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ably blended in the mafs of the mouldering ftone.

From the feveral periods of the fixteenth century, when, in the changes of government, the fluctuating councils of administration more or lefs countenanced the Prefbyterian plea for a reform of the religious inftitutions are to be dated various peculiar revolutions of property, which took place as the interefts of Epifcopacy role or fell in the politi

cal scale.

While it was in agitation, that the hierarchy of the epifcopal communion fhould be abrogated in Scotland, the extenfive territories which had been devoted by princes and nobles to the church, opened a fpacious field of intereft in the reform, where the ambition of numbers failed not to regale their hopes of acquiring additional fortunes, by the fupreffion of the dignified clergy. Many of the barons, therefore, readily catched the fpirit of the prevailing zeal, and warmly efpoufed the expediency of reducing religion to a fimpler form than was found in the expenfive eftablishment of cathedrals and collegiate churches accordingly, during the minority of James VI. we find the fchemes of the facrilegious avarice nearly completed; and while the infatiable Morton directed the councils of adminiftration, the greatest part of the revenues of the church were alienated to fecular purposes, and to indulge the wishes of his favourites. It is true, that when the above monarch afcended the throne of these united kingdoms, and faw how far the ftability of his crown was to be maintained by the influence of the fpiritual lords, by royal authority the lands and revenues of the church were to be reftored, and the Bishops of Scotland ordained to refume their feats iu Parliament, as fome balance to the turbulent fpirit and encreafing power of the barons. The General Affembly, which had

been authorized by law, as a fupreme council for confulting the interefts of religion, joined their voice of approbation to the decrees of the king, and concurred in the expediency of thefe measures: but the barons, who had once tafted the comfort of enjoying the ecclefiaftical emoluments, and thereby finding their fortunes more unembarraffed and free, reluctantly gave up their claim to the poffeffion, foon profited anew of the opportunities which the fucceeding distractions of government offered them, and favoured the popular remonftrances of the hardships they fuffered from the alledged tyranny of the bishops.

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Laurence the fourth Lord Oliphant, who ferved heir to his father in 1566, is reprefented in memorials of the times as a man of fingular merit, a great loyalift, adhering firm. ly to the interefts of Queen Mary during all the time of the civil wars. His fon married a daughter of the Earl of Morton. Few families had made a greater figure in Caledonian ftory than his. The race is traced up to a Noble Dane, who came over in the reign of Donald VI. One of the defcendants is found witness to a charter of a priory granted by King David II. Another, a man of great intereft and power, married Lady Elizabeth Bruce, daughter of the immortal King Robert.

Charles the feventh Lord Oliphant, who, in the end of last century, married a young lady of the family of Ogilvie of Miltown, built this caftle, which ftill retains his name. Their only fon died when young; and their lands in the barony of Keith were recognized, by adjudication, to be then the property of the Earls of Findlater. They had been of old in the poffeffion of that family; and after various fortune reftored, continue annexed to the extenfive territories, which constitute their present so valuable eftate.

SHORT

5

SHORT RECAPITULATION OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS

OF 1795.

Dec. 30. 1794. PARLIAMENT with 31 fail of the line and 11 Frimeets. -The gates. Returns to port without meeting an enemy.

address on his Majefty's fpeech carried in the House of Lords, 107 to 12;—in the Commons 246 to 73. Jan. 4. 1795. Earl Fitzwilliam, being appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, arrives at Dublin.

16. Intelligence received that the French had croffed the Waal, and were rapidly advancing into Holland. As they proceed, the different towns are furrendered to them without oppofition. The British army, unable to cope with a force fo infinitely fuperior in numbers, retreats flowly in to Germany, encountering many hardfhips, in their march, from the inclemency of the weather, &c.

La Pique French frigate of 38 guns, taken, in the Weft Indies, by the Blanche, Capt. Faulknor, who is killed in the action. The boats, being ftaved, Mr Milne the fecond Lieutenant gallantly fwims on board to take poffeffion of the prize.

18. The Exchange and Councilroom at Liverpool deftroyed by fire. 19. The Stadtholder, the princefs of Orange, and their family, landed at Yarmouth. Apartments provided for them at Hampton-Court palace. Their treasure and baggage were brought to town in fourteen waggons.

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Immenfe mifchief done in England by the fudden thaw-A number of bridges, &c. carried away. In Scotland the froft ftill continues.

Feb. 4 Mr Pitt brought down a meffage from his Majesty refpecting the Auftrian loan. On the addrefs in answer to this, an amendment was moved by Mr Fox, which was negatived, 173 to 58.

12. The fnow lies exceffively deep in the ftreets of Edinburgh and in the neighbourhood-Three hundred foldiers and labourers employed by. the Magiftrates to clear the roads to the coal-hills-14. A gentle thaw commences, the thermometer from 34 to 40 deg. this however is foon again fucceeded by frost.

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20. An embargo laid on the fhipping, till the different quotas of men (required by the new bill for manning the navy) are furnished.

