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During all this time, two persons stood on the rampart above the ditch, leaning over the }. to them the duke's demands were reerred, and they, from time to time, directed the operations of the people below—these two persons are supposed to have been Murat and Savary—Murat—the hour came when he must have remembered this dreadful scene with bitter sympathyl At last, a little before midnight, the duke was placed in the ditch, with his back to the wall; he asked to give the fatal word of command—he was refused. At ten paces the soldiers could not see him; a lantern was therefore brought, which he himself tied to his button-hole. At the word fire, the duke rushed forward on the muzzles of the musquets, and fell dead at the feet of his executioners. The body was immediately taken up—unstripped and even unexamined—and flung carelessly into the grave, which had been dug before the trial. A stone was thrown into the grave near the prince's head. It has been said that this was the cowardly vengeance of one of the executioners, whose cruelty was not assuaged even by the victim's blood; but the person who filled the grave declared, that he had himself thrown in the stone as a mark to know the body hereafter. A little dog of the poodle kind had accompanied the duke; in the confusion of the trial and murder he was not thought of, but on the return of light he was found howling on the grave of his master. The poor creature was with difficulty removed from the spot; a gentleman purchased him from the man who had taken him, and protected him for many years out of affection to the memory of the unhappy prince.” Our readers will excuse us for adding, from the same source, a few words descriptive of the finding the remains of the duke. ‘On the 20th March, 1816,-the twelfth anniversary of the murder—a commission, appointed by the king of France, attended at Vincennes to search for the grave. The man who had been employed to dig and fill it up was still alive, and several persons who had visited it shortly after the event, recognised the spot. After digging about four feet deep, the boot of the right leg was discovered, and then the rest of the body successively, and lastly the head, and the stone which, before the grave was opened, the laborer stated that he had thrown in. Ali the bones were found. Their position showed that the body had been carelessly thrown in. It was lying rather on the face, with the head downwards, the left leg and arm bent under the body, and the right leg extended and the right arm elevated. It had been stated, by the laborer, before the search began, that the body had not been rifled; and in consequence of this inform
ation, the Chevalier Jacq es—(who had been
aide-de-camp to the prince, and accompanied him to Strasburg, but had been then separated from him and brought to Paris alone, where he suffered a long and rigorous imprisonment)— declared what the duke had about him when they |. and what of course ought to be found in the grave; and it is impossible to describe the deep interest, the solemn impatience in which the commissioners, who stood around the trench, awaited each successive report of the surgeons who stood in it, and who examined everything as the earth was turned 'i. “They found about the middle of the skeleton a mass of metallic matter, of the size of a watch, but so decayed, that but for some small iron keys and a seal with the arms of Condé which adhered to it, it would have been hardly recognized;—the seal was perfect. A small red morocco purse with eleven pieces of gold and five pieces of silver. Seventy pieces of gold coin, the contents of a rouleau which M. Jacques had handed to him at the moment of their separation—the fragments of the seal of red wax on the ends of the rouleau were found, which bore the impression of the seal of M. Jacques. A ring and chain of gold, which M. Jacques declared the prince always wore about his neck, and which was found around the vertebral bones of the neck. In short, no doubt remained that the remains were those of the duke d'Enghienthey were accordingly placed in a coffin, and deposited, with the usual ceremonies of religion, in the chapel of the castle of Vincennes. “Thus concludes the history of this bloody tragedy,’ says our critic, “the excuses for the perpetration of which only show us that Buonaarte's impudence was equal to his cruelty. he whole charge against the duke was, that he was in league with England in a conspiracy against Buonaparte;—if it had been true, Buonaparte had no right to violate treaties and the laws of nations to seize him—he had no right to try him before a packed court, chosen by Murat—to condemn him without a single witness being heard against him—and to execute him in the depth of night, with no other light to guide the executioners than a lantern fastened to his button-hole. But the alleged fact is altogether false. It is well known that England had no hand in the French conspiracies against him, —it is equally well known that the duke d'Enghien was wholly unconnected with, and ignorant of them.' ENGIA, EGINA, or FY INA, an island of European Turkey, in the gulf so called, near the coast of the Morea; anciently called Oenone, AEgina, and Myrmidonia. It is about thirty miles in circumference. Many fine relicts of antiquity are still to be seen on it. See AEGINA.
