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battery and Forty-eighth Infantry silhouettes. Distance, about 3,000 yards. Ammunition allowance, 6 shell and 12 shrapnel. Time for advancing to second position, forty minutes. Time series of fire, ten minutes. All shell to be fired at dummy battery; all shrapnel at infantry silhouettes.

Problem 3. -Select firing position with a given area, and fire 4 percussion shrapnel and 12 time shrapnel at three different standard targets from same position. Time, twenty minutes.

Problein 4.– Target, 48 kneeling silhouettes in rifle pits on crest of bluff. Distance, about 2,500 yards. Ammunition allowance, 16 shrapnel. Time, thirteen minutes.

Problem 5.- Indirect fire. Target, three targets (standard) in echelon 50 yards apart. Time, fifteen minutes. Ammunition allowance, 20 shrapnel.

Problem 6.-To change position to repel infantry advancing on another part of the field. Extent of movement, 1 mile. Time from unlim bering in first position to last shot of whole series, thirty-five minutes. Ammunition allowance, 30 time shrapnel (10 at first, 20 at second position). Targets, at first position, Forty-eighth Infantry silhouettes, standing in line; at second position, 24 standing silhouettes in line, with 24 at supports 200 yards in rear. Limbers and caissons at first position to be unhorsed and under cover. Ammunition supplies to be drawn from caissons. Range, from about 1,200 to 1,800 yards.

Problem 7.—Target, dummy gun in gun pit, with 5 cannoneers (standing silhouettes). Range, about 4,500 yards. (Telescopic sights to be used.) Ammunition, 20 shrapnel. Time, thirty minutes.

Problem 8.-Attack of infantry column. Target, 48 dummies in column. Distance, about 2,500 yards. Ammunition allowance, 16 time shrapnel; then advance to end position at the galop to repel infantry attack. Target, 48 dummies in line. Distance, about 1,700 yards. Ammunition allowance, 12 time shrapnel. Time, thirty-eight minutes.

Problem 9.—Target, 48 dummies in line. Distance, about 300 yards. Ammunition allowance, 6 shrapnel; to determine the effect of shrapnel used as canisters.

Remarks.-Method of ranging will be both by range finder and by trial shots. Records and reports will be made in compliance with artillery memorandum No. 2, Adjutant-General's Office, June 7, 1898.

Range parties under the command of an officer will be detailed from this office. The officer detailed will supervise the location of targets and see that they are in good condition the day preceding the execution of the problem. Order of fire will be by piece, so that each shot recorded by the range party can be referred to the gun firing it by comparing battery and range party records for the day.

It must be borne in mind that the readjustment of sights and laying of guns pertain exclusively to the gunners, and while it is the duty of instructors to assure themselves that the prescribed elevations are given and that the guns are properly loaded and pointed, under no circumstances will officers do more than see that the required corrections are made by the gunners.

This scheme of service practice will be subject only to such modifications as may be found necessary or advisable by the commanding officer during its execution.

A small amount of the ammunition allotted to the battery service practice has been reserved for repeating such of the problems named above as may be found necessary. By order of Colonel Rodney:

P. R. WARD, First Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, Adjutant.

[Memorandum.]

FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALION,

Fort Riley, Kans., August 2, 1901.

DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS FOR BATTERY COMMANDERS AND RANGE PARTIES.

1. Detail for range parties. —An officer and 10 men, mounted, and 1 driver for wagon, will be detailed by the battery commander firing, to report to Maj. H. R. Anderson, Artillery Corps, on the field, immediately after the completion of the firing of the day. This party will repair and locate targets the morning detailed, and also act as range party the morning following.

II. Instructions for range officer. -On the day of practice the range officer will report with 10 mounted men and wagon containing target materials, etc., at the targets not later than 7 a. m. The range officer will use such mounted men of his party as may be necessary to close all roads in the vicinity of the range and targets, keeping 2 to assist him in marking and recording. The battery commander furnishing the above detail will also detail 2 mounted men, who will report to Major Anderson at his quarters at 6.30 a. m. A wagon will be in readiness at the quartermaster's corral at 6 a. m. daily.

III. Daily memoranda.-All the shots allowed for a problem will be recorded, both by battery commander and range officer in the order fired (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), so that any shot on the target can be referred to the gun firing it. The range officer will also record estimated distances, "short” or “over,” height of "burst,” the number of hits by whole projectiles and by fragments or bullets on each target, and the general condition of targets will be reported after the day's problem is completed.

Targets will be numbered from right to left, looking from firing position. To assist judgment at target the range officer will locate poles at points 50–1,000 yards front and rear of all targets. Targets will not be examined by range officer until the completion of firing for the day.

