after he for the reft. He is fure to have them went away?' all next day, with additional humbers who come on their report, and he makes his terms to finish the ftory. Why then,' faid I, did they who remained behind fall difputing

'Come, come,' faid he, let us retire to my houfe, and I will there explain the whole of it to you, from beginning to ending.'


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I accordingly accompanied him That I will explain to you,' faid home, where we found a very gay he. 6 Just as he broke off, Caffem, circle affembled, to whom he def the mifer (who, as far as I beard, ribed my aftonishment; recounting feems as well drawn as Moliere's my immoderate laughter, till they all Avare) having already fuffered a thou laughed very nearly as immoderately fand whimfical misfortunes and dilaas myself. You must know,' faid pidations of fortune, is brought before he, addreffing himself to me, that the cadi for digging in his garden, on he whom you took to be a madman, the prefumption that he was digging is one of the most celebrated com- for treafure. As foon as the hiftorian pofers and tellers of ftories in Afia, was gone, they first applauded him, and only wants the aid of printing, to and than began to difcufs the ftorybe perhaps as eminent in reputation which they one and all agreed in for making Contes, as Marmontel or praifing highly; and when they came, Madame D'Anois. As we paffed to talk of the probable iffue of the fealong I heard his voice, and, know- quel of it, there were almost as maing it, refolved to let you fee him, ny opinions as there were men in com and brought you in for the purpose. pany; each maintained his own, and He was entertaining the Company they went to loggerheads, as you faw, with a very curious, interesting, and about it when the chance is a thoucomical ftory; the fubject of which fand to one, that not one of them was was avarice, the hero a miser of the near the mark. One in particular furname of Caffem. His mifery and ava mifed that Caffem would be married rice are reprefented in it as bringing to the cadi's daughter; which gave him into a variety of fcrapes, which great offence to fome, and roused wafte his wealth; and his character is another of the company to declare, drawn with fuch ftrength of colouring, that he was well affured in his con Ed. Mag. Jan. 1796.




fcience that Caffem would be brought to the baftinado or the stake, or else hanged, in the fequel.

and with us is a trade, where fometimes lacre, fometimes vanity, but oftener than both, envy and malice di rect the decifion, and difpofe to cavil and cenfure.

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And is it poffible, faid I, that group of twenty or thirty rational beings can be fo far bereft of all com-But we will go again to-morrow; mon lenfe, as to difpute upon the re- continued he, probably he will be falt of a contingency, which abfo- there to conclude or proceed further lutely depends on the arbitrary fancy with his ftory;* I agreed to this, and of an ackowledged 'fabricator of we parted, falfehoods im

On the next day we went, and not C'eft oral, monfieur! and thereby feeing the orator in his place, lounged they demonstrate the power of the about the caravanfera, and going to poet (for poet we may well call another coffee-houfe found him dehim); and entre nous, I doubt whe- claiming with all his might. My ther it is not more rational, as well friend told me that the flory he was as more fair, to difpute what the now on was quite different from the denouement ought to be before, than af- former: however we watched his ter the inventor of the piece has dif motions fo effectually that we got difpofed of it, as is the practice with us. the conclufion of the story of CalWhen he has once finished his fable, fem, which completely difappointed you will find them all content, and the prognoftics of the two conflicting the voice of criticifm filent. Now in Turkish critics; for Caffem was neiFrance or England, our critics lie ther baftinadoed, flaked, or hanged, nor married to the cadi's daughter, but lived to fee that extreme avarice was folly; and to be fenfible that to make the proper ufe of the goods of this life is to enjoy them.

in to attack the poet, Let him finith his performance how he may. But you will recollect, monheur, that in Turkey criticifm is the honeft fpontaneous iffue of the heart,




A SHORT time before I left Lif


bon I dined at a Spanish or. dinary, near the convent of St Francis, in company with a gentleman who was a native of Malta, and a knight of that order. The univerfaHey of his information, and liberality of his remarksy induced me to requeft his opinion refpecting the PorTugucfe? Thefe are his obfervations on that head, as nearly as I can recollect: ed viola in it. "bes probave. soft There are no people in Europe, Sir, whofen real characters is lefs known than thofe of Portugal; for as their language is but little ftudied, or understood, our knowledge of


them is derived chiefly from the Spanish writers, and a Spaniard is rareTy known to speak favourably of the Portuguefe. The latter, on the contrary, whatever might be their real opinion of the former, are induced by the precepts of Chriftian charity to fpeak refpectfully of them. Of this we have a ftriking inftance in Jofeph Texera, a Portuguese friar of the Dominican order. This friar lived in the fixteenth century, and was confeffor to don Antonio, heir prefumptive to the crown of Portugal, whom he followed into France. He there declared from the pulpit, in one of his fermons, that we are bound

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duty to love all men, of what ever religion, fect or nation, even the Caftiliaus.

From the political enmity which for ages have fubfifted between the two rival powers, it is probable that the accounts we receive of the Portuguese through the medium of the Spaniard are not altogether to be depended upon. On the other hand, if we take the character of the Portuguele from the native writers, we fhall imagine they poffefs not only all the good qualities in existence, but are exempted from all the bad ones. This is like a painter vainly attempting to produce a fine picture without hadows.

