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present to a soldier can only be gained on the drill ground, and should be imparted at the beginning of his military career. * Each infantry regiment will thus utilize its mounted men for all its scouting and reconnoissance. These duties must inevitably be carried out by mounted men under the new conditions of war, on account of the great distances that have to be covered and the difficulties of ascertaining the whereabouts of the enemy consequent on the general adoption of smokeless powder. Col. the Right Hon. Sir J. H. A. Macdonald, K. C. B., in reply said:
“I think it is common sense that if you can train a man to obedience in what is useful, it is better than training him in what is not useful when actual war work is to be done.
The first part of the drill ought certainly to be done in a strict, disciplinary manner.”
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ARTILLERY.
HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY,
Washington, October 1, 1901.
The ASSISTANT ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Headquarters of the Army. Sir: In compliance with the provisions of General Orders 50, Adjutant-General's Office, C. s., I have the honor to submit the following report:
The act of Congress approved February 2, 1901, discontinued the regimental and substituted the corps organization for the artillery. This act provided for 126 companies of coast artillery and 30 batteries of field artillery.
Since the appointment of the Chief of Artillery, April 9, 1901, his principal duties have been almost entirely devoted to the problem of transforming the regimental organization into that of a corps. The Secretary of War decided and announced in General Orders 66, Adjutant-General's Office, c. S., that as rapidly as the increase of the enlisted force of the artillery made the appointment of officers under the act of February 2, 1901, possible, 14 additional batteries of field artillery and 32 additional companies of coast artillery would be organized, and upon each addition of 1,802 men to the strength of the artillery arm that one-sixth of the additional officers authorized by the act of February 2, 1901, would be appointed by promotion or new appointment.
The first increase, consisting of 12 companies of coast artillery, was made in General Orders 25, Adjutant-General's Office, c. S., February 28, 1901, and since that time the Artillery Corps has been brought up to its authorized strength as indicated below: Five batteries of field artillery and 3 companies of coast artillery, June 6, 1901; 9 companies of coast artillery, August 2, 1901; 10 companies of coast artillery, August 14, 1901; 9 batteries of field artillery, September 3, 1901; 10 companies of coast artillery, October 7, 1901.
In lieu of the regimental organization, the entire seacoast, including Hawaii and Porto Rico, has been divided into artillery districts, each being commanded, as a rule, by a colonel or lieutenant-colonel of artillery. Each district commander is required to visit the posts in bis district at least twice every month, inspect them prepared for action, and correct all defects. He is responsible for the artillery efficiency of his command.
The necessity for the constant presence of the Chief of Artillery in Washington during the period of transformation has rendered it impossible for him to make all the inspections referred to in paragraph 2, General Orders 50, Adjutant-General's Office, c. 8. Such inspections as have been made have developed the necessity for the immediate equipment of the present defenses with a proper system of fire control, and to this end it is urgently recommended that the supply departments make adequate provision to install at the earliest practicable date a complete system. While it is not believed at the present time that an ideal can be reached, it is considered important that the best present system be installed rather than to wait a year or two for the development of a new one.
The large increase in the commissioned and enlisted strength of the Artillery Corps transforms each post into a center of instruction, and in order that the officers and enlisted men may become thoroughly acquainted with their new duties it is essential that they should have the proper equipment to work with. No system can be installed in a short time, and the same necessity which requires the presence of the forts and their armament demands the immediate establishment of a system of fire control.
Reverting to the large influx of commissioned officers and enlisted men it is recommended that the allowance for target practice be increased, and that the practice, instead of being annual, be quarterly, so as to embrace all barometric and thermometric conditions. The annual allowance of ammunition for target practice in the Navy is as follows: 13, 12, and 10 inch guns, 12 rounds per gun; 8-inch guns, 18 rounds per gun; 4, 4.7, 5, and 6 inch guns, 24 rounds per gun.
The allowance for seacoast guns, as per General Order 36, AdjutantGeneral's Office, c. S., is 12, 10, 8, 6, 5, 4.7, and 4 inch guns, 10 rounds with each caliber.
It is also recommended that liberal provision be made for practice with subcaliber tubes.
The artillery school has been reorganized upon a different basis. The instructors and student officers have been relieved entirely from routine
garrison duty, and the garrison companies have been provided with officers sufficient for that purpose. It is intended to equip Fort Monroe, as a typical post, with a complete system of fire control, embracing verticaland horizontal position finders, in order to thoroughly instruct the student officers in all the details of both systems.
The establishment of a torpedo school is now under consideration, but at this time it is impossible to make a definite recommendation as to its requirements, which will be the subject of further report. It is recominended that the employment of expert civilian electricians be continued, one for each artillery district. These experts have been found indispensable by the Corps of Engineers, which was formerly in charge of the torpedo system.
In order to arouse interest and stimulate professional zeal, it is recommended that wherever possible cooperation, as provided for on page 122, Drill Regulations Coast Artillery, be encouraged. It is proposed to undertake upon an extended scale operations for the coming summer, utilizing as far as possible, the different militia organizations that are interested in coast-artillery work. Preparations are now under way looking to the equipment of the commands that are necessary to carry out completely these maneuvers. It is suggested that an invitation be extended to the Navy to participate, so that a definite reply can be obtained at the earliest practicable moment, and that the problems of attack and defense may be outlined during the coming winter. Very respectfully,
WALLACE F. RANDOLPH,
Chief of Artillery.