. ENGINE, n.s. & v. ab Fr. engin; Ital. ENGINEER', ingegno, inganno; ENGINERY. $son. engano; Port. engento; Lat. ingenium, a device or contrivance: A machine, instrument, or tool of art; applied in various particular senses, as to military torturing, steam-engines, &c. Enginery has a general application, but is particularly used by Milton for artillery, and the art of managing it. An engineer is either a maker or conductor of engines. Chaucer uses the word engine as a verb, signifying to torture.
And right anon the ministres of the town, Han hent the carter, and sore him pined, And eke the hostelcr so sore engined, That they beknew hir wickedness anon, And were anhanged by the neck bon. Chaucer. Cant. Tales. Recken you neuer of her fauoure sure: Ye may in clowds as easily trace an hare, Or in drye lande cause fishes to endure, And make the burnyng fyre his heate to spare, And all thys worlde in compace to forfare, As her to make by craft or engine stable, That of her nature is euer variable. Sir T. More. For 'tis the sport to have the engineer Hoist with his own petard. Shakspeare. Hamlet. The sword, the arrow, the gun, with many terrible engines of death, will be well employed. Raleigh. °rayer must be divine and heavenly, which the devil with all his engines so violently opposeth. Duppa's Rules for Devotion. This is our engine, towers that overthrows; Our spear that hurts, our sword that wounds our foes. Fairfar. We saw the toe Approaching, gross and huge, in hollow cube Training his dev'lish enginery. Milton. . Some cut the pipes, and some the engines play; And some more bold, mount ladders to the fire. Dryden. They had the” especial engines been, to rear His fortunes up into the state they were. Daniel. Him thus enraged, Descrying from afar some engineer, Dext'rous to guide the unerring charge, designed, By one nice shot, to terminate the war. Philips. An author, who points his satire at a great man, is like the engineer who signalized himself by this ungenerous practice. Addison. Had the vast sums which have been laid out upon operas, without skill or conduct, and to no other purpose but to suspend or vitiate our understandings, been disposed this way, we should now perhaps have an engine so formed as to strike the minds of half the people at once in a place of worship, with a forgetfulness of present care and calamity, and a hope of endless rapture, joy, and hallelujah hereafter. Spectator. He takes the scissars, and extends The little engine on his fingers' ends. Pope. Such an army, however, far from being an engine at the king's disposal, was often no less formidable to him than to his enemies. Robertson. History of Scotland. Whenever our neighbour's house is on fire, it cannot be amiss for the engines to play a little on our
own. Better to be despised for too anxious apprehensions, than ruined by too confident a security. Burke. Who, kindling a combustion of desire, With some cold moral think to quench the fire; Though all your engineering proves in vain, The dribbling stream ne'er puts it out again. Cowper. Self-moving engines by unbending springs May walk on earth, or flap their mimic wings. Darwin. An ENGINEER, in the military art, is more properly said to be “an officer who has the care and construction of all works of both defence and attack.' Many things are requisite to form a good engineer. He should be a man of quick | ". vigilant, brave, active, and ingenious; and e ought to be particularly well skilled in the theory of all those sciences which belong to his art. His knowledge of fortification ought to be such as not only to enable him to discover the defects of a place, but to find a remedy for them; as also how a place may be most advantageously attacked or effectually defended. When at a siege he has, narrowly surveyed the place, he is to make the result known to the general; acquainting him what part he judges to be the weakest, and where approaches may be most successfully made. His business is i. to delineate the lines of circumvallation and contravallation, taking all the advantages of the ground; to mark out the trenches, places of arms, batteries, and lodgments, and that so as none of the works be flanked or discovered from the place. Thus it is evident that the art of an engineer stands in need of many others; its object is so extensive, and its operations attended with so many various circumstances, that it is scarcely ossible for a man to make himself master of it y experience alone, even though born with all the advantages of genius and disposition that could be supposed necessary for the knowledge and practice of such an art. Experience, it must be allowed, is often more beneficial than all the precepts in the world; but, with all its advantages, it has also its defects: the fruits of experience are of slow growth; and the engineer who has contented himself with pursuing only that method of instruction, will often find himself o at the moment when he should act. Iuch, however, of what experience would teach, through errors committed, inay be learned at the expense of others from theory. The fundamental principles of this art are found in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, mechanics, hydraulics, &c.; and how fluently soever we may express ourselves in speaking, or writing, we can never give so perfect an idea as by an exact drawing; often therefore, in fortification, both are wanted; for which reason the art of drawing is indispensably necessary for engineers. “To the qualities above mentioned,’ says major James, ‘must be added activity and vigilance, both which are absolutely necessary in all operations of war, but especially in the attack of such places as are in expectation of succours. The
