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hibiting the cooly-trade or of this act, such person shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, upon conviction thereof, in any United States court, shall be fined in a sum not exceeding five hundred dollars and imprisoned for a term not exceeding one year.
If any vessel, belonging in whole or in part to a citizen R. S., 2159. of the United States, and registered, enrolled, or otherwise licensed therein, be employed in the “ cooly-trade," so called, contrary to the provisions of the preceding section, such vessel, her tackle, apparel, furniture, and other appurtenances, shall be forfeited to the United States, and shall be liable to be seized, prosecuted, and condemned in any of the circuit courts or district courts of the United States for the district where the vessel may be found, seized, or carried.
Every person who so builds, fits out, equips, loads, or R. S., 2160. otherwise prepares, or who sends to sea, or navigates, as owner, master, factor, agent, or otherwise, any vessel, belonging in whole or in part to a citizen of the United States, or registered, enrolled, or licensed within the same, knowing or intending that such vessel is to be or may be emploved in that trade, contrary to the provisions of section twenty-one hundred and fifty-eight, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not exceeding one year.
Every citizens of the United States who, contrary to the R. S., 2161. provisions of section twenty-one hundred and fifty-eight, imendud. takes on board of any vessel, or receives or transports any such subjects as are described in that section, for the purpose of disposing of them in any way as therein prohibited, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars and be imprisoned not exceeding one year.
Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to apply to R. S., 2162. any voluntary emigration of the subjects specitied in section twenty-one hundred and fifty-eight, or to any vessel carrying such person as passenger on board the same, but a certificate shall be prepared and signed by the consul or consular agent of the United States residing at the port from which such vessel may take her departure, containing the name of such person, and setting forth the fact of his voluntary emigration from such port, which certificate shall be given to the master of such vessel; and the same shall not be given until such consul or consular agent is first personally satisfied by evidence of the truth of the facts therein contained.
The President is empowered, in such way and at such R. S., 2165. time as he may judge proper, to direct the vessels of the United States, and the masters and commanders thereof, to examine all vessels navigated or owned in whole or in part by citizens of the United States, and registered, enrolled, or licensed under the laws thereof, whenever, in the judgment of such master or commanding officer, reasonable cause exists to believe that such vessel has on board any subjects of China, Japan, or other oriental
June 23, 1874. (18 Nat., 251.)
country, known as “coolies;" and, upon sufficient proof that such vessel is employed in violation of the preceding provisions, to cause her to be carried, with her officers and crew, into any port or district within the United States, and delivered to the marshal of such district, to be held and disposed of according to law.
So tax or charge shall be imposed or enforced by any State upon any person immigrating thereto from a foreign country, which is not equally imposed and enforced upon every person immigrating to such State from any other foreign country.
R. S., 2161.
Mar. 3, 1875.
Mar. 3, 1975. In determining whether the immigration of any subject
of China, Japan, or any Oriental country, to the l'nited States, is free and voluntary, as provided by section two thousand one hundred and sixty-two of the Revised Code, title “Immigration,” it shall be the duty of the consulgeneral or consul of the United States residing at the port from which it is proposed to convey such subjects, in any vessels enrolled or licensed in the l'nited States, or any port within the same, before delivering to the masters of any such vessels the permit or certificate provided for in such section, to ascertain whether such immigrant has entered into a contract or agreement for a term of service within the United States, for lewd and immoral purposes; and if there be such contract or agreement, the said consulgeneral or consul shall not deliver the required permit or
certificate. Sec. 2.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person amenable to the laws of the United States, shall take, or cause to be taken or transported, to or from the United States any subject of China, Japan, or any Oriental country, without their free and voluntary consent, for the purpose of holding them to a term of service, such citizen or other person shall be liable to be indicted therefor, and, on conviction of such offense, shall be punished by a tine not exceeding two thousand dollars and be imprisoned not exceeding one year; and all contracts and agreements for a term of service of such persons in the United States, whether made in advance or in pursuance of such illegal
importation, and whether such importation shall have been · in American or other vessels, are hereby declared void.
[Note. -The law relating to the Cooly trade has been, in the main, superseded by the law excluding Chinese.]
BUREAU OF STANDARDS
The Constitution vests the Federal Government with power to “ fix the Standard of Weights and Measures," and from the beginning of the Republic many of the foremost statesmen and scientists have worked assiduously to bring our system of weights and measures to a more satisfactory and scientific condition. Washington recognized this as one of the important subjects committed to Congress by the Constitution, and repeatedly urged the necessity for uniform and reliable standards. In 1790 Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, was directed by Congress to investigate this subject, and after a most careful consideration submitted a report in which he suggested important reforms, which were not, however, adopted.
A reference to the subject of weights and measures appears in the act approved March 2, 1799 (R. S. 2627), where it was ordered, among other things, that “ The surveyor (of each port of the United States) shall from time to time, and particularly on the first Monday in January and July in each year, examine and try the weights, measures, and other instruments used in ascertaining the duties on imports, with standards to be provided by cach collector.” Apparently this act was not enforced, probably for the reason that no standard had been adopted by Congress or by the Treasury Department. In 1817 President Madison reminded Congress that nothing had been accomplished in reforming and unifying the weights and measures, whereupon the whole subject was referred to John Quincy Adams, then Secretary of State. Mr. Adams, after four years of research, prepared a report which has become a classic in metrology; in it he advised the adoption of a universal standard by international agreement.
By Senate resolution of May 29, 1830, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to have an examination made of the weights and measures in use at the principal custom-houses, and, as was expected, large discrepancies were discovered. As a consequence, the Secretary of the Treasury directed that standards be adopted by the Treasury Department, and that copies be made and distributed to the various custom-houses. The avoirdupois pound was adopted as the standard of weight, and the distance between certain lines on a brass bar in the