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one. At this point the efforts made to prevent the blowing of sand into the emplacements have been successful, and in a short time it is expected that it will be entirely overcome. The filling in of the swampy ground, as recommended by me last year, has not been done, and there should be steps taken in this direction immediately.
Fort Fremont, S. C.--The quartermaster, commissary, and ordnance storehouses are mere shells, probably intended for temporary structures, and are not the kind that should be constructed for permanent storehouses. The shingles are nailed to laths instead of sheeting, and the sand and rain drift through. The chimneys in the officers' quarters are not properly constructed and should be rebuilt, and porches should be added to both stories. The reservation is entirely too small, as the emplacements for the batteries are but a few feet from the boundary. At the end of the rapid-fire battery the masonry wall is exposed, because the reservation does not extend far enough to allow for the earth being banked up without encroaching upon private property. In my report of last year I recommended the purchase of additional ground. This has not been done, and so far as I know no steps have been taken in regard to it. I have already recommended the erection of permanent barracks and quarters, and have indicated what I consider the best location for them. This post is located on a sandy waste, and every effort should be made to overcome the drifting of the sand.
Sullivans Island, S. C.-The exterior slope of the disappearing gun battery was never completed by banking up sand. It was evidently thought that the waves would wash up sufficient sand to cover the masonry wall, but this has not been the case. The wall is entirely exposed. The sand slope should be completed. It has been recommended that the wharf be placed in the cove about in the rear of old Fort Moultrie. To do this, a channel would have to be dredged so that boats could come up to this place. It would be somewhat expensive, but the saving in time and transportation charges would very soon pay for the work.
I have in all my recommendations consistently adhered to the principle that the men to serve the guns should be quartered in the immediate vicinity of the batteries, and this should especially be the case at Sullivans Island, where the deep sand renders marching to and from the batteries so difficult. I therefore strongly recommend the purchase of the land surrounded by the old Fort Moultrie reservation, the strip purchased by the engineers to the east and connecting with the old reservation, and the land acquired last year. This proposed purchase is shown on the plat inclosed as an exhibit to this report. A glance at this plat will show the necessity for early action.
Fort Caswell, N. C.-Very good work has been done here since my inspection of last year. The building of a sea wall and the filling in and leveling of the reservation, which is now going on, will make a vast improvement. Everything at this post was in excellent order, and this shows what can be done with our seacoast forts if energetic and proper measures are taken to complete them. The barracks, however, are not of the proper type. The L's thrown back from the main building are almost entirely shut off from the prevailing winds. A barrack building constructed without these L's would have been much better suited to this climate. As soon as the dike now in course of construction in the rear of the buildings is completed, it is intended to use a suction dredge to fill in all the low places. Work is now going on leveling the sand dunes in front of the batteries. This will be a great improvement to that part of the post.
Fort Monroe, Va.—The barrack building has been raised one story since my last inspection, and can now comfortably house 600 men. No effort has been made to erect barracks in the vicinity of the mortar battery, as recommended by me last year. I renew that recommendation, and also the recommendation that a covered way be constructed connecting the various batteries along the shore, and that a broad walk, preferably of artificial stone, be laid alongside the covered way. The present guardhouse occupies several casemates in the old fort. A new guardhouse should be constructed at a different point. There are several old buildings within the walls of the old fort which might be removed to great advantage. Carroll Hall and the old hospital and some other old buildings whose usefulness has passed constitute these. I again strongly recommend that the street railway built on the street leading to Mili Creek be removed, and that hereafter any street cars coming into the reservation of Fort Monroe be required to use the old tracks from the north end of the Mill Creek trestle, and that double tracks be not allowed south of the Catholic chapel. This does not contemplate the removal of the switch now on the wharf. From the best information obtainable, all traffic can be carried on over the tracks recommended to be retained.
Fort Myer, Va.-Within the last year an electric railway has been built between buildings and the drill ground. I can not see that this road is a necessity to the
post. There is another electric line in the hollow to the north of the post and running apparently in the same direction. It is recommended that this extension of the electric road beyond the old terminal near the gate of Arlington Cemetery be taken up. There is considerable work necessary to improve the drainage about the barracks. The outside stairways leading to the basements of these buildings are not properly covered, and the water collects and will injure the foundations of the buildings.