besieged must have no time allowed them for consideration; one hour lost at such a juncture often proves irreparable. It is by their activity and vigilance, that engineers often bring the besieged to capitulate, much sooner than they would have done if those engineers had not pushed on the attack with firmness and resolution. Want of vigilance and activity often proceeds from irresolution, and that from weakness of capacity.’ The office of engineer requiring such great natural qualifications, so much knowledge, study, and application, it is but reasonable that he should be exempted from all other duty, and that his pay should be suitable to the merits of his station. The word may be said to be of modern date; for, in the year 1600, persons acting as engineers were called trench-masters; and in 1622 Sir William Pelham, and after him Sir Francis Vere, officiated as trench-masters in Flanders. In 1634 an engineer was called camp-master-general, and sometimes enginemaster, being always subordinate to the master of the ordnance; but about 1650, captain Thomas Rudd had the title of chief engineer to the king. In 1807 the corps of royal engineers in England consisted only of one colonel in chief, one colonel in second, one chief engineer, three colonel commandants, six colonels, twelvelieuteriant-colonels,
&c.; nor is the present establishment of this
corps much larger. ENGINEERING, Civil, in contradistinction to the same profession attendant on military works, is of considerable importance to society; the occupation of the civil engineer embraces preeminently canals and their attendants, reservoirs, locks, basins, aqueducts, tunnels, bridges, docks and buildings in water, erecting beacons and light-houses, the cutting and forming roads, making iron rail-roads, &c. &c. To make the expert engineer requires considerable talent in the individual, joined to great personal firmness, and cautious enterprise. He should be a mathematician of the first order, with a ready aptitude of extending its powers to practical purposes; experienced in local nature, with science at command competent to assist and improve her. The cutting of canals is in point of importance the first in order of his pursuits, and is of a very early date: for we find the Cnidians, a people of Asia Minor, projecting an undertaking of this nature: they wished the isthmus, which joined their territory, to connect itself with the continent. The oracle was consulted, and it was interdicted (Herodotus, l. i. c. 174). Basins, and canals were formed in Boeotia, says Strabo, supplied by the lake Copais. The great river Euphrates was connected with the Tigris by means of a canal. A branch was also formed by Trajan near Coche, to join the same river. The Greeks, as well as the Romans, formed the design of making a canal across the Isthmus of Corinth, which joins Achaia, for the purpose of obtaining a passage by the Ionian Sea. A similar plan was projected between the Euxine and Caspian Seas. The Roman generals were fully impressed with the utility of canals, of which they executed many, as the ruins now existing demonstrate. They connected the Rhine with the Iosel, and also the former river with the
Moselle. , Savary says, the canas in Egypt amounted in number to eighty, but they were more for the purpose of irrigation than communication. The Nile was joined to the Red Sea by an artificial channel; the work was cominenced by Necos, who was followed by Sesostris and Darius; but the latter relinquished the undertaking on the information reaching him, that the Red Sea being so much above the level of the land in Egypt, it would be difficult if not impossible to prevent the overflowing of the banks, and consequent inundation of the country. Under Ptolemy II. the undertaking was completed. Its width was upwards of 100 cubits, reckoning twenty-two inches to each cubit; and its depth sufficient to allow of the navigation of the largest vessels. By this canal India was enriched with the commerce of Egypt, Persia, and the coast of Africa. China, in her institutions hostile to art, has nevertheless encouraged the making of canals; and, their convenience having aided in supplying a ready transit of her commodities, she has, more perhaps from cunning than a wish