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partly at the suggestion and selection of this office, was named to inspect, visit, or instruct the militia of every State; the post exchange extended marked benefit to the soldiers' fare and improved their condition, habits, and contentment as compared with the old days of the sutler's dominance, who were deposed by the act of July 28, 1866; inspections were applied more equally to every branch of the service, and were systematically and carefully supervised so a more fairly consistent method and uniformity generally prevailed and the individual inspector was more fairly sustained; military problems and minor tactics were introduced babitually at inspections; full attention to every excellence or irregularity, and prompt remedial action was more fully secured; medal of honor men and honor graduates at certain colleges and at our military post-graduate schools were designated in the annual Army Register; an official insignia and motto was adopted for the Inspector-General's Department, instead of mere initials; information as to the multitudinous details of a soldier's life was for a time duly recorded by their immediate commanding officers, fully tabulated and published, and given every consideration; assured readiness for bạttle and campaign was made the test of military training and excellence; riding, musketry, the bayonet and other exercises were greatly advanced; higher requirements were made by law and regulations to govern enlistments and reenlistments; riding halls, amusement halls, and gymnasia were established; post traders were practically abolished after successfully resisting for years every effort to dislodge them; war service counted double in retirement of enlisted men; administration of military justice was improved by the establishment of summary courts; closer scrutiny over finances and business methods and condemned property insured economy and regularity; baggage allowance was more fairly increased, and perhaps this might be carried still further with wise consideration for those who will be changing station half around the world as soon as quiet tents and quarters are attained; the system of recruiting and remounting the Army was improved; the general regulations authorizing the duties of the inspection corps was given its appropriate heading and duly developed; a thorough system of inspection of the army transports, and the inspection of the insular accounts were established. The number and magnitude and difficulties, sometimes almost obstacles, in the way of inspections of all kinds have increased greatly, and the reports receive now closer attention and clearer analysis than formerly, and the resulting efficiency and economy and regularity are sufficiently patent. The Regular Army probably never stood better with its superiors and the American people.

MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION.

The wisdom and timeliness is evident of taking something more than merely preliminary steps in such an important matter as mechanical transportation. It figured in actual war among civilized nations forty years ago, and has been in every way improved and developed. It especially promises to strengthen the point of actual delivery of every necessity to the individual soldier at the front, where we seem habitually weakest at the beginning of every war.

The power to quadruple the load drawn by each driver in freighting, or to quadruple the speed in courier duty under favorable conditions, increases efficiency so greatly in several most important directions that it seems impossible

to ignore such possibilities much longer. Can any wagon now bring up a half dozen tons or carry a message 40 miles an hour, as has been done in France! If the Subsistence Department could immediately supply itself with the freighters there could no longer be any question about the food and water under its control getting where it is most needed under its energetic and soldierly management. The Signal Corps has already, with customary prescience, made a beginning, and could equip every headquarters with couriers of the utmost speed. Have we not suffered enough by curtailing transportation without the possibility of competition? No military duty is more exacting and important, nor requires better organization and preparation. Whatever may be the theory or the requirements of the supplies at the rear, all of our experience has demonstrated the absolute need of having business and supplies at the front, whether medical, subsistence, ammunition, or dispatches, under the absolute guidance of the corps responsible in that particular branch.

THE SPECIAL-SERVICE SCHOOLS.

In 1895 the Army Regulations were so changed that the specialservice schools could thereafter be inspected only under specific instructions from the Secretary of War or the General Commanding the Army. Therefore no thorough inspections of these institutions have been made since that time. That thorough and complete annual inspections would result in great benefit to them, as well as to the service at large, surely can not be doubted.

Even with the insufficient support they have received at times these schools have accomplished an important and valuable work, which has bad generally the most gratifying results; and they are a very necessary assistance to those zealous and aspiring young officers who have not had the advantages of a course at West Point. These schools take rank well up among the institutions of a similar character pertaining to the armies of the other great powers of the world, and their instructors are everywhere quoted as authorities in their own special lines.

In view of the increased benefits that might flow from the service schools, if regularly and properly inspected, the former recommendation is renewed that the Army Regulations be so amended as to permit the inspection of these institutions by officers of the Inspection Corps when on their regular tours, and that the authority for ordering the inspections be arranged in the same manner as those provided for in General Orders No. 109, Adjutant-General's Office, 1898.