REPORT OF MAJ. GEN. JOHN R. BROOKE, U. S. A., COMMANDING
THE DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST,
Governors Island, New York City, August 1, 1901. The ApJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY, Washington.
Sir: I have the honor to submit my annual report for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, in accordance with General Orders, No. 89, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, June 25, 1901.
Since submitting my last annual report of inspections for the preceding year I have visited and inspected all of the posts in this department, with a few exceptions, and am gratified at the progress made at all of the artillery posts where the modern armament has been installed, and particularly so when the small number of men available for drills and care and preservation of the armament at all of these posts is taken into consideration. The numerical strength of the garrisons has not been increased beyond that given in my last reports, wherein it was urgently recommended that the strength of all seacoast garrisons be such as to allow one relief for each gun mounted, giving the minimum required in each case. It is hoped, however, with the gradual increase of the artillery, which is now in progress, that a sufficient number of troops will be available to supply the majority of the seacoast fortifications with the number of men required to fulfill these conditions.
The barracks and quarters authorized for quartering these companies are mostly under construction, but it is feared in many instances that they will not be completed in time for occupancy, as the recruitment of these companies is progressing quite rapidly, and it is believed that the entire number authorized by Congress will have been enlisted by December 31 next.
It is also suggested that the barracks at the infantry and cavalry posts are not constructed for the present size of companies and troops. These buildings should be enlarged to meet the present conditions. In respect to those posts where a central mess building is the only means of messing the garrison, I would suggest that the extension of buildings be made to include a company kitchen and mess room, the general mess not having fulfilled the expectations and having been abandoned at all posts where company messing facilities exist in a permanent or temporary form. I would also invite attention to the following letter, viz:
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE East,
Governors Island, New York City, May 17, 1900. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL UNITED STATES ARMY,
Washington, D. C. Sir: It has occurred to me that it would be well to modify the refusal to the general community of the privilege of visiting the new defenses. Of course this does not mean exploration of the whole of the batteries so far as it relates to the casemates in which it is expected to store the ammunition, electric-light plants, etc.
The Navy Department permits, at suitable times, our people to visit its newest ships, and this procedure has, no doubt, increased the great interest now manifested in the Navy. I can see no good reason why these defenses may not be thrown open, to the extent mentioned, to the public-of course during such hours as may be best suited for the purpose. I am strongly impressed with the idea that no harm can result from this departure from the present system, because it can not well be denied that our system of fortifications is as well known to foreign powers as it is to ourselves. I refer particularly to the powers who have an interest in ascertaining in detail what our system of defenses is.
I therefore suggest that this matter receive attention and that suitable instructions be issued permitting visitors; and I found during my inspection of the defenses between Forts Jackson and St. Philip, La., and Forts Washington and Hunt, Md., and particularly in the vicinity of Fortress Monroe, that a great many people in civil life were desirous of visiting the fortifications and seeing the great guns in position. i do not think there could be any reasonable objection to the presence of visitors during the drills at the guns at all these points. Very respectfully,
John R. BROOKE,
Major-General, Commanding. This matter has not, so far as I know, been decided. I would renew my recommendation in connection therewith, as in my recent inspections of these defenses I have been impressed with the interest taken in our modern armament by patriotic citizens in the communities, and can see no objections to their visiting these works and witnessing the drills and exercises at the guns, but believe, on the contrary, it would be to the best interests of the service.
For information in detail as to the condition of the various posts in this department and my recommendations in connection therewith, your attention is respectfully invited to my reports of inspections of the Northern and New England posts, dated October 6, 1900, and the Southern and Gulf coasts, dated April 29, 1901, copies of which are herewith appended.
In conclusion, I desire to emphasize and renew the recommendation made in my annual report of April 16, 1900, in regard to the possibility, in case of war, of an attack of seacoast defenses from the land side or rear, and of the importance of having all approaches from this direction receive the attention which their importance demands, and that lines of defense be determined upon by surveys and outlined before the necessity for their use arises.
The accompanying report of the inspector of artillery contains matter which is highly important to the future of our coast defenses. Concurring in what is said therein as to the necessity of improvement, particularly as to the subject of submarine mines and torpedoes, I invite particular attention to his report.
Your attention is further invited to the reports of the various staff officers on duty at these headquarters, herewith included, whose duties have been performed to my entire satisfaction. Very respectfully,
John R. BROOKE, Major-General, Commanding.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST,
Gorernors Island, New York City, October 6, 1900. The ADJUTANTGENERAL OF THE ARMY,
Washington, D. C. SIR: I have the honor to submit the following notes of my inspection of the fortifications on the New England coast, which was made during the latter part of September last:
Fort Trumbull, Conn.—There are no modern guns at this post, those in position being of the old muzzle-loading type (Rodman),
as follows: One battery of 15-inch Rodman (3 guns), mounted in 1876, and two 8-inch muzzleloading converted rifles. There were 29 enlisted men of Battery 1, Fourth Artillery,