to develope the powers of the human mind, intersected her country with them. The canal which runs from Canton to Pekin is in length upwards of 800 miles, and was executed about 700 years since: it has no locks, tunnels, or aqueducts, and when stopped by mountains, or other impediments, a rolling bridge is resorted to, and sometimes inclined planes. These rolling bridges consist of a number of cylindrical rollers which turn easily on pivots, and are sometimes put in motion by a windmill, so that the same machinery serves a double purpose, that of working the mill, and drawing up vessels. In this manner they draw their vessels from the canals on one side of the mountain to the other. In Europe, the nurse of science and the arts, to which in a great measure must be referred the successful completion of all great works, artificial rivers have abounded. In the year 1666 Louis XIV. gave directions for constructing a plan to connect the ocean with the Mediterranean by the canal of Languedoc. This was a bold undertaking if it be considered that all the details connected with it were to be created; every thing was new ; Francis Riquet was the engineer, and he lived to complete it. This canal is upwards of sixty-four leagues in length, and is furnished with 104 locks. It runs through rocks in some places of 1000 paces in extent, in others it passes valleys and bridges by means of aqueducts of vast height. It joins the river Garonne near Thoulouse and terminates in the lake Tau, which extends it to the Port of Cette. It was begun by forming a large reservoir 4000 paces in circumference and twenty-four deep, which was supplied by water issuing from the mountain Noire. In Germany, and the Low Countries, canals
form the principal means of communication between one place and another. The canal of Bruges runs to the sea at Ostend, and is extended to Ghent, Brussels, Antwerp, and many other places: it is in depth sufficient to allow of merchantmen coming to the warehouse of its owner. These canals pass into the very streets of the above-named towns; indeed in all Flanders and "Holland, in towns of any importance, the streets are intersected by the canals. In the line of the canal the street is sufficiently wide to admit of two commodious roads on its sides, which are not unfrequently planted with double rows of trees. Canal navigation in England may almost be said to have been commenced by the late duke of Bridgewater in the year 1759; since which time, the internal commerce having increased with the development of the industry of the people, canals have been cut in all directions, and afford a ready transit to every populous part of the island.
We propose to treat this and the various branches of civil engineering mentioned in this paper in a practical manner. The engineer entrusted with the making of a canal should be regarded as having so much of the projectors' interest at stake that the fullest confidence should be placed in him. The preliminaries to an undertaking of this nature, consist in forming a minute survey of every part of the country through which the line of the canal is proposed to pass; and this should be done in the first instance by the principal engineer: all the great heights should be accurately noted and ascertained; memorandums should be taken of all objects within the districts through which it is intended to pass; rivulets and mill-streams marked so as easily to be referred to; and the breadths of the various summits or ranges of high and
low land that are to be passed accurately ascer
tained. When a survey is so far accomplished, a rough sketch or map should be prepared, laying down to a scale every principal object within the proposed line. This map will enable the projectors to see the various obstacles to be encountered in the work. When so much is accomplished, the advisable height of the summitlevel of the canal must be ascertained in order to find the number and fall required in the several locks necessary to be constructed on its line, the proposed summit-level should be traced along the hills and ranges of high land, to see how far it is practicable to reduce it to the required height by filling up the low land by the excavated earth, or by deep cutting or 'tunneling. When the summit-level is finally determined on, and the line of the proposed canal, all springs and rivulets which rise above or cross this line should be traced, and the quantity of water they discharge accurately gauged : this part of the work
is of the very greatest importance, as it may be
turned to considerable account in affording a supply of water to the line in its neighbourhood. Mr. Eytelwein, engineer to the king of Prussia, has shown many important facts connected with this part of the subject, deduced from experience and mathematical investigation; and Dr. Young has given them to the public through the medium of the Journals of the Royal Institution; or see Nicholson's Journal, vol. iii. p. 25. In setting out the canal a good spirit level with telescopic sights is required for tracing the levels, and when traced they are marked particularly by what is termed a bench-mark, which is no more than stakes driven into the ground at usually