23. Mr Pitt opens the Budget. The loan 18 miillions, 6 of which are for the Emperor. The new taxes on wine, fpirits, tea, coffee, infurances, hair powder, and limitation of franking.

26. Obferved as a day of humiliation and prayer in Scotland, in confequence of his Majefty's proclamation.

March. 3. A complete thaw commences, the froft having lafted 51 days. 4. Richard Brothers, a pretended political prophet, taken into cuftody, and fent to a mad houfe.

16. Admiral Hotham defeats the French fleet in the Mediterranean, and captures the Ca Ira of 80, and Cenfeur of 74 guns.

31. Earl Fitzwilliam having been fuperfeded in the Viceroyalty of Ireland, Lord Camden, his fucceffor, at rives in Dublin.

April. 7. Princefs Caroline of Brunfwick landed at Greenwich, and proceeded to St James's palace, where on the evening of the next day, she was married to the Prince of Wales, with every poffible fplendour.

9. The King of Pruffia concludes a peace with the French Republic.

14. The trial of Mr Haftings concluded. The Lords feverally gave their folemn decifion, and he was acquitted of all the charges of impeachmeat brought against him by the Commons. This trial commenced Feb. 12. 1788, and from that period to its clofe fat 149 days.

18. Two French frigates of 45 guns each (La Gentille and La Gloire) taken by Admiral Colpoy's fquadron.

23. The trial of the Rev, Mr Jackfon for high treafon came on at Dublin. He was found guilty, but recommended to mercy. On being brought up a week afterwards, to receive fentence, he dropped down, and almoft inftantly expired, in confequence, it is fuppofed, of poifon.

30. The fleet of tranfports of 140 fail, with the British infantry from the continent on board, arrive off the coaft of Northumberland.

May. 1. The campaign between the Auftrians and French opened by a bloody action before Mentz, in which the former were completely victorious.

The Boyne man of war, of 98 guns, burnt by accident at Spithead.

15. The court martial held at Portsmouth on Captain Molloy, for not having ufed his utmoft endeavours, in the engagement of May 29. and June 1. 1794, clofed, after fitting fixteen days. His fentence was, that he be difmiffed from his Majesty's fhip the Cafer.

19. An infurrection takes place at Paris, excited principally by the fcarcity of bread, and by the intrigues of the Jacobins, in which Ferrand, ne of the Deputies, is maffacred.

27. Mr Wilberforce brings for ward a motion refpecting peace, which is negatived, 201 to 86.

June 1. Admiral Cornwallis, with five fail of the line and two frigates, fell in with the French fleet off Ufhant, of 13 fail of the line and 12 frigates, which, after maintaining a running fight, he outfailed by fuperior feamanship; the enemy, notwithftanding their great fuperiority, fhewing little inclination to engage.

5. A dreadful fire broke out at Copenhagen, which consumed about 57 ftreets, and 1200 or 1500 houfes.

24. The new Conftitution of France prefented by the Committee of Ele ven to the Convention.

Lord Bridport attacks the French fquadron off L'Orient, and captures the Alexander, Formidable, and Tigre, fhips of the line,

27. Parliament rifes-The royal affent is given to the bills arranging the Prince of Wale's debts-and for the establishment of their Royal Highneffes the Prince and Princess's Houfehold.

The Senate of the United States of America ratifies the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation, with Great Britain.

July 3. A body of French emigrants, àbout 7000 in number, having been formed into regiments upon British pay, were landed on the French coaft, and took poffeffion of the peninfula of Quiberon and Fort Penthievre; but on the night of the 21ft, in confequence of treachery among themfelves, they were furprised by the Republican army. About 900 of the troops, and 1500 Royalits who had joined them, efcaped on board the fleet; the reft were either killed or taken prisoners.

14. An engagement takes place between Admiral Hotham's and the French feet in the Mediterranean, in which the Alcide a French 74 ftruck; but was afterwards accidentally blown

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July 17. The Ville de Paris of 120 guns, the finest ship ever built in England, launched at Chatham.

22. Twenty-four fail of Eaft-Indiamen arrive fafe at Portsmouth. 23. Mr York, alias Redhead, convicted at York affizes of a confpira cy and uttering feditious words. He was afterwards fentenced to be imprifoned two years.

Aug. 4. The French Convention ratified a treaty of peace with Spain. 13. A fevere ftorm of thunder and lightning, the effects of which were almaft general in England and Scotland. In Perthshire, confiderable damage was done by the fwelling of

the rivers.

Sept. 6. The French army of the Sambre and Meule croffed the Rhine at Duffeldorff.

14. Letters of marque iffued authorffing the capture of Dutch veffels.

17. The church of St Paul, Covent-Garden, built by Inigo Jones, and highly admired for its fimple e legance, confumed by fire.

20. Manheim furrenders to the French army, without making any defence.

23. The Scipio man of war, with transports under convoy, containing 3000 troops, arrived at Martinique,

The Maroon negroes in Jamaica having evinced a rebellious fpirit, and committed a variety of depredations, are reduced to fubjection by the fpirited and judicious measures of the Governor, Lord Balçarras.

