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chief-maters, and dangerous characters, was Colonel Sheil. In his time no one ever saw the Mission without a refugee. His people and scribes used to invite persons to come and take sanctuary, and they instigated others to disobedience. * For example, the Elkhaneo of Fars and Koocheek Khan, Doombelee, the Serdar Abbas Koolee Khan, of Tarijan, Hussein Khan, Mizam-ed-Dowleh, Ferliad Meerza, and Khan Batta Khan, of Khonsar, although there was no reason for it, and the Persian Ministers had no idea of harming them, were all invited, one after tlje other, to seek the asylum of the Mission House; and it was only after a great deal of trouble that the Persian Ministers succeeded in persuading these people to leave the Mission without the intervention of the British authorities.
8. It was in the time of Colonel Sheil and Colonel Farrant that the Salar, son of the Azef-ed-Dowleh, rebelled in Khorassan, and what protection and support did not Colonel Sheil and Colonel Farrant afford iu secret to these rebels against the Shah's Government? It is the belief of our correspondent that large sums of money were expended by them in the hope that the Persian Government might be ruined through the Salar. Indeed, had it not been for the protection given by these two English officers to the Salar, how could he have resisted for such a length of time the Persian troops sent against him? Truly, the Persian Government, notwithstanding that at the time we speak of it had not yet acquired great stability, deserves great credit for the manner in which it terminated that affair.
9. At all events, Yar Mahomed Khan, of Herat, came against the Salar with a body of horse, and aided the Persians, performing every service to the Persian Government in the siege of Meshed. He provided horsemen, collected stores, and did everything in his power without hesitation. His presents and letters to tho Shah constantly reached Tehran; and, in return, firmans and dresses of honour were sent to him from the Shah, the same as to former Governors of Herat. He coined the money in Herat in the name of the Shah of Persia, and he considered Herat as a portion of the Persian dominions. Our correspondent writes, that his having received and accepted the title of "Zeheer-ood-Powleh" from the Shah, and the fact that this is knqwn to all the world, are strong proofs that Yar Mahomed Khan considered himself a servant of the Shah, and Governor of Herat on the part of H>s Majesty. After Yar Mahomed Khan died, his son Syed Mahomed Khan, having been named Governor of Herat in the place of his father by the
* In enumerating the persons who have on varioue occasions taken refuge in the British Mission, it is a strange oversight that the Sadr Azim should omit his own name, and should have forgotten tbat he owes not only his present position but his life to British protection.
Shall, and having received biB dress of honour, continued to serve like hi* father, and never made the slightest objection to send offerT icgs to the Shah, to cause the "khootbeh" (prayer) to be made in the Shah's name, or to do all that was necessary as a Q-overnor and loyal servant. His brother Mahomed Sedpek Khan, was sent by him to Tehran to attend upon and serve the Shah.
10. Bat Colonel Sheil, when he heard and learned all this, became ipitefo), and adopted harsh measures; and every day he had some occupation and work for the Persian Ministers. Finding that bis object could not be attained by these means, he wrote something plausible to his Gpvernment, and the British Ministers suspended all intercourse with Sheffee Khan, the Pprsian Charge d'Affaires in London, and distinctly informed that functionary that until the Persian Ministers settled the affair pf Herat with Colonel Sheil, relations would not be resumed with hjm. Jn Tehran, Colonel Sheil now " re-opened an old account," and sought to embarrass the Persian Ministers, and at length an agreement was made between them. Although pur correspondent was not perfectly acquainted with the terms of this agreement, this much he knew, and ?t appears to be correct: that qn the part pf the English authorities, no interference or intercourse whatever was to be held with Herat or the Heratees; that no Englishman was tp enter the Herat territory, and the English authorities were not tp write one word to the Governor of Herat. But the Persian Government was at liberty to exercise the same amount of interference, and maintain the samo intercourse with Herat whiph they did in the reign of Fatten Ali Shah, Mahomed Shah, and, "the commencement of the Government." Offerings to the Shah and letters and agents were to comp to and go from Tehran always, and firmans and dresses of honour and agents might be sent to Herat- H ftny person from without notched with the design Pf taking Herat, the Persian troops might go and disperse the (invading) fprpe. In short, the Pprsian Government was not only not to take actual territorial possession of Herat, but that principality was, with Cabul and Candabnr, to remain in th« hands of their old Bulers, each separately, none molesting his neighbour. And if this agreement was violated by the English Government or its authorities, the agreement was to be null and void, and was to bo considered as if it had never been written.