the distance of every two or three chains, with
their tops exactly projecting above the earth so. much as to ascertain the top-water level. After this line shall have been thus traced, and the bench-marks fixed, it should be accurately revised, and all sudden bends in its course rectified, so as to produce an easy undulating curve; it would be desirable to get the line as straight as possible, but ranges of high-land, and property of particular descriptions, sometimes intervene which prevents it. In such cases, as in the former for instance, it is often found more desirable to bend the line than to have recourse to deep cutting or tunneling: in the latter description may be included gentlemen's parks, gardens, &c., and where canal acts protect such property, the line must of course vary so as to pass round them. The widths and depths of canals vary in reference to the boats intended to work in them; thirty feet is a good width at the summit-level; and it is sometimes varied with us to as low as eighteen feet. In Holland they make theirs from fifty to seventy feet, and sometimes more. The Bruges Canal is eighty feet wide and sixteen feet deep. The slopes to the sides of canals are of considerable importance, and this consideration has given rise to many speculations, which have added very little to the stock of information already collected. Mr. Eytelwein has recommended that the breadth at the bottom should be two-thirds of the depth, and at the surface ten-thirds; the banks will then be in general capable of retaining their form. The area of such a section is twice the square of the depth, and the hydraulic mean depth two-thirds of the actual depth. See Nicholson's Journal, vol. iii. p. 33. The practice in our canals is to so a portion the side slopes that one foot in depth will give a horizontal base of one foot and a half. The depth of the water must be in some measure deduced from the nature of the soil to be cut through, and the draught of the boats to be employed on it. The average depth of our canals is between four and eight feet, and the banks are made one foot higher than the water is intended to stand in them. The fall given to a canal, in order to produce a stream or velocity in the water, varies with the local difficulties to be overcome ; and, since inland navigation is determined to a precise point or place, the navigator calculates little upon the velocity of the stream downwards, knowing if it were made great what he might save in going down it would be lost in returning. Four inches in a mile is conceived to be a good fall for a canal eighteen feet upon the summitlevel, and seven feet at bottom, and four feet deep: the ... the stream in such a canal is, according to Professor Robinson, seventeen inches in a second at the surface, fourteen in the middle, and ten at the bottom: from such a deduction it will not be difficult to extend the calculation to canals of greater or less dimensions. This conclusion is,however, only true of astraight river flowing through an equable channel; and as our canals are seldom straight for a mile to— gether, but vary their course as frequently as change of place presents new difficulties, it follows, that the banks of the canals will be more often in a curved direction than a straight one; and Mr. Eytelwein anticipating such a circumstance, remarks, “that the velocity is greater near the concave than the convex side; a circumstance probably occasioned by the centrifugal force accumulating the water on that side.” When a canal is accurately marked out, and the bench-marks firmly fixed, if it be found difficult to keep the bench-marks in their places, holes must be dug to supply their places, and the bench-marks put up as the excavating proceeds. When the works have arrived at this state, calculations should be made of stuff wanted, or to be spared, upon the line, in order to its being removed with as little labor as possible. The topsoil and turf removed, allows of the canal line being easily worked upon. The ground-men, excavators, or navigators, as they are called, are in some districts also called hag-masters; to these people the digging is let, at per cubic yard, according to the nature of the soil to be excavated, and the distance it is to be removed. Their tools consist of (if in a claye or loamy soil) a grafting tool, the handle of . is rather long, with a narrow blade of iron, forming the segment of a circle, with its concave side turned inwards, firmly riveted to the handle, and very thin at the lower end; the size varies to the caprice of the workman: they are usually about ten or eleven inches long, and six or seven inches wide. In some soils, gravel for instance, the same kind of tool is called a shovel; its blade is ground away till its lower end