27, The New Bridewell in Edinburgh, an important improvement in the police of that city, receives its first inhabitants.

28. Rear-Admiral Pringle's fquadron arrived in Leith roads where it continued till Nov. 15.

A gold mine (or rather detached pieces of that metal) discovered in the county of Wicklow mountains in Ireland.

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diterranean fleet unfortunately fell in. with a French fquadron of fuperior force to their convoy, when the Cen-, feur, of 74 guns, and a number of the merchantmen, were captured.

27. After a violent oppofition from the fections of Paris, during which a number of lives were loft, the Convention fucceeded in establishing the new conftitution, and this day the New Legiflature met for the first time, the Council of Five Hundred at the, Thuilleries, that of the Elders, confifting of 250, at the Palais Bour-, bon,

29. Parliament meets A moft daring outrage was committed on his Majefty in his paffage through St. James's Park to the House of Lords. A pebble, or bullet, thrown with great force, broke one of the windows in the carriage, but providentially his Majefty received no hurt. When his Majefty had delivered his. fpeech, the Lords deferred the confideration of it till next day, and proceeded to examine feveral perfons who had been apprehended as acceffory to the above attempt. Their Lordships concluded an address of congratulation to his Majefty on his fortunate efcape.

In the Commons, an addrefs on the fpeech was moved as usual, and an amendment propofed by Mr Fox, negatived 240 to 59.-An addrefs. on his Majesty's efcape was alfo unanimoufly voted.

30. The addrefs on the fpeech paffes, in the Houfe of Lords, without. a divifion.

On the 17th of this month, the.. French army in the neighbourhood of Manheim were defeated by the Auftrian General Wurmfer, with great lofs; in confequence of which they retreat across the Rhine, pursued in every direction by the Auftrians.

On the 29th, Marshal Clairfait attacked the French in their entrenched camp before Mentz, and gained

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a complete victory.-The fiege of Mentz is of confequence raifed, and the French retreat with precipitation.

Νου. 3. A felect committee appointed by the Houfe of Commons to enquire into the fearcity and high price of corn- -The diftilleries are Aopt till Feb. 1797.

7. The Lord Provoft and Magiftrates of Edinburgh vote an addrefs of congratulation to his Majesty on his efcape from the daring attempt on his perfon.

Similar addreffes were prefented from every county, city, and public body, in the kingdom, all expreffing their abhorrence at the outrage, and most of them recommending a law to to prevent fuch daring attempts in future.

6-10. Two bills were brought into Parliament, one for the prefervation of his Majefty's perfon, the other for fuppreffing feditious meetings. During the pendency of thefe bills, the public mind was greatly ágitated; petitions for and against them being prefented from almost every quarter. In their different ftages through Parliament, notwithstanding a moft ftrenuous oppofition, they were carried by very great majorities. After being confiderably modified and altered, they received the royal affent on the 18th December.

15. The powerful armament deftined for the Weft Indies, which for a confiderable time before had been in preparation, under the command. of Sir Ralph Abercromby, and ef corted by a fquadron, commanded by Admiral Chriftian, fails from Portf mouth, but before they clear the Channel are encountered by a violent ftorm, which difperfes the fleet, and compells them to return, with the lofs of feveral transports.-Having repaired the damage, they again fail on December 9. and again unfortunately fuffer in a gale of wind which drives about 35 transports back; the main

body of the fleet, however, confifting of 183 tranfports, proceeds on its voyage.

18. An inceffant and heavy rain takes place, by which the rivers are fo greatly fwelled as to do very great damage to mills, bridges, &c. The new bridge over the Clyde at Glaf gow was fwept away.

The fhock of an earthquake felt at York, Sheffield, &c.

21, Manheim furrendered to the Auftrian army.

25. The King of Poland figned the treaty of partition of Poland.

26. Intelligence received of the important capture of the Cape of Good Hope by his Majefty's forces commanded by Admiral Elphinstone, and Generals Clarke and Craig.

Dec. 1. Another engagement between the Austrians and French at Kreutzenach, in which the latter have the advantage.

7. Mr Pitt opens the BudgetThe loan 18 millions. Taxes on collateral fucceffion-tobacco-printed cottons-horfes-10 per cent. on af feffed taxes-diminution of drawbacks on fugar and salt.

8. Mr Pitt brings down a meffage. from his Majefty, intimating that the order of things in France at present was fuch as to induce his Majesty to meet any difpofition to negociation on the part of the enemy.

10. The French Executive Direc tory having openly announced the ruined state of the finances, the Legiflature decrees a forced loan of 600 millions of livres.

11. An agreement refpecting the quality and confumption of bread acceded to by the Houfe of Commons.

23. The Count D'Artois fails from Portsmouth in the Jafon frigate for Leith. Apartments are prepared at the palace of Holyroodhoufe, where the Prince is to refide.

24. Parliament adjourned to Feb. 2. 1796,

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