10. After Colpnel Sheil left Persia, Mr. Thomson's turn arrived, lie soared higher than any of the others, and he acted in such a manner that the like of it has never bepn seen in the world. For iutance, he instigated the Persian Ministers for the purpose of westing confusion, so that the Imaum pf Muscat began to produce •ii»urder in au unsuitable manner, as we learned a short time ago in the - Tehran Gazette," where are also read what befell the Iinaum's troops in Bender Abbas. On the other hand, he instigated th< Khan of Khiva, who came against Merve and Serekhs, in Khorassan with horsemen and a large force; but his expedition was disastrous and he lost his life, as was described in a recent number of the "Tehran Gazette." Our correspondent is astonished that a British officer should cause such serious disorders in the capital of Persia, which endanger the very existence of the Persian Government. We have never heard of any breach of friendship having been committed by Persia against the English Government, that the latter should consider it suitable aud proper that their authorities should create such disorders in Persia. But the most serious of all Mr. Thomson's'proceedings was that he upset the Herat engagement, and commenced dispatching people to and "scattering letters" about Herat. He withdrew Syed Mahomed Khan, an obedient Bervant of the Persian Government, from his duty; and not satisfied with this, he wrote for an Englishman to come to Herat, who attached himself to Syed Mahomed Khan, and every day stirred up mischief, until he threw the frontiers of Khorassan into disorder, and that province was constantly harassed by the incursions of the Heratees and Toorkomans. Up to the day of Syed Mahomed Khan's death, when Prince Mahomed Youssuf became Governor, that Englishman was in Herat, and in all likelihood is there yet. If, in reality, the terms of the Herat engagement are such as have been stated to our correspondent, the Persian Government is justified in taking whatever steps she deems advisable with regard to Herat, and in looking upon the engagement as valueless and cancelled; and, in such an event, no objection can be taken that she has broken her engagement.
12. Besides this, Mr. Thomson never relaxed the system of protection, but found hourly occupation for the Persian Ministers. He also protected Ferhad Meerza, and invited him to take sanctuary in the Mission, and he struggled and disputed with the Persian Ministers.* In this manner, Hajee Abdul Kerreem, a Candaliar merchant, who has resided for 30 or 40 years in Persia as a Persian subject, and has a wife and family, having married the daughter of a Persian Prince, was taken under protection on the plea that his father was a native of Shirkapore, and that place now belonged to the British Empire; and on this question, he struck the English flag and suspended diplomatic relations. But the extraordinary part of it is, that our correspondent hears that Hajee Abdul Kerreem will not admit of his being a native of Shirkapore: he says he is not
* This paragraph about Hajee Abdul Kerreem alludes to the fact that he, the Hajee, has lately given in a paper to the Persian Government, renouncing British protection, and declaring that he is a Candaharce.
an English subject, but a native of Candahar, and that he was and is a dependent of the Persian Government.