All reports will be made on the blanks prescribed by Artillery Memorandum, No. 2, 1898.

IV. Position of range party.The range officer's party will be on a line at right gles to the plane of fire at the targets and at least 500 yards therefrom.

The firing will invariably commence on the right target (looking from firing position) and proceed in order to the left. Range parties will move in accordance with this rule, being always on the right of the target fired at (looking from firing position).

V. Signals and general rules.—Signals between battery and range party will not be permitted, except as follows:

(a) A large red streamer held aloft by range party will indicate that fire should not commence or should cease; when “downed,” that fire can safely commence or continue.

(b) A large red streamer held aloft at the battery will indicate that firing will not commence or has ceased; when “downed,” that fire will commence at once and continue until again raised.

(c) The danger flag of the battery is to be downed before commencing fire, but no firing is to take place until the signal is answered by the range party's flag.

(d) All firing will commence at the right target (looking from firing position), and continue in order to the left target. Under no circumstances must this rule be violated.

Unless otherwise ordered, batteries will await instructions in the vicinity of the reservoir.

Special report. —At the end of the service practice battery commanders will submit to this office a report of the total number of premature bursts and breaking up of projectiles, and also the total number of failures of primers from all causes. A ‘failure" to be understood to mean the failure to explode primer at first command fire.

NOTE. -A copy of these instructions and of the order governing the service practice of their respective battery will be carried by all officers during practice. By order of Colonel Rodney:

P. R. WARD,
First Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, Adjutant.

(General Orders, No. 37.]

HEADQUARTERS FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALION,

Fort Riley, Kans., August 7, 1901,

BATTERY SERVICE PRACTICE, SIXTEENTH BATTERY FIELD ARTILLERY, DURING MONTHS OF

AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER.

Shell firing, allowance 160 rounds. Twelve rounds to be fired at a range of between 4,000 and 4,500 yards, target to be indicated by a barrel, canvas, or flag.

Twenty-four rounds at circular target, horizontal, center to be indicated by barrel on pole, range between 3,000 and 3,500 yards.

Forty rounds at battery with parapet from 6 to 8 feet above level of ground, length from 20 to 40 feet, range about 3,000 yards.

Forty rounds at wall faced with earth for bracing effect, range between 2,000 and 2,500 yards.

Twenty rounds at sunken battery, range between 2,000 and 2,500 yards.

Twenty-four rounds at standard vertical target, 26 by 10 feet, range about 2,000 yards.

Shrapnel firing, allowance 40 rounds.

Twelve rounds at line of silhouette targets on crest of hill at a range of about 3,500 yards.

Sixteen rounds at silhouette targets placed behind battery at 3,000 yards.

Twelve rounds at silhouette targets placed behind wall or in sunken battery at 2,500 yards.

Ranges to be plotted from base line or chained. Observations on shots to be made, so far as practicable, from base ends. Guns to be fired, so far as possible, without platforms or with improvised platforms. The platform not to be used unless absolutely necessary.

Records and reports will be made in compliance with Artillery Memoranda, No. 2, Adjutant-General's Office, June 7, 1898. By order of Colonel Rodney:

P. R. WARD,

First Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, Adjutant. Very respectfully,

Geo. B. RODNEY, Colonel, Field Artillery, Commanding Battalion and Post.

APPENDIX B.

CAVALRY AND FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL,

OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY,

Fort Riley, Kans., September 1, 1901. THE COMMANDANT, CAVALRY AND FIELD ARTILLERY SCHOOL,

Fort Riley, Kans. Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report as secretary of the Cavalry and Field Artillery School:

Pursuant to Special Order 131, paragraph 5, dated Fort Riley, Kans., July 6, 1901, I assumed the secretaryship of the Cavalry and Field Artillery School, vice First Lieut. A. G. Lott, Eighth Cavalry, relieved from duty at this post.

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$95. 43

Office of the secretary (including drawing instruments, office furniture,

office stationery, etc.). Library (including steel book-stacks, book supports, professional books,

books of reference, maps, charts, periodicals, binding, etc.) Printing office (including type, type cases, repairs to presses, printers'

2, 342. 56

ink, etc.) Turned into the Treasury of the United States.

61. 89 15. 47

Total disbursements..

2,515. 35

The liberal allotment granted the school for the year ending June 30, 1901, has been the means of providing many necessary and valuable additions to the library, embracing in some degree, at least, nearly every subject of interest to those in the military profession.

The acquisitions to the library this year have necessitated the purchase of additional book stacks for their accommodation. All the space which can in any way be utilized by book shelves is now occupied, rendering it absolutely essential that a room commensurate with the increasing importance and size of the school be provided without delay.