During the year a nominal inspection of the Engineer The EngineerSchool. School at Willets Point, N. Y., was had in connection with the annual inspection of the post of Fort Totten. So far as reported conditions and affairs at the school appear to have been excellent, though it was stated that the museum and library were overcrowded and that of the three departments of instruction one was without an instructor.

Major Sharpe says:

As a result of my observations not only as inspector-general at the various posts in this department, but during the Santiago campaign in Cuba, and subsequently in the Department of Porto Rico, I am persuaded that the most urgent need of the Army at this time is the reestablishment at the earliest practicable moment of the schools of application at Fort Leavenworth and Fort Riley. The course of instruction at these schools is valuable even to graduates of West Point; to appointees from the ranks and from civil life it is absolutely indispensable. The recent increase of the Army has brought into the service, especially in infantry and cavalry, a large number of young officers, generally apt and of fair academic training, but quite ignorant of the military profession. They are strangers to its history, literature, traditions, and customs. These young men not having enjoyed the advantages of the West Point course, and having, in some instances, imbibed erroneous and unprofessional ideas of military life during the recent war, are sadly in need of a systematic course of instruction. It may be, and probably is, true that very few of them appreciate this themselves and are ignorant of their ignorance. If so, more's the pity and greater the need of putting them in a school where they can be transformed into valuable officers. The need is urgent, because if these young men are left too long in garrison they will gradually lose their professional zeal," form habits not favorable to professional study; many of them, perhaps, will contract marriage and otherwise become so circumstanced that the idea of going to school will be irksome, and the curriculum will be pursued in only a perfunctory manner. The value of these schools can not be too highly estimated, and if the course at West Point could be so modified as to allow cadets who expect to enter the infantry and cavalry to elect a course in their last year similar to that at Fort Leavenworth, I am persuaded that the service would be thereby benefited. The great majorfty of cadets, perhaps two-thirds of every class, must choose one or the other of these branches, and if their first class year could be made to conform more nearly to that of the second or senior year at the service schools they would be better qualified for their duties and not have to waste two years in a post-graduate course. They would also be available as instructors for the service schools, having pursued practically the same course in their senior year at the Academy. The spirit of West Point should pervade the Army, and this spirit can be instilled into these young officers at these service schools, having West Point graduates as preceptors. I earnestly recommend that the schools at Leavenworth and Riley be opened, if only for a limited number of pupils, the coming winter, and their capacity increased as rapidly as the exigencies of the service will allow. Every young officer who has entered the Army in the past three years, either from the ranks, the volunteers, or from civil life, should be sent to these schools as soon as practicable. With a class of 200 in attendance it would probably require seven or eight years to pass all those now in the subaltern grade through the course. Meanwhile great emphasis should be laid on the lyceum work, and special efforts made to encourage professional reading and study. The old idea that an ignoramus, whose daily professional stint consisted in taking one or two roll calls or attending an occasional drill, is as valuable to the service as the accomplished soldier, who is ever seeking to perfect himself in his busiress and qualify himself for higher responsibilities, is exploded. If we are to have officers capable of planning and executing, supplying and administering, we must educate them. The art of war is not an inspiration.

INSPECTION AND ITS RESULTS.

It is an aphorism that a good army responds like a willing charger to inspections. The admirable condition of the Army, as demonstrated during its recent unprecedented experience, has established its fame, which is wholly its own, and nothing could better prove the completeness of its inspection service.

The inspection reports are ultimately felt in the Inspector-General's Office when their usefulness is complete, and the clerks there subject them to the ultimate analysis. Here it is seen that what commanders began is duly completed, and no matter is allowed to escape fair attention. The millions saved by this scrutiny is illustrated, for instance, in the Soldiers' Home accounts. In property the measure, again, is by millions. As to men, from college and academy to the lonesome recruit the most watchful scrutiny is exercised, and the benefit is great.

The last few years have given illustrations of more olunteers and than one type of regular and volunteer and provincial

regiments, and it appears evident that, for good or ill, our military organizations will not escape some effects from this experience.