13. When Mr. Thomson's turn passed, and it came to Mr. Mur!»*'«, his proceedings were more "spicy "* than those of all the rest. We hear strange news; they write from Persia, that when it first became known that Mr. Murray was coming, the Persian Government, looking at the times and the position of all the world, conceived that Mr. Murray might be coming for some important matters, which might be advantageous to the Persian Government as well as to that of England, and they thought that his advent, would prove a redress (salve) for all the troubles they had undergone with former Representatives. This was the reason that they had anxiously erpected his arrival, and when he reached the frontier, they sent one of the principal servants of the Government, a man of very high birth, to act as his Mehmandar from the boundary. He was escorted with every honour to Tehran; every endeavour was made to gratify him, and never for a moment was it neglected to show him respect. Every day they were in expectation as to when he would open the discussion. After a period of expectation, all at once they perceived that Mr. Murray, too, imitated his predecessors. The first arrow which left his quiver, was the affair of Ferhad Meerza, whom he bvited a second time to the Mission, and commenced a correspondence about him in such a way, that every one gave the preference to the conduct of Mr. Thomson] (although his proceedings were altogether unjust and injudicious) compared to that of Mr. Murray. When he understood that the affair of Ferhad Meerza was too unjust, and that he could not make an uncle of the Shah a dependent of the British Government, and that no injustice had been shown to the Prince to admit of his affording him protection, he then abandoned this ease, confessing that the Persian Ministers were in the right, and he took in hand other unmeaning matters, such as the protection he gave to one of his ferrashes who had been drinking, and was apprehended by the watch. He demanded repeatedly, that the person who seized his servant should receive the bastinado; and all the messages sent to him to ask whyf he demanded that the sticks should be administered, seeing that he was residing in Tehran on the part of a civiiized Government, and ought, therefore, to point oat to the people the road towards civilization, were of no avail. In the same way, many unsuitable matters were undertaken by him during this short period, which are unworthy of (publication in) this paper. Every day he was in search of some matter to afford an occupation for himself, and to give embarrassment to the Persian
* " Ba maiaa."
t The verb is nsed in the second person singular, which is never done in the Persian language, excepting to servants and inferiors. [1S5G-57. ZX.TTI.] M
Ministers, until he found the case of Meerza Hashem Khan. The story of this person, which our correspondent heard, is, from first to last, as follows:
11. Meerza Hashem Khan, from what has become knowu, was first of all employed as a page in the late Shah's harem, and afterwards accompanied Nassir-oon-deen Shah, then heir apparent, when he went to Azerbijan. When the Shah returned from that province to Tehran, and ascended the throne, Meerza Hashem Khan* was appointed on a salary of 200 tomauns a-year, to be a Gholam Pishkhidmet to His Majesty. After some timehejwas, at his own solicitation, named to a post in the army, and one day, he secretly, without rhyme or reason, fled and took sanctuary in the British Mission. Mr. Thomson wished to appoint him first Persian Secretary to the Mission, and intimated his nomination to that post to the Persian Ministers; but they silenced him by sound arguments, and lierelinquished his first intention, when he dismissed him from the situation and placed another in his stead, whose appointment he announced to the Persian Government. The Persian authorities desired to withdraw Meerza Hashem Khan from the sanctuary of the Mission; but he put off from day to day, saying that he feared he would be molested. Mr. Thomson proposed to send him to the Persian Ministers, accompanied by one of hia own people; but the Persian Ministers decliued, because several cases similar to this had occurred, and whenever a person from the Mission came along with any one, he was considered by the Mission as one of their dependents and a British subject. Mr. Thomson was informed that if Meerza Hashem Khan left the Mission without the interference of the British authorities, he would be treated with perfect kindness He, however, remained in the Mission until Mr. Murray arrived and in the summer, when the Shah with his Court and the Missioi all removed to their summer quarters, Meerza Hashem Kliai accompanied the Mission.
15. From what we have heard from Persia, whether true or fals we cannot assert, Meerza Hashem Khan,t who is married to tli daughter of one of the prinoes, and about whose wife there is a Ioti story which cannot be inserted in this paper, took his wife with hi to the summer residence, and gave her a place near the garden: which Mr. Murray resided. This matter having acquired in the ci of Tehran notoriety in an improper and scandalous way, it appea
* Meerza Hashem Klmn never was named to any post in the amy.
+ The Meerza took his wife with him when he accompanied tho Mission country quartets; and as the whole village docs not contain more than 30 Uou it is not wonderful that theirs should be near the garden in which Mr. Mvir resided.