Washington Barracks, Washington, D. C.—This post should be reconstructed on modern and improved plans. The barracks were formerly storehouses, and to meet an emergency and in the cause of unwise economy they were converted into barracks. They should be torn down and replaced by modern structures suitable to the changed condition of the Army and to the situation of the post at the capital of the nation. There is land enough to construct a post which would comfortably shelter a much larger garrison than is now possible under the present conditions.
Fort Hunt, Va.—The buildings in process of erection last year have been completed. The barrack building is not large enough to accommodate the number of men that it will be necessary to have in the company of coast artillery stationed here. The kitchen and mess room are now occupied by men of the company, and the old temporary mess room and kitchen are still in use. Owing to the nature of the soil in this part of Virginia, it is necessary to have the roads about the military posts macadamized; otherwise the movement of vehicles in bad weather must of necessity be practically abandoned. This post needs a permanent bake oven; that now in use is a galvanized-iron affair intended for field purposes. The noncommissioned officers' quarters would be very much improved if back porches were constructed. Certain little details about the buildings have not received the attention necessary. The hinges furnished are of poor quality, and the blinds break away and are shattered in falling. These details have been called to the attention of the Quartermaster-General verbally. All the guns are not yet mounted, the rapid-fire guns having not yet been received. My recommendation about the acquirement of land, made
last year, was as follows: “It is understood that the original plan was to include in this reservation the three farms that occupied the best ground for the purpose in this vicinity. Only one of these farms has been purchased, and at least one other adjoining the present location should be bought as soon as possible." I now renew that recommendation.
Fort Washington, Md.—The barracks and officers' quarters recommended last year are now in process of construction. The hospital has just been commenced. In the barrack building now occupied it is apparent that care has not been taken with the foundation. There has been considerable settling, which is apparent in the floors. It is suggested that this matter receive attention before it is too late. The sites of the batteries here are very high, yet disappearing-gun carriages have been used. All the batteries proposed have not yet been completed.
Fort Carroll, Md.The lift in the 12-inch gun battery is not in good working order. The checks placed on these lifts jam very easily and cause great delay in running the shot carriage on the lift and fastening it there. The wire ropes connecting the two shot lifts seem to stretch, so that when one lift is as low as it will go the other is not on the proper level for running off the shot carriage. Quarters for the garrison have not yet been constructed here. There is a detachment on duty which occupies old casemates that have been roughly arranged for it.
Fort Howard, Md.-A great deal of work is being done at this place, and the barracks and quarters in course of construction seem to be satisfactory. There is a pond of water in back of the mortar battery which should be filled in. The roads are not yet completed. A more direct means of communication between the mortar battery and the barracks should be made across the pond above mentioned, as soon as it is filled in.
Fort Armistead, Md.—This reservation is entirely too small, and until it is enlarged it will be impossible to begin the erection of the necessary buildings. Another very undesirable feature of this place is the presence of an acid factory on the edge of the small reservation. When the wind blows from certain directions the fumes of the acid make the post practically uninhabitable. It is imperative, therefore, that these acid works should be purchased before any other land is acquired; otherwise a public nuisance will exist, making the fort untenable.
Fort McHenry, Md.—This old post and fort should be maintained as of historical interest. The buildings now there are very old, and if it is intended to retain the garrison, they should be thoroughly overhauled. The reservation has from time to time been reduced in size, and now there is upon the northeast corner a large manufacturing establishment called the Columbia Iron Works. It is suggested that Fort McHenry would be a good depot for the storage of supplies for the other posts in the harbor, and it should be maintained for that purpose.
Very few of the emplacements in the various forts visited are water-tight. All of them leak at times, and some so badly that it is impossible to use the magazines for the storage of powder, and the presence and constant dripping of water make the shot rooms undesirable as storerooms for shot and shell. Although efforts have been made to find some way of waterproofing these emplacements, such efforts have not as yet been successful.
În their construction work the engineers have laid tracks in convenient locations in many posts. These tracks, and the engines and cars running on them, should be turned over for the use of garrisons in transporting their stores and supplies.
I noticed that in many of the batteries the gun platforms are being connected, but there are many batteries in which this is not being done. The work should be carried on until all the necessary connections are made.
Many of the new posts in the South are situated upon sandy keys, points, and islands. It will be necessary, therefore, in order to allow for proper communication throughout the garrisons and for the hauling of the necessary stores and supplies, that good roads and sidewalks be constructed. This will not only allow for better means of communication in these posts, but will render them more attractive to the officers and men required to live in them.
