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which latter Bozal negroes are very frequently conveyed from the ports in the neighbourhood of their landing places.
The abuses to which the cedulas have given rise call for the immediate attention of Her Majesty's Government, and they ought either to be abolished, and some other effective measure for a complete registration of the slaves be adopted, or else the regulation as to the cedulas should be rigorously enforced and followed up by occasional musters of the slaves throughout the island.
But your Lordship will easily understand that there is no very great disposition on the part of this Government to do anything that might operate to lessen the amount of labour which is necessary to the prosperity of the island, and that, therefore, the enforcement of any regulation which would have that effect can hardly be expected, and consequently our hopes of putting an end to the Slave Trade are limited to our own exertions, and to the energy of our measures of prevention.
JOS. T. CEAWFOBD. The Earl of Olarendon. FBANCIS LOUSADA.
(Inclosure.~)—Statement of the Slaves Landed (7,304), and proportion Captured, by the Government Officers in the Island of Cuba, during the year 1856.
No. 58.—Her Majesty's Commissioners to the Earl of Clarendon.
(Beceived April 25.) Ml Lobd, Loanda, January 29, 1856.
"we hasten to lay before your Lordship, in translation, what might prove, were its provisions faithfully carried out, the most important and efficient document for the suppression of the Slave Trade which we have yet had the satisfaction of reporting as originating with the authorities of this province; and, if we could but feel satisfied on this point, and that the regulations laid down in this Portaria would be sanctioned by the Home Government, at least in its most essential points, we should consider that a very great check to the facilities which this coast has hitherto presented for the prosecution of slave traffic had been effected.
Article I strikes directly at one of the greatest of these facilities, namely, the establishment of factories such as that of Equimina, ostensibly for the purpose of lawful trade, but, in fact, to serve as depots for slaves kept in readiness for embarkation.
It is, however, to be feared that unless the special authority in virtue of which the Decree is said to have issued shall be made more apparent than it is in this document, the judicial authorities will demur in giving effect to it. The exaction of a bond, for instance, or security against any contravention of the laws for the suppression of the traffic in slaves, would, we apprehend, be found to have no legal sanction.
Article II may be considered, perhaps, as a mere Governmental requirement, dependent only on tho will and power of the authority from which it proceeds to enforce it.
To the spirit of Article III no reasonable objection can, we think, be urged, unless it be the demanding the certificate of registry, to obtain which requires a sum of not less than Es. 1S200 or 1S300 for each slave. This, considering that for every separate registry 500 reis have been already paid, seems to be a very heavy tax, which, we think, should not be imposed whenever the original receipt for the payment of the first sum may be forthcoming.
Article IV refers in its first part to a Portaria issued by Viscount Pinheiro, dated October 7, 1853, and inclosed in our despatch of November 18 of that year, forbidding generally the practice of chaining slaves together; the latter part of the Article is now directed more especially to slaves found in factories on the coast.
The Vth and last Article, though it will probably give rise to much complaint, as tending to encourage a malicious and vindictive spirit in the slave, will prove, no doubt, very instrumental in attaining the object it has in view.
In our commendation of the above Portaria, we have, of course, in view only its application to that part of the coast lying to the south of Loanda, which is, in fact, Her Majesty's Commissioner believes, all that is contemplated by it. It is, however, no doubt susceptible of a further extension, and may be construed as affecting the question of Ambriz and the claim of Portugal to the adjacent territory, and thereby rendering the, British and other factories established in those parts liable to be interfered with by the Portuguese authorities. This, however, would seem to Sir G. Jackson to be an overstrained interpretation of a measure which, upon the face of it, promises much good, and which, if earlier enacted, would probably have prevented many a successful slave speculation.
We have, &c.
GEORGE JACKSON. The Earl of Clarendon. EDMUND GABK1EL. (Inclosure.)—Portaria.
Palace of Government at Loanda, (Translation.) January 28, 1836.
The Governor-General of the Province of Angola, &c, decrees as follows:
It being expedient to regulate the power of establishing factories on the coast of this province in such manner as that, whilst permitted for the lawful purposes of trade, they may not cover and aid the reprobated speculations of the traffic in slaves, I think it right, in virtue of the special authority which I hold from His Majesty's Government for this object, to decree as follows:
Art. I. From henceforward no person shall have the power of establishing factories on any points of this coast where no public administrative authorities exist, without the previous consent of the General Government of the province. Application for this privilege shall be made by means of a petition, declaring the purposes for which the factory is destined. It rests with the Governnent to eiact, or not, a bond against any contravention of the laws for the suppression of the traffic in slaves which may either be committed or aided by the owner of such factories.
II. The proprietors of factories already existing in such localities are required to apply, within the term of 60 days, for authority from the Government to maintain them.