From the best information I can collect, the ancient Portuguese have been a brave, active, and generous people. At a time when the other nations of Europe were funk in floth and ignorance, they were employed in propagating Chriftianity, in extirpating infidelity, and enlarging our knowledge of this fphere,

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Neceflity, the parent of action, was the fource of all their great enterprises; attacked on one fide by a powerful and restless neighbour, on the other by the Moors, who had long infested the country, their incurfions and confpiracies required the exertions of every finew of the ftate to preferve its independence. At

the modern difcoveries in naviga, tion,

The Lufitanian foldiers were brave and hardy, inured to all the hardships of war, fatigue, hunger, and thirst, which they bore with great patience in the hottest climates. In the field their courage bordered on rafhnefs; their natural impetuo fity could never be reftrained even by the moft rigid military difcipline; they were too ambitions of fignaliz ing their valour out of the ranks, by which they fometimes caufed their defeat in deranging the order of battle; but when they fought in a phalanx, the enemy found them invinci ble.

The riches of Afia, the relaxa, tion of difcipline, together with the ignorance and rapacity of the governors of India, at length corrupted the manners of the foldiers, and defaced every trace of their ancient charac ter.

Every department of the fate was haftening to ruin, when king Sebaftian afcended the throne; in him, as their laft refuge, were centered the hopes of the people; and the tokens of virtue and courage he had given them in the early part of his life, feemed to promife the accomplishment of their expectations; he certainly inherited a great portion of the valour of his ancestors, though time evinced

length the horde of infidels were ex- that he poffeffed but very ced

pelled, and the pride of the Caftilians bumbled.

In the reign of John the firft, when the Portuguese found themfelves fecure from foreign or domes tic foes, their troops then inured to fatigue, their captains, animated by military fame, purfued the barbarians into Africa. Their contests in this quarter, though unprofitable, and almoft ruinous to the fate, were ultimately attended with confequences very fortunate for the powers of Europe; as they diffufed a fpirit of enterprife which afterward led to all

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their prudence. No prince was ever more enamoured with a love of fame, nor fought a more indirect road toward the attaining of it. The happiness of his people is what confitutes the real fame of every mon arch yet this was the leaft of Sebaf tian's purfuit, The vain-glory of excelling in arms occupied his fole attention, and that glory he promised to himself in the plains of Africa: but, alas! he, and the greater part of thofe who accompanied him thither, found there not laurels, but an untimely grave.

! The

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from among the domeftics of noble families. When count de Lippe was appointed commander in chief of the forces of the kingdom, he endea voured to establish the dignity of the profeflion. One day he happened to dine with ya Portuguesef nobleman, who was a colonel in the fervice; one of the fervants who attended!at table was dreffed in an officer's uniform: on enquiry, he found this attendant was a captain in a regiment of infantry; on which the gallant commander immediately rofe up and inlifted upon the military fervant's fitting at table next himself.

The death of this prince would have been the less regretted, if he had not left a fucceffor to fill the throne who was in the decline of life and understanding, without energy, without abilities to heal the bleeding wounds of his expiring country. Providence, apparently, feeing its diffolution approach, fent a cardinal king to give it the dying benediction. Thus we find that ftates, like individuals, have their infancy, maturity, and decline and what is not a little remarkable of this, it commenced with a Henry, and with a Henry it expired. The firft was a hero and a statesman, the latter poffeffed neither of thefe quali-It has always been the policy of ties, nor fupplied the want of them the wifett generals to preservela de by his wifdom. eta la gree of honourable dignity in the army; for pride is as commendable in a foldier as humility in a priest ; but fervility and military fpirit are incompatible. This was the count d'é Lippe's maxim and fuch was his zeal for the honour of the profeffion, that he declared openly it was a dishonour to an officer not to demand; or refufe to give, fatisfaction for an offence.

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Philip the fecond now appended the crown of Portugal to that of Spain. It had been the invariable policy of this prince, and of his fucceffors, to render Portugal fubfervient by redu cing its refources, which they were carrying into effect every day, till at length the Portuguese, no longer able to bear the chains of their foreign mafters, revolted; and, by their re folution and unaniinity, fupplied the want of forces in cafting off their bondage; and ever fince, the kingdom is gradually advancing to prof perity under its native and lawful fovereigns.

I which

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Since the reign of Jofeph the firft, there has been a great change for the better, not only in the army, but in almost every other department of the flate.e, utafit

When that prince afcended the It is evident, however, that the throne, agriculture and manufactures advancement of the country is by no were fo much neglected, that the peomeans proportionate to its vaft re- ple depended upon foreign nations fources, nor is the ancient military for food, and raiment, the arts were fpirit of the people yet revived. Some defpifed, and the revenues unproducremains of the courage of their antive. The English, purfuant to the ceftors may ftill linger among them; Methuen treaty, fupplied the PortuMe with woollen cloths, in exbut the contempt in they guefe the profeffion of arms is fufficient to extinguish every fpark of military enterprife. For several years past they have admitted officers into the regi ments of infantry without talents or education, whofe ignorance multipli ed abuses and relaxed difcipline. The abufe at length advanced to that degree, that officers were appointed

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change for which they were to receive the wines of the country. The encouragement held out by this treaty for the growth of wine, and the' facility which long experience has given the Portuguefe in that branch of hufbandry, induced the farmers to neglect the cultivation of corn, and convert their fields into vineyards;


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