approaches an apex, the diverging sides from which form the slant ones, and make nearly an equilateral triangle. They have also a scoop to throw water, pickaxes, and wheel-barrows. The latter differ materially from the common machine of that name: it is framed of oak, the two sides form the handles, and also diverge away and admit the wheel between their opposite ends. Into the sides, two stout feet are framed and cross-braced: the whole is fixed together by stout bearers mortised into the sides. The bottom is lined commonly with inch elm boarding, and the sides slant all round, and are about six inches deep. The wheel is usually of cast iron, very light, and its edge not more than an inch in thickness. The beauty of the barrow consists in its lightness, and should not exceed forty pounds in weight, including the wheel. The laborer wheels the soil away in his barrow by a kind of tram-road made of planks, these being easily adjusted to all required positions. Among the first works to be excavated should be the foundations for all locks, basins, and bridges, also the culverts and drains which are to pass under the canal. The work should be commenced as early in the spring of the year as possible, in which case many parts may be accomplished in sufficient time to allow of its settling and getting firm and dry before the winter season arrives, which, if severe, may delay its progress, and destroy such as may have been too recently set about. The soils, through which the different lines of the canal is intended to pass, should be pierced and proved to ascertain their nature, and if good water-tight stuff, its extent traced, for on this must be determined where, and in what quantity, pud
or such as is much perforated
dling may be required for the banks; for to prevent leakage in a canal, is that in which the engineer will display his greatest sagacity. Porous soils, or soils requiring puddle-lining, consist of gravel, sand, loose or open rock, or other earths that will let water easily through; or earths in which rats or moles take | their habitation, y worms. Some engineers have made use of strong clay for puddling, but it has been seldom found to answer the purpose, particularly to side linings; in lining the bottoms of canals it has a better chance of succeeding. It holds so much water, that exposure to the air evaporates it, and consequently it cracks, which renders it unfit for a safe and water-proof coating, which in some canals is particularly required. The best puddle is made of a light loam, and sharp siliceous particles or sand, in the proportion of two of the former to one of the latter: it is manufactured commonly contiguous to the slope which it is intended to line, but if the bottom of the canal should require lining also, it will be necessary to so dig the puddle-ditch, or gutter, as it is called, that it may be at least three feet below the bottom of the intended canal. When the ditch is ready to receive the compost of which the puddle is to be made, the loam and sand, in the proportions above stated, should be brought and thrown into the ditch, till its bottom is covered to about twelve or thirteen inches in depth; it is then to be well covered with water, and it may stand so covered a day or two, if no particular hurry be required in facilitating the work. If expedition be required, the puddle-maker may commence his work immediately. The workmen are generally provided with a good and strong pair of water-proof boots; so equipped, they stand in the puddle-ditch. They are also supplied with a wooden chopper, or beater: the chopper is usually made of oak, with a rounded handle, and at its opposite end is the chopper, which is nothing more than a shaft worked away to an arris, and flat on its upper edge; with such an instrument . they keep cutting and breaking the compost, at the same time treading it with their feet, till they get the whole completely incorporated and reduced to a tough and firm mass, and almost to a semi-fluid state all through the ditch, and, when so reduced, it is left to precipitate itself, which is effected in three or four days; and if, after having stood so long, it is found to have become settled and firm, not to give way by treading on it, it is deemed in a state to receive a second coat. When this is put into the trench, and the water let into it, the workmen should endeavour, in breaking it up, to strike their beaters quite through it, till they enter a small way into the coat previously prepared; in the same way a third coat is to be added, till the trench becomes full, and sufficiently high to reach the top-water or summit-level of the canal, or even a few inches more. When the puddling is so far advanced, the banks of the canal should be firmly made up, the towing-path formed to the proposed width intended, and the puddle should be covered by sods, and left for use; after which the banks of the puddle-ditch may be cleared away, and the lining of the sides commenced. Their slope