III. According to Articles I and IV of the Decree of the 14th December, 1854,* no slaves or libertos can be allowed in the Baid factories who shall not have been registered. The document in proof of thia legal sanction shall be the certificate of registry. In default of the presentation of this document, the authorities charged with the superintendence of the requirements of the present Portaria shall at once apprehend the slaves, or libertos, who shall all of them be then considered as being, in this latter character, at the disposal of the respective Board of Protection, should the owners not prove within 60 days that they had registered them before their apprehension. In default of the production to the same authorities of the licence of the General Government for the establishment of the factory, the same Bhall be destroyed.
IT. The original prohibition against keeping slaves in chaino, or in any way confined with irons, such as fetters or handcuff-, i.-i renewed. Transgressors of this rule shall incur a fine of 20 milreis, or imprisonment for 30 days, for each slave that they shall have put in irons. If the slaves found in chains shall be in factories on the coast where there are no public authorities, they shall be considered by this fact as intended for shipment, and their owners shall be subjected to the loss of them, besides the other legal penalties, on proof of tho attempt to export them.
• Vol. XLV. Page 1073.
V. Every slave who shall give information of any other Blaves being placed in irons on any point of the coast shall, on such information being verified, be redeemed at the public expense, according to the mode established by the Decree of the 14th December, 1854. If the Blave should belong to the same owner as those who may be found in irons, his liberty shall be granted him without any indemnification to the said owner.
The authorities, &c.
JOSE RODRIGTJES COELHO DO AMARAL,
No. 81.—Her Majesty's Commissioners to the Earl of Clarendon.
(Received October 13.) Mi Lord, Loanda, July 14, 1856.
We have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your Lordship's despatch of the 8th March last, transmitting to us, for our information, a copy of a despatch from Her Majesty's Minister at Lisbon with reference to the late proceedings of the Municipal Chamber of Loanda respecting the execution in this province of the Portuguese Decree of the 14th December, 1854, for the registration and partial emancipation of slaves, as reported in our despatch of the 12th November, 1855, to which your Lordship's despatch of the above date is in reply.
From the statement made by Viscount d'Athoguia to Mr. Howard it would seem that his Excellency had authorised the GovernorGeneral to reduce the registration fee. We are not aware, however, of any such reduction having been made, and the only modification we have heard of as being to be introduced refers to the 3rd Article of the Portaria inclosed in our despatch of the 29th January last, requiring a certificate of the registry of each slave, for which a further payment, over and above the 500 reis, would have been to be made. To this point we adverted in that despatch, and, in future, this certificate will be given gratis, on presentation of the receipt for the payment of the registry itself; and no additional expense will henceforward be incurred, except in the case of the loss of the register, when the same may, and must, be supplied by a certificate of its having been made, for which the competent fee will then be exacted.
A Portaria to this effect, signed by Viscount d'Athoguia on the 23rd January, 1856, was published in the Angola " Offical Boletim" of the 17th May, and, though your Lordship may, probably, already be in possession of it, we think it right now to inclose it herewith in translation. We have, &c.
GEORGE JACKSON. The Earl of Clarendon. EDMUND GABE1EL.
(Inchsure.)—Portaria. (Translation.) Palace, January 23, 1856
It having been made known to His Majesty the King that in the execution of the Decree, having the force of law, of the 14th December, 1854,* which provided for the manumission of the slaves, doubts have arisen respecting the title by which the owner of a slave can prove that he has made the registry spoken of in the 1st Article of that Decree, the same august Lord orders, through the Department of the Secretary of State of Marine and Ultra-mar, that the Governor-General of the Province of Angola do take the necessary measures, in order that a title may be given, once for all, to each owner, and for each slave that he may register, which may be either printed or in manuscript, as may be most convenient, in the form of certificate and conformably to the annexed model, with the declarations necessary to effect the object of the 5th Article of the said Decree, without exacting for the same any further fee than that fixed in the 1st Article thereof for the registration of each individual, which registration shall constitute the above-mentioned title.
And since similar doubts may possibly arise respecting the other registry prescribed by the 4th Article of the same Decree, His Majesty orders that in such case, the same course be pursued, without any difference whatever, it being understood, however, that in future the loss of the aforesaid document, either as regards the one registry or the other, can only be supplied by a certificate granted in the usual form, which cannot be refused to whoever shall demand it.
REPORTS FROM NAVAL OFFICERS.
No. 118.—Lieutenant De Rdbeck to the Senior Officer of the Northern
Division, West Coast of Africa. Sin, Myrmidon, off the Bio Pongas, May 21, 1856.
I Beg to acquaint you, for the information of Commodore Adams, that on the 16th May I visited the town of Tintimar, and there found a schooner without colours or papers. On inquiry, the natives informed me that she was the property of a Spaniard, named Jose de Berrir, whom they believed to be waiting an opportunity to ship slaves for conveyance to Bissam, there to be shipped for Cuba. I seized the schooner, and, as she was unseaworthy, destroyed her. The Chiefs of the town presented me with a request to act as directed in the Vth Clause of the Pongas Treaty, with respect to a •Vol. XLV. Page 1073.