All officers' quarters in the South should be single, and both barracks and officers' quarters should be two stories high and have attics with air space enough to keep the second-floor rooms as cool as possible. Second-floor attic rooms, being exposed to the direct and unobstructed rays of the sun, are ovens, and uninhabitable for many months each year.
Porches should be large and comfortable, and two stories high. All barracks and quarters should not only have the windows screened, but the porches as well. During the summer months it is necessary for people to spend most of their time on the porches, so that advantage may be taken of the slightest breezes. Now that it seems to be a fact that malaria is communicated by mosquitoes, the Government would be more than repaid by the services of men and officers who would otherwise be sick, if the extensive use of wire screens were resorted to.
It is found that very few artillerymen reenlist at these southern stations, indicating that they are not comfortable or desirable for the soldiers. Too much stress can not be laid upon the desirability of having these lonely and remote places as comfortable and attractive as possible to their garrisons. Very respectfully,
John R. BROOKE, Major-General, Commanding.
REPORT OF THE COMMANDING OFFICER, DISTRICT OF PORTO
HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF Porto Rico,
San Juan, June 30, 1901. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL,
Department of the East. SIR: Pursuant to General Orders, No. 27, series 1900, Department of the East, I assumed command on December 15, 1900, of the District of Porto Rico, established in General Orders, No. 133, series 1900, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office.
The strength of the command on that date consisted of:
1 Officer of line serving on, but not counted, in district staff. 2 Contract surgeons included.
In addition to the above table serving in district, Capt. C. A. F. Flagler, engineer officer, Department of the East, Capt. H. W. Wheeler, Fifth Cavalry, on special duty.
On February 25, 1901, pursuant to paragraph 9, Special Orders, No. 19, series 1901, Department of the East, Company A, Signal Corps, U. S. A., was relieved from the district and proceeded to the United States. A detachment of three enlisted men from that organization, one of whom now remains on the island, remained in charge of the telephone exchange at San Juan.
In accordance with the telegraphic directions of the department commander, the dismounted battalion of the Porto Rico Regiment, U. S. Ù. Infantry, embarked for the United States on February 25, 1901, for the purpose of participating in the parade at Washington on inauguration day, March 4, returning to the district on March 11. The courtesies afforded both enlisted men and officers, together with the gratifying reception of the battalion, made the trip one to be most pleasantly remembered by all who participated. A most remarkable result was the fact that although most severe cold weather was experienced in the latter part of the stay in the United States, not one man suffered materially therefrom nor was the slightest ill effect noted thereafter; in fact, the general health of this battalion appeared to be benefited by the trip.
With the exception of the movements above noted and the temporary stationing of Company F, Eleventh United States Infantry, at Henry Barracks, Cayey, P. R., during the reorganization of the Porto Rican troops, there have been no changes in the organizations serving at the respective posts in the district.
On June 30, 1901, the following troops constituted the garrison in Porto Rico:
1 Officer serving on district staff. 2 Contract surgeons.
3 Mustered out June 30; appointed to Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry to date July 1, 1901.
In addition to the above tables, serving in the district, Capt. C. A. F. Flagler engineer officer, Department of the East.
During the month of June, under the provisions of General Orders, No. 72 series, 1901, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, enlistment for the Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry was commenced, and on June 30, 1901, the term of service of the Porto Rico Regiment, U. S. V. I., having expired, alí officers and enlisted men were mustered out of the service preparatory to the organization of the provisional regiment. The great decrease in the number of Porto Rican troops shown in the preceding table is but temporary, caused by the reorganization of the native regiment. Upon the assumption of this
command the following were the officers of my staff: First Lieut. John S. Battle, Eleventh Infantry, acting assistant adjutant-general. Maj. John L. Clem, Quartermaster's Department, chief quartermaster. Maj. Harry L. Rogers, Pay Department, chief paymaster. Maj. W. A. Glassford, Signal Corps, signal officer and acting chief commissary. Maj. Selden A. Day, Fifth Artillery, inspector of artillery and ordnance officer.
Capt. W. C. R. Colquhoun, Quartermaster's Department, assistant to the chief quartermaster.