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The volunteers of the civil war were spontaneous and founded upon all the enthusiasm of patriotism and the demands of a great cause; were an example of a nation in arms, like the rise of the Spanish people against Napoleon. But there was in the preliminary stages of organization for our Spanish war a power and potency among the National Guard that were at all well organized, and a demand for recognition and reward that was fairly unknown in 1861, though displayed particularly by Gen. Benjamin Butler then. Seldom did every individual in a whole regiment of National Guards go as originally organized into the United States service, even when mustered in under its National Guard number. And the excellent quality and local spirit of these organizations were well proven. The essential distinction was not obliterated in recent expeditions to the islands between regulars, volunteers, and National Guards-one with its ubiquitous choice, the other with its special service for the given occasion, and the third with its more localized duty-though all were intermingled by such volunteers as Green and King and Roe and Hale and others, being also regulars, and names equally well known, like General Funston, indicating how duties were interchangeable. Nor should the college battalions be ignored, though their lack of united or national organization forbade their having more than individual weight. How the thousands of graduates whose excellent services were accepted, the enthusiasm and localization of volunteers gives a homogeneous character and elan to the regiment most beneficial in service. Public opinion gives strength, as the deeds of each and all are known at home. The fame of some regiments are household words a generation after they are disbanded. The volunteers of the Spanish war were as admirable and distinctively and characteristically American as ever before. The thousands that I was associated with were found to possess the high qualities which insured the safety of a free country and insure the success of his cause. It is believed to be of the first consequence to the future of our country and the training of the generation now coming into power that it had this opportunity to mobilize and study the demands and consequences of war.

Is there not a distinctive excellence in localization and mobilization it is well to give our regular regiments, as every civilized nation partially does theirs? The old dangers of secession or disintegration are passed. Our national feeling is fully as dominant as George Washington urged. And few can feel, especially in temporary regiments, that numbering regiments is specially or at all inspiriting; nor can dreary or monotonous sameness of method be wisely overencouraged. Esprit de corps and regimental pride, which helps on the march or in the battle, has been encouraged by a designation or a mark, and need not be unknown among us. National regiments

The military discipline and instruction of the Army of volunteers for the has doubtless received all the attention constantly Philippines.

which circumstances permitted, and the enthusiastic praise the national volunteer regiments, raised after the signing of the treaty of peace with Spain, won from careful and accomplished inspectors everywhere, who were unexpectedly ordered to inspect them at their camps before they could leave the country, was one of the most interesting phenomena of the expensive series of reorganization of forces through which the nation has recently passed. It is greatly regretted that a similar inspection at the close of their service was not

also recorded in this Bureau, as suggested, so the transforming process from all the individualism of American citizenship to the admirable cohesion of soldiers trained in the earnest service of their country's cause could be perfectly illustrated and the results be known to all men. It has long been known that the sudden expansion of a perfect regiment to several times its routine numbers, even when mounted, can in a remarkably short time have the new members impressed with much of the excellence of the original and the old merit continue. It is as quick as healing an old wound. This quality of true leaven working well through a larger mass is dwelt upon by Lieutenant-Colonel Maude, of the English army, quoted on page 88 (Appendix G). The present method of applying this in absolutely new regiments of national volunteers by the selection of unquestionably capable and experienced officers for the command of every regiment, and all under the national authorities from the first, may not be unprecedented, and naturally minimizes or avoids the camp sickness and unnecessary tribulations of green levies in green organizations, but its success deserves clear recognition and future consideration. The American military problem is habitually how best to meet the first flush of war. It would guard against much suffering and waste if such correct military methods could prevail from the first. Perhaps this is sometimes impossible. At every new emergency what is immediately at hand must be accepted as the best that is possible, and the undue suffering be also accepted. The individuals upon whom this stage of events falls and the questionable incidents it creates may be cured in time, after the ripening experiences of several consecutive years of war, or new ones bring a right conclusion. With the conclusion the nation is content. In the war of 1812 the treaty was signed before the battle of New Orleans, but it gives luster to the varying events from first to last; and Hull's surrender is passed over or forgotten, or the blame laid wholly upon him, even if the nation should share the responsibility of such events as it and Bull Run. Respectfully submitted.

J. C. BRECKINRIDGE,

Inspector-General. The LIEUTENANT-GENERAL COMMANDING THE ARMY.

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