The question of card cataloguing the library has been renewed and the importance of undertaking this task is felt more and more as the library increases in size, for, as a matter of record, it would prove indispensable, and its utility is a foregone conclusion. Correspondence now in my possession sets forth several good methods of card cataloguing, and it is hoped, out of the appropriation for the coming year, provision will be made for the same.

In the printing department of the school a press with a chase 12 by 18 inches is required to replace the old one now in use, the same being worn out and unsatisfactory. This press was an old one when originally received from the school at Fort Leavenworth and has been in use here for a number of years.

In addition to the above requirements, a numbe of tools and materials, su lubricating oils, etc., are required for the manipulation of the searchlight sent here for instruction in the school. This searchlight has been lying idle for several months for the want of these articles, and nothing can be accomplished in the way of instruction with the same until they are procured. Very respectfully,

P. R. WARD,
First Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, Secretary.

By ANDREW MOSES,
First Lieutenant, Artillery Corps, Acting Secretary.

as

REPORT OF COL. F. L. GUENTHER, COMMANDANT UNITED STATES

ARTILLERY SCHOOL.

ARTILLERY SCHOOL,

Fort Monroe, Va., September 1, 1901. The ADJUTANT-GENERAL OF THE ARMY,

Washington, D. C. GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the Artillery School for the year ending August 31, 1901.

The Artillery School, which was closed during the existence of the war with Spain, was reestablished September 3, 1900, in accordance with the provisions of General Orders, Nos. 58 and 124, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, series of 1900. The work of the school during the year has been conducted in accordance with the orders, regulations, and special instructions governing the school, and the progress made has been very satisfactory, the student officers gen erally evincing proper interest in the instruction given at the school. The instructors have been zealous and efficient in the performance of their duties. The period covered by this report embraces the courses of study prescribed by orders reestablishing the school, namely: Ballistics and seacoast engineering; electricity, mines and mechanism; artillery, chemistry and explosives; art and science of war, and special courses, including customs of the service, usages, property returns, correspondence, regulations, etc. The nature and scope of the studies pursued as well as the details and methods of instruction have already been reported upon. Only a general statement showing the character of the instruction in each department is now submitted.

DEPARTMENT OF BALLISTICS AND SEACOAST ENGINEERING.

same.

Instruction given by the head of this department, Capt. F. S. Harlow, Artillery Corps, and continued in his absence from the post on other duties, to which he was assigned by orders from the War Department, by Capt. Henry C. Davis, Artillery Corps, included the following subjects:

(a) Exterior ballistics.-Gunnery definitions, ballistic coefficient, coefficient of form, values to be employed in absence of experiment, resistance of the air to motion of oblong projectiles, empirical formulas for same; ballistic formulas and tables, their construction and use.

1. Direct fire.-General formulas for same. Auxiliary tables. Jump. Numerical solution of all important problems involving range, time of flight, muzzle velocity, angle of elevation, angle of departure, angle of fall, striking velocity, striking energy, penetration of armor, drift, effect of head, rear, and cross wind. Correction of altitude; principle of rigidity of projectory; plotting trajectories; determination of danger spaces; velocity of rotation of rifle projectiles. Probability of fire; calculations of 50 per cent zones and probable rectangles. Method of computing a general range table; effect of variation of different elements; preparation of battery commander's and gun commander's tables. Formulas and tables for low-velocity firing. Application to curved fire and numerical solution of important problems in

2. High angle fire.Formulas and tables for same. Didion's method. Euler's and Ingall's methods. Numerical solution of problems. .

3. Interior ballistics.--Inflammation and combustion of grains and charges of powder. Comparison of curves of pressure of fine-grained and coarse-grained powders; of quick and slow powders. Gravimetric density; density of loading; initial air space. · Combustion of grains of different forms. Velocity and pressure at any point in bore of a gun. Construction of velocity and pressure curves. Amount of powder burned in gun. Characteristics of powder. Maximum pressure on projectile. Maximum pressure on breech. Sarran's binomial and monomial formulas. Formulas for quick powder. Numerical solution of problems.

4. Ballistic machines.—Boulenge chronograph. Practical work in measuring muzzle velocities. Measurement of pressures with the crusher gauge.

Laying out and accurately measuring a base line, determining the azimuth of same by observation on Polaris at elongation; a discussion of the methods of triangulation, orientation, and graduation of gun circles.

The ballistic firing was conducted for two days with the 3.2 field gun, and simulated firing for one day, breaking the wires on a target by a blow with an iron rod.

Each officer operated the ballistic machine for four shots and calculated the muzzle velocity from one.

(6) Seacoast engineering.Execution of the triangulation for determination of harbor base lines. Adjustment of the triangles. Practical measurements of base with steel tapes. Corrections for sag, stretch, temperature, and level.

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