With the exceptions of Lieutenant Battle, who, on promotion, was relieved by Maj. William E. Almy, Porto Rico Regiment, U. S. V. I.; Major Glassford, relieved and ordered to the United States (Major Clem relieving him as acting chief commissary), and Lieut. John J. Ryan, Signal Corps, these staff officers have been continuously on duty, they and their successors rendering most efficient service in the adminstration of affairs of the district.
Stations of troops.—This command is now distributed among four posts, as follows:
San Juan: Headquarters Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry and four companies; Fifty-sixth and Fifty-ninth companies, Coast Artillery.
Henry Barracks: Four companies Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry (mounted); one company Eleventh Infantry (temporarily).
Ponce: Headquarters Second Battalion, Eleventh Infantry, and one company. Mayaguez: Two companies Eleventh Infantry.
At Aibonito, a subpost of Henry Barracks, there is stationed a company, changed monthly by the post commander.
The subpost of Aguadilla was abandoned December 20, 1900, pursuant to authority received from the department commander.
Inspections. I have personally made two inspections of the different posts in the district, and have found the condition and discipline of the troops to be good and the post commanders efficient and zealous in performance of their duties. Later, under the heads of the separate posts, will be made recommendations for the better accommodation of the troops.
A general inspection of the command was made by the inspector-general of the department in May, 1901.
Health. --The health of the command has been excellent, the proportion of sickness probably less than that of the same number of troops in the United States; no smallpox, yellow fever, or other contagious disease existing, the principal cause for sickness being diarrhea, fevers, and venereal diseases.
The death rate has been small, especially among the American troops.
Instruction and training.-Lyceums have been conducted at the several posts, to the material benefit of the officers. In this connection I would suggest that the lyceum season be designated to commence August 1 and end November 30, this being the rainy season, when outdoor exercises are most seriously interfered with.
The required drills have been regularly performed at the several posts, with satisfactory results, the enlisted men of the native regiment showing great adaptability:
Practice marches with field equipment have been made from time to time, and sketches of the traversed territory forwarded for the information of higher authority.
Target practice. All troops of this command have practiced, but, with the exception of Henry Barracks, under adverse conditions, owing to lack of proper ranges. The two companies at Mayaguez have been compelled to use a range, rented, 30 miles away, at Aguadilla, and there is a possibility that this will not be available this year. A recommendation for the rental of a suitable and convenient target range within 31 miles of this post was forwarded, approved, to department headquarters on July 1, 1901.
At Ponce the range is not at all satisfactory, as only seven men can fire at a time, the range being too narrow. To fire at 1,000 yards the men must take position across a public road; for volley firing another range must be used, which at times is covered with water. This range was loaned last year; it may not be available this season.
At Henry Barracks the range is now situated on rented ground and is satisfactory for firing at all distances.
At San Juan the range is most unsatisfactory, and there is no other available in this vicinity. At times the sea overflows the land, the wind is strong, there is a strong mirage, and the glare of the sun is blinding. It is most probable that the command at this post will be compelled this year to use the range at Henry Barracks. The regular artillery practice has been held and the results are as satisfactory as can be expected from the armament of the fortifications.
Buildings, barracks, and quarters.--San Juan: The district headquarters is most advantageously situated in Casa Blanca, and the offices of the staff are located at convenient places within the city limits.
The transfer to the civil authorities of many.of the residential properties of the Army has seriously interfered with the assignment of proper quarters for staff officers of this command. One set of quarters, Fortaleza, No. 2, formerly occupied by the chief quartermaster of the district, and transferred to the civil authorities on March 9, 1901, has never been occupied, and several other buildings transferred are now used as quarters for the clerks employed by the civil government. In view of the urgent needs of the military, it is recommended that this building, Fortaleza, No. 2, be returned to the control of the military authorities. The very probable assignment in the near future of an officer of the Subsistence Department will result in the more urgent need for these quarters.
Ballaja Barracks: The First Battalion of the Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry is now comfortably quartered in this building. The officers of the command are also quartered here, with available quarters for 18 officers, but, unfortunately, there are only two bath rooms provided for all-one on the third floor, used by the families, and one on the second floor, used by the officers. There is no provision whatever for servants, and they are obliged to use the same rooms as the officers, but separate tubs. I recommend that each of the 18 quarters be provided with a bath and toilet, and an appropriation to cover the